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Improving the seismic resistance of cultural heritage buildings P.B. Lourenço, Daniel V. Oliveira University of Minho Guimarães, Portugal Pere Roca Technical.

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Presentation on theme: "Improving the seismic resistance of cultural heritage buildings P.B. Lourenço, Daniel V. Oliveira University of Minho Guimarães, Portugal Pere Roca Technical."— Presentation transcript:

1 Improving the seismic resistance of cultural heritage buildings P.B. Lourenço, Daniel V. Oliveira University of Minho Guimarães, Portugal Pere Roca Technical University of Catalonia Barcelona, Spain Claudio Modena University of Padova Padova, Italy UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

2 Buildings do not last for ever (I) Veneza, 1902Pavia, 1989Noto, 1996 UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

3 Buildings do not last for ever (II) Cathedral of Mexico-City Cathedral of Porto T1T1 T2T2 T3T3 UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Tower of Pisa

4 Buildings do not last for ever (III) UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING  1755: One of the largest earthquakes in the world strikes Lisbon (estimated magnitude 9.0)  Besides the lost buildings, among the cultural property losses are reported: At the Trindade convent, various precious cult artefacts, organs and a large library At the Carmo convent and church “all it had of value was lost” At the S. Domingos convent, several precious furniture, silver and gold artefacts, and several libraries with volumes in golden binding At the S. Francisco monastery, all silver was melt and a library of 9000 volumes lost At the Espírito Santo monastery, a precious diamond custody and the large library burnt to ashes. Carmo church ruins, LisbonSanta Maria church, Beja UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

5 Buildings do not last for ever (IV)  India suffered the effects of six destructive earthquakes  January 26, 2001, 7.9 Magnitude earthquake stroke Bhuj, Gujarat Parag Mahal, Bhuj: Before and after the earthquake UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

6 Framework  Masonry and timber are the oldest structural materials Receive little attention in Architecture and Civil Engineering graduations, where steel and concrete seem to be the sole structural materials  Insufficient knowledge on “traditional” materials and techniques, result in inefficient interventions... Strong bias in the rehabilitation of existing constructions Incorrect safety assessment  Recent European timber and masonry codes (EC 5 and 6) are available, together with recommendations BSSC, Prestandard and commentary for seismic rehabilitation of buildings, FEMA 356, ICOMOS, Recommendations for the analysis, conservation and structural restoration of architectural heritage, ISO, Basis for design of structures – Assessment of existing structures, ISO 13822, CEN, Eurocode 8: Design of structures for earthquake resistance. Part 3: Strengthening and repair of buildings, prEN :2004, UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

7 ICOMOS METHODOLOGY DATA ACQUISITION Historical investigation (documents) Survey of the structure=document Field research and laboratory testing Monitoring STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR Structural scheme: Model Material characteristics Actions DIAGNOSIS AND SAFETY Historical analysis Qualitative analysis Quantitative analysis Experimental analysis Explanatory Report REMEDIAL MEASURES Masonry Timber Iron and steel Reinforced concrete Execution Documents UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING

8 UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Asia-wide Programme: EU-INDIA ECONOMIC CROSS CULTURAL PROGRAMME Project Title: IMPROVING THE SEISMIC RESISTANCE OF CULTURAL HERITAGE BUILDINGS Project Contract N°: Period: ALA/95/23/2003/ JANUARY 19, 2004 – DECEMBER 31, 2006 Project Leader: UNIVERSIDADE DO MINHO, PORTUGAL Partners: TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CATALONIA, SPAIN CENTRAL BUILDING RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INDIA UNIVERSITÁ DEGLI STUDI DI PADOVA, ITALY Case Studies:Monastery of Jerónimos, Lisbon, Portugal Cathedral of Palma Majorca, Spain Qutb Minar, New Delhi, India Cathedral of Reggio Emilia, Italy

9 Summary UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING The main objective of the project is the development of a social and economic argument, at Indian-European level, to support an earthquake protection innovative program for cultural heritage masonry buildings at risk. This will consider cultural heritage buildings / monuments in an earthquake prone area in India, identify seismic input scenarios and specific vulnerability features, produce a risk analysis with respect to different return periods, and study advanced upgrading and strengthening techniques. The Plan of Action is based on a multidisciplinary approach, entailing aspects of risk analysis, in situ survey and monitoring, numerical analyses and the design/application of innovative strengthening strategies. The objective is to devise strengthening strategies that, based on thorough knowledge of the traditional craft and material, can use modern materials and techniques to prevent vibration borne damage to the structures and to the decorative apparatus. Case study based approach.

10 Case Studies (I) UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Monastery of Jeronimos, Lisbon, Portugal World Heritage Site

11 Case Studies (II) UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Cathedral of Majorca, Spain

12 Case Studies (III) UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Reggio Emilia Cathedral, Italy

13 Case Studies (IV) UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Qutb Minar, New Delhi, India World Heritage Site

14 Conference in New Delhi UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING V International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions November 6-8, New Delhi More recent events: Padova (2004) – 350 participants Guimarães (2001) – 500 participants

15 New International Journal UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Starting in 2007 Published by Taylor & Francis asp

16 Highlight 1 – Simplified Methods UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Different structural layouts Simple and fast methods of analysing the large existing building stock

17 Simplified Methods (I) UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING One European sample with 44 monuments One Portuguese sample with 55 monuments

18 Simplified Methods (II) UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Recommendations for: In-plan indexes Out-of-plan indexes

19 Highlight 2 – Monastery of Jerónimos UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING The crown asset of Portuguese heritage buildings Construction from 1499 Built with limestone Considerable dimensions in plan, more than 300  50 m 2, and an average height of 20 m (50 m in the towers). Evolves around two courts. The larger court is bordered by a long arcade of two levels that hosts the Ethnographic Museum of Archaeology and the Maritime Museum. The smaller court or the Cloister is bordered by the Church, the Sacristy, the Chapter Room, the Refectory.

20 UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Views Cross-sections The Church of Monastery of Jerónimos

21 In-situ Investigation (I) UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Tiles removal for visual inspection Wallets for supporting tiles (20 th century) Radar inspection Ribs visual inspection

22 In-situ Investigation (II) UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Detection of ties Samples for physical / chemical analysis

23 UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Plan of the nave Nave cross-sections In-situ Investigation (III) Longitudinal cross-section Transept cross-section

24 UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Tilting of the columns In-situ Investigation (IV)

25 UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING GPR and UPV in columns In-situ Investigation (V) Dynamic identification

26 Strong motion on the roof Strong motion in the base UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Monitoring In-situ Investigation (VI) Micro-zonation

27 Global Analysis UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Full model with dof Modal superposition Non-linear with equivalent static loading Load-displacement diagram Deformed mesh Details

28 Nave Analysis UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING Load displacement diagram Incremental deformed mesh Non-linear Analysis: Loading = Self-weight f t = 0 f c, masonry = 6 N/mm 2 f c, infill = 1 N/mm 2

29 Works in Progress UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING qDynamic global study for safety assessment qStudy of the possible placement of an organ in the upper choir (20 tons) qProposal of remedial actions

30 Highlight 3 – Dissemination UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING DVD freely distributed in Congress in India (November 2006) qDistribution of the database on multi-media support of structural information on the 54 monuments in Europe and India qPreparation of a 15 minutes DVD professional video of the project qDesign and validation of monitoring systems and sensors qState of the art for remedial techniques in historical structures, including a comprehensive discussion on the case studies and a benchmark on dynamic identification techniques and advanced structural analysis qGuidelines for seismic strengthening of historical structures qDevelopment of a 3D virtual model for Qutub Minar, including building process, flow of forces, possible structural collapse and strengthening

31 Improving the seismic resistance of cultural heritage buildings P.B. Lourenço, Project Coordinator - University of Minho Guimarães UNIVERSITY OF MINHO DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING


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