Presentation on theme: "THE ECONOMICAL REASONS BEHIND DEFORESTATION Ahmet Ercan EKMEN 2003431012 Elif TOPÇU 2004431037."— Presentation transcript:
THE ECONOMICAL REASONS BEHIND DEFORESTATION Ahmet Ercan EKMEN 2003431012 Elif TOPÇU 2004431037
Outline : Introduction : Defining the Environmental Problem Reasons of Deforestation –Population Growth –Climate –Agriculture –Logging –Fuel –Burning and Grazing Policy Implications and Forest Management –Turkey Case Conclusion
World Forest Region Map Source : www.cevreorman.gov.tr Ormanlık Alanlar Odunsu Bitki Alanları Diğer Alanlar Su Alanları
The paper aims to… Emphasize “deforestation” as a global environmental problem. Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forest land for use such as arable land, pasture, urban use, logged area, or wasteland. Generally, the removal or destruction of significant areas of forest cover has resulted in a degraded environment with reduced biodiversity.
Deforestation… Results from removal of trees without sufficient reforestation, and results in declines in habitat and biodiversity, wood for fuel and industrial use, and quality of life.
Causes of Deforestation Population Growth –It is clear now that the role of population factors in deforestation varies considerably from one setting to another depending on the local patterns of human occupancy and economic activity. –Population (especially rapidly increasing or dense population) can increase demands for land and wood, eventually exceeding the carrying capacity of forests that are expected to supply wood fuels, food, and environmental protection for local people.
Causes of Deforestation Climate –Forest disappear naturally as a result of broad climate changes or catastrophes such as fire and landslides. Agriculture –Growing populations need expanding food supplies, so forests are cleared by shifting cultivators for annual or permanent crops. Rates of clearing are likely to be higher in countries where little or no progress has been made in agricultural productivity or where land productivity falls rapidly after the natural forest cover is removed.
Causes of Deforestation Logging –Commercial logging operations deplete forest stocks. Regulated timber extraction should not permanently damage the forest, but when it is not controlled, mechanized logging or even selective timber harvesting may severely alter the character of the forest Fuel –Forests in developing countries provide wood fuels for local populations. Fuelwood and charcoal are widely used for domestic cooking and heating. Burning and Grazing –Deforestation may occur in ways other than outright clearing or wood removal. The practice of annual burning in many areas prevents forest regrowth, and grazing by sheep, goats and cattle has much the same effect.
Forest Management Forestry departments in developing countries in many cases are not equipped to deal with deforestation and its consequences. The principles of forest management, especially extensive forest management for sustained yields, are unfamiliar to many developing countries where the policy emphasis has been on protection rather than production. Even where forest management practices are well known, institutions for forest management are poorly supported or nonexistent. The problem is compounded when local people for various reasons do not cooperate with forest management schemes. Lack of local cooperation may be a symptom of poorly designed policy or an indication that rural people have other development priorities.
Turkey Case In the world, the sufficient rate of forest areas is about 30 percent for each country. In Turkey 27,2 percent of all land is forest areas and it is close to world aggregate forest rate. But 49 percent of our forest is non-productive. So, forest areas are not sufficient for Turkey. www.cevreorman.gov.tr
Turkey Case What Have Been Done? 1839 (Tanzimat Fermanı) – Management of Forests 1937 – 3116 Numbered Law 1963 – Planned Development Period 2008 – Forestation and Erosion Control Mobilization Action Plan 2008-2012 (Ağaçlandırma ve Erozyon Kontrolü Seferberlik Eylem Planı) –Planned to realize 2.300.000 hectares forestation –Total cost: 2.702.100.000 YTL
Conclusion Deforestation is one of the major environmental problems that the world is facing.
Cont’d… This is a descriptive study rather than an empirical one. The significance and causes of the deforestation is tried to be explained. The history and current condition of the problem tried to be shown with a selected country -Turkey- case.