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Environmental Science Unit 9 Resource Management 9A – Forestry (Chp. 11) 9B – Soil & Agriculture (Chp. 12) 9C – Minerals & Mining (Chp. 13)

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Presentation on theme: "Environmental Science Unit 9 Resource Management 9A – Forestry (Chp. 11) 9B – Soil & Agriculture (Chp. 12) 9C – Minerals & Mining (Chp. 13)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Environmental Science Unit 9 Resource Management 9A – Forestry (Chp. 11) 9B – Soil & Agriculture (Chp. 12) 9C – Minerals & Mining (Chp. 13)

2 Unit 9 ABC Vocabulary (34) Acid drainageAcid drainage Adaptive managementAdaptive management AquacultureAquaculture BedrockBedrock Clear cuttingClear cutting Contour farmingContour farming Crop rotationCrop rotation DeforestationDeforestation DesertificationDesertification Ecosystem based managementEcosystem based management Genetic EngineeringGenetic Engineering Genetically modified organism (GMO)Genetically modified organism (GMO) IrrigationIrrigation Maximum Sustainable YieldMaximum Sustainable Yield MineralMineral Open Pit MiningOpen Pit Mining OreOre Organic agricultureOrganic agriculture PesticidePesticide Placer miningPlacer mining Prescribed burnPrescribed burn RockRock Rock cycleRock cycle SalinizationSalinization Salvage loggingSalvage logging Seed tree approachSeed tree approach Selection systemSelection system SmeltingSmelting Soil degradationSoil degradation Strip miningStrip mining Subsurface miningSubsurface mining TerracingTerracing TillingTilling WeatheringWeathering

3 Unit 9A – Forestry (Chp. 11) Page 323 – Battling over Clayoquot’s Big Trees – Central CasePage 323 – Battling over Clayoquot’s Big Trees – Central Case Decision Making AnalysisDecision Making Analysis 1.What is the problem? 2.What is your proposed solution? 3.Analyze your solution: 3 Pros, 3 Cons, 3 Short-term consequences, 3 Long-term consequences 4.Conclusion: was your solution a good one? Why or Why not?

4 Unit 9A Objectives Explain the importance of managing specific renewable resources such as water, soil, animals and timberExplain the importance of managing specific renewable resources such as water, soil, animals and timber Describe 3 different resource management approaches & their goalsDescribe 3 different resource management approaches & their goals Identify methods used to strike a balance between the ecological & economic values of our resourcesIdentify methods used to strike a balance between the ecological & economic values of our resources Identify & explain methods used to harvest timber sustainablyIdentify & explain methods used to harvest timber sustainably

5 11.1 Resource Management How can we manage renewable resources for sustainable use?

6 Renewable Resource Management To manage resource harvesting so that resources are not depleted.To manage resource harvesting so that resources are not depleted. Soil – made by natural processes, but fertile topsoil can take can take hundreds of years to form; major topsoil erosion concernsSoil – made by natural processes, but fertile topsoil can take can take hundreds of years to form; major topsoil erosion concerns Fresh water – maintaining clean, adequate supplies for drinking & agriculture; pollution issuesFresh water – maintaining clean, adequate supplies for drinking & agriculture; pollution issues Wild animals – animals hunted legally are called game; fishing has caused numbers to dwindle (cod); poaching, CITES, problems with enforcementWild animals – animals hunted legally are called game; fishing has caused numbers to dwindle (cod); poaching, CITES, problems with enforcement Timber – harvesting timber is essential to our standard of living; forests are disappearingTimber – harvesting timber is essential to our standard of living; forests are disappearing

7 How We Use Land Non-urban lands include: Forests (harvest timber for paper and lumber)Forests (harvest timber for paper and lumber) Grasslands (support livestock and farmlands)Grasslands (support livestock and farmlands) Other (mineral resources)Other (mineral resources)

8 Resource Management Approaches Maximum Sustainable Yield – harvest the maximum amount of a resource without reducing the amount of future harvests; quicker growth at intermediate size well below carrying capacity; could result in changes of other populationsMaximum Sustainable Yield – harvest the maximum amount of a resource without reducing the amount of future harvests; quicker growth at intermediate size well below carrying capacity; could result in changes of other populations Ecosystem-Based Management – harvest resources in ways that minimize impact on the ecosystems & ecological processes that provide the resources; challenging for managersEcosystem-Based Management – harvest resources in ways that minimize impact on the ecosystems & ecological processes that provide the resources; challenging for managers Adaptive Management – scientifically test different approaches & then customize an approach based on the results; can be time consuming & complicatedAdaptive Management – scientifically test different approaches & then customize an approach based on the results; can be time consuming & complicated

9 11.1 Review 1.Define resource management. Why is it important? 2.Describe the goals of maximum sustainable yield management, ecosystem-based management, and adaptive management. List a drawback of each. 3.How may managing a resource for maximum sustainable yield sometimes conflict with what is best for its ecosystem? Besides answering the above 3 questions, complete the 11.1 review packet.Besides answering the above 3 questions, complete the 11.1 review packet.

10 11.2 Forests & their Resources How can resource managers strike a balance between the ecological and economic value of forest resources?

11 Forest Resources Ecological value: different habitats, biodiversity (mature forests have more), prevent soil erosion, slow water run-off, reduce flooding, take in C0 2 & release 0 2 (moderate climate)Ecological value: different habitats, biodiversity (mature forests have more), prevent soil erosion, slow water run-off, reduce flooding, take in C0 2 & release 0 2 (moderate climate)

12 Forest Resources Economical value: provide timber for many products, fuel for fires, building houses & ships, paper, food & medicine (fruit, nuts, spices, herbs come from forest plants), cancer treating drugs (Paclitaxel – yew, rosy periwinkle)Economical value: provide timber for many products, fuel for fires, building houses & ships, paper, food & medicine (fruit, nuts, spices, herbs come from forest plants), cancer treating drugs (Paclitaxel – yew, rosy periwinkle)

13 Timber Harvesting There are costs & benefits to every method of timber harvestingThere are costs & benefits to every method of timber harvesting 2 categories:2 categories: 1.Even-aged stands – result from regrowth of trees that were mostly cut at the same time 2.Uneven-aged stands – result from regrowth of trees that were cut at different times

14 Uneven stands typically have more biodiversity, offering more diverse habitatsUneven stands typically have more biodiversity, offering more diverse habitats All methods of logging disturb forest communities, changing forest structure and composition as larger trees forming canopies/subcanopies are removedAll methods of logging disturb forest communities, changing forest structure and composition as larger trees forming canopies/subcanopies are removed Most methods increase soil erosion, leading to muddy waterways and degrade animal habitatsMost methods increase soil erosion, leading to muddy waterways and degrade animal habitats Most methods increase runoff, causing flooding & landslidesMost methods increase runoff, causing flooding & landslides

15 Clear-cutting The process that involves removing ALL of the trees from a land areaThe process that involves removing ALL of the trees from a land area Results in even-aged standsResults in even-aged stands Destroys wildlife habitatsDestroys wildlife habitats Increases soil erosionIncreases soil erosion Diminishes beautyDiminishes beauty Cost efficientCost efficient Increases light to groundIncreases light to ground Begins secondary successionBegins secondary succession

16 Seed Tree Approach Small numbers of mature and healthy seed-producing trees are left standing so that they can reseed the logged areaSmall numbers of mature and healthy seed-producing trees are left standing so that they can reseed the logged area Leads to regrowth that is mostly even-aged.Leads to regrowth that is mostly even-aged.

17 Shelterwood Approach Small numbers of mature trees are left in place to provide shelter for seedlings as they grow.Small numbers of mature trees are left in place to provide shelter for seedlings as they grow. Leads to regrowth that is mostly even-aged.Leads to regrowth that is mostly even-aged.

18 Selective Cutting Involves cutting only middle-aged or mature treesInvolves cutting only middle-aged or mature trees Has less impact on the forest than any other methodHas less impact on the forest than any other method Maintains wildlife/ecosystemsMaintains wildlife/ecosystems

19 Selection Systems Only some of the trees in a forest are cut at onceOnly some of the trees in a forest are cut at once Result in uneven-aged standsResult in uneven-aged stands 1.Single-tree selection – trees spaced widely apart are cut one at a time 2.Group selection – small patches of trees are cut Roads compact soil, more expensive, more dangerousRoads compact soil, more expensive, more dangerous

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21 Deforestation Involves clearing trees from an area without replacing themInvolves clearing trees from an area without replacing them Helps nations develop, but it can be ecologically destructiveHelps nations develop, but it can be ecologically destructive Provides warmth, shelter, & trade, but causes soil degradation & loss of biodiversityProvides warmth, shelter, & trade, but causes soil degradation & loss of biodiversity Negative effects are greatest in the tropical regions (loss of biodiversity) & arid regions (loss of soil productivity)Negative effects are greatest in the tropical regions (loss of biodiversity) & arid regions (loss of soil productivity) Adds CO 2 to the atmosphereAdds CO 2 to the atmosphere

22 Deforestation

23 Deforestation in the US By 1850s, we deforested our vast deciduous forests to expand, making way for small farmsBy 1850s, we deforested our vast deciduous forests to expand, making way for small farms Timber built the cities of the East Coast and MidwestTimber built the cities of the East Coast and Midwest With the Industrial Revolution, logging moved to Texas, Florida and the Carolinas. Then the timber companies moved west for the bigger trees/old-growth forestsWith the Industrial Revolution, logging moved to Texas, Florida and the Carolinas. Then the timber companies moved west for the bigger trees/old-growth forests

24 Today Most of the redwoods, oaks and maples are no longer old-growth trees in North America, leading to a concern for old-growth ecosystemsMost of the redwoods, oaks and maples are no longer old-growth trees in North America, leading to a concern for old-growth ecosystems Deforestation is rapid in the Tropical Rain Forests of developing nations, leading to loss of biodiversity on a large scale and worsening global warming due to CO 2 from burning as well as fewer treesDeforestation is rapid in the Tropical Rain Forests of developing nations, leading to loss of biodiversity on a large scale and worsening global warming due to CO 2 from burning as well as fewer trees

25 Quick Lab Page 334 A Tree’s History Turn to page 334 in your textbook, read the directions (#1-3 in blue) and then answer questions 1-4 with your partner.

26 11.2 Review 1.What is one way a forest is ecologically valuable? What is one way a forest is economically valuable? 2.How are clear-cutting and the shelterwood approach similar? How are they different? How do both differ from select systems? 3.What, generally, is the current level of deforestation in the U.S.? In developing nations? How would you expect deforestation in developing nations to change in the next 100 years? Explain. Also, do 11.2 review packet.Also, do 11.2 review packet.

27 Forest Management 11.3 What steps toward sustainable forestry have been taken in the last 100 years?

28 US National Forests Logging in national forests is managed by the Forest Service, but profits go to timber companiesLogging in national forests is managed by the Forest Service, but profits go to timber companies Public lands set aside to grow trees for timber and to protect watersheds.Public lands set aside to grow trees for timber and to protect watersheds. Established in 1905 after deforesting our deciduous forests caused a fear of “timber famine.”Established in 1905 after deforesting our deciduous forests caused a fear of “timber famine.”

29 National Forest Logging Timber is harvested by private timber companies.Timber is harvested by private timber companies. Forest Service plan & manage timber sales & build roads to provide access, but the logging companies receive the profitsForest Service plan & manage timber sales & build roads to provide access, but the logging companies receive the profits Taxpayers’ money is being used to help private corporations harvest publicly held resources for profitTaxpayers’ money is being used to help private corporations harvest publicly held resources for profit Recreation, wildlife, and ecosystem health are being urgedRecreation, wildlife, and ecosystem health are being urged

30 National Forest Management Act 1976 Multiple use – forests were to be managed for recreation, wildlife habitat, mining and other uses in addition to timberMultiple use – forests were to be managed for recreation, wildlife habitat, mining and other uses in addition to timber NFMA requires plans for renewable resource management be drawn up for every national forest and to be consistent with multiple use and maximum sustainable yield.NFMA requires plans for renewable resource management be drawn up for every national forest and to be consistent with multiple use and maximum sustainable yield.

31 NFMA, continued Success stories – logging has declined in national forests since the 1980s, and in 2006, tree regrowth outpaced tree removal on these lands by more than 11:1.Success stories – logging has declined in national forests since the 1980s, and in 2006, tree regrowth outpaced tree removal on these lands by more than 11:1. Challenges – in 2004, Bush passed regulations that weakened the NFMA & repealed the “roadless” rule that had limited building new roads. In 2009, Obama reinstated the roadless rule.Challenges – in 2004, Bush passed regulations that weakened the NFMA & repealed the “roadless” rule that had limited building new roads. In 2009, Obama reinstated the roadless rule.

32 Private Land Most logging in the US today takes place on tree plantations owned by timber companiesMost logging in the US today takes place on tree plantations owned by timber companies Most harvesting is fast-growing tree species in the NW and SouthMost harvesting is fast-growing tree species in the NW and South These plantations are mostly monocultures – single crop, even- aged stands cut in rotation time and the land is replanted with seedlingsThese plantations are mostly monocultures – single crop, even- aged stands cut in rotation time and the land is replanted with seedlings Low biodiversity due to little variationLow biodiversity due to little variation

33 Fire Policies Suppression of all wildfires can endanger ecosystems, property, and people.Suppression of all wildfires can endanger ecosystems, property, and people. Many ecosystems depend on fire, and diversity & abundance of species decline without itMany ecosystems depend on fire, and diversity & abundance of species decline without it Jack pine seeds germinate only after a fire, and Kirtland’s Warbler (songbird) nest in 5-7 year old jack pinesJack pine seeds germinate only after a fire, and Kirtland’s Warbler (songbird) nest in 5-7 year old jack pines

34 Future Fire Potential Suppression of small, natural fires can lead to larger, more dangerous fires by allowing limbs, sticks & leaf litter to build upSuppression of small, natural fires can lead to larger, more dangerous fires by allowing limbs, sticks & leaf litter to build up Prescribed burns – burning areas of forest under carefully controlled conditions, which ultimately lowers the risk of injury, property damage, and ecosystem loss from catastrophic wildfires.Prescribed burns – burning areas of forest under carefully controlled conditions, which ultimately lowers the risk of injury, property damage, and ecosystem loss from catastrophic wildfires.

35 Healthy Forest Restoration Act Goal: make forests less fire-proneGoal: make forests less fire-prone Primarily promotes the removal of small trees, underbrush, and snags by timber companiesPrimarily promotes the removal of small trees, underbrush, and snags by timber companies Salvage logging – removal of snags/dying trees following a natural disturbanceSalvage logging – removal of snags/dying trees following a natural disturbance Snag value: insect food, holes provide nesting/roostingSnag value: insect food, holes provide nesting/roosting Removing timber from recently burned land can cause erosion & soil damage, and slow forest regrowthRemoving timber from recently burned land can cause erosion & soil damage, and slow forest regrowth

36 Sustainable Forestry Products Sustainable forestry certification – certifies products produced using methods they consider sustainableSustainable forestry certification – certifies products produced using methods they consider sustainable The Forest Stewardship Council has the strictest certification process, carry logos (FSC)The Forest Stewardship Council has the strictest certification process, carry logos (FSC) 70% of annual timber harvest in British Columbia Canada is certified70% of annual timber harvest in British Columbia Canada is certified More costly, but consumers demandMore costly, but consumers demand

37 11.3 Review 1.What are the roles of the Forest Service & timber companies in logging US National Forests? What are the requirements of the NFMA? 2.Generally, how does a tree plantation’s biodiversity differ from that of a natural forest? Give 2 reasons for your answer. 3.Suppose you lived very close to a fire-prone forest where there had been no fire for many years, & the Forest Service wanted to have a prescribe burn there. What are 2 questions you would ask the Forest Service? 4.How do organizations such as the FSC decide whether to certify a product? Also, do 11.3 review packet.Also, do 11.3 review packet.

38 Unit 9B – Soil & Agriculture Chapter 12 Page 351 Chp. 12 Case Study – Possible Transgenic Maize in Oaxaca, MexicoPage 351 Chp. 12 Case Study – Possible Transgenic Maize in Oaxaca, Mexico Analyze using Decision Making ModelAnalyze using Decision Making Model 1.What is the problem? 2.What is your proposed solution? 3.Analyze your solution: 3 Pros, 3 Cons, 3 Short-term Consequences, 3 Long-term Consequences 4.Conclusion: Is your solution a good one? Why or Why not?

39 Unit 9B Soil & Agriculture Objectives Explain how soil forms, the horizons that make up a soil profile, & the characteristics used to classify soil.Explain how soil forms, the horizons that make up a soil profile, & the characteristics used to classify soil. Describe the practices that can lead to soil erosion, desertification, & pesticide pollution and their resulting impacts economically & environmentally.Describe the practices that can lead to soil erosion, desertification, & pesticide pollution and their resulting impacts economically & environmentally. Describe the development of agriculture from its beginnings to the green revolution.Describe the development of agriculture from its beginnings to the green revolution. Understand the increasing need to increase food production in a sustainable way.Understand the increasing need to increase food production in a sustainable way. Explain how biotechnology may be the key to future food production, but it is not without risk.Explain how biotechnology may be the key to future food production, but it is not without risk.

40 12.1 Soil We use about 38% of Earth’s land surface for agriculture, which depends on fertile soilWe use about 38% of Earth’s land surface for agriculture, which depends on fertile soil Soil – a complex plant-supporting system made up of disintegrated rock, remains & wastes of organisms, water, gases, nutrients, and microorganisms.Soil – a complex plant-supporting system made up of disintegrated rock, remains & wastes of organisms, water, gases, nutrients, and microorganisms. Soil is a renewable resource, it could take 100s or 1000s of years to make 1”Soil is a renewable resource, it could take 100s or 1000s of years to make 1”

41 Factors that Influence Soil Formation Climate – forms faster in warm, wet climatesClimate – forms faster in warm, wet climates Organisms – worms mix & aerate soil, add organic matterOrganisms – worms mix & aerate soil, add organic matter Landforms – runoff, erosion, leaching, exposure to sunLandforms – runoff, erosion, leaching, exposure to sun Parent material – chemical & physical attributes influence soilParent material – chemical & physical attributes influence soil Time – soil formation takes timeTime – soil formation takes time

42 Soil Formation Soil is a complex substance that forms through weathering, deposition & decomposition.Soil is a complex substance that forms through weathering, deposition & decomposition. Soil is roughly 45% mineral matter & 5% organic matter.Soil is roughly 45% mineral matter & 5% organic matter. Parent material – the base geological material in a particular location; lava, glacier rock, sand dunes, river sediment, bedrockParent material – the base geological material in a particular location; lava, glacier rock, sand dunes, river sediment, bedrock Bedrock – continuous mass of solid rock that makes up the crustBedrock – continuous mass of solid rock that makes up the crust

43 Weathering Physical & chemical processes that break down rocks & minerals into smaller particles, 1 st process in soil formationPhysical & chemical processes that break down rocks & minerals into smaller particles, 1 st process in soil formation Physical – anything that touches a rock, ex. Wind, rain, temperaturePhysical – anything that touches a rock, ex. Wind, rain, temperature Chemical – water & other substances chemically break down the parent rock; warm, wet conditions increase chemical weatheringChemical – water & other substances chemically break down the parent rock; warm, wet conditions increase chemical weathering

44 Deposition & Decomposition Deposition – the drop-off of eroded material at a new location; erosion may help form soil in one area by depositing material eroded from anotherDeposition – the drop-off of eroded material at a new location; erosion may help form soil in one area by depositing material eroded from another Decomposition – activities of living & formerly living things help form soil; organisms deposit waste or die & decompose, incorporating nutrients into the soil; leaf litter, humusDecomposition – activities of living & formerly living things help form soil; organisms deposit waste or die & decompose, incorporating nutrients into the soil; leaf litter, humus

45 Soil Horizons A soil profile consists of layers known as horizonsA soil profile consists of layers known as horizons Soil profile – a cross-section of all the soil horizons in a specific soil, from surface to bedrockSoil profile – a cross-section of all the soil horizons in a specific soil, from surface to bedrock Simplest way to categorize:Simplest way to categorize: –A – topsoil –B – subsoil –C – weathered parent material

46 Top soil Crucial horizon for agriculture and ecosystemsCrucial horizon for agriculture and ecosystems Consists mostly of mineral particles with organic matter and humusConsists mostly of mineral particles with organic matter and humus Is the horizon that has the most plant nutrients availableIs the horizon that has the most plant nutrients available Its loose texture, dark color, and ability to hold water come from its humus contentIts loose texture, dark color, and ability to hold water come from its humus content Topsoil is fragile, eroding or being depleted easilyTopsoil is fragile, eroding or being depleted easily

47 Lower Horizons Generally, particle size increases and organic matter decreases as you move down the profileGenerally, particle size increases and organic matter decreases as you move down the profile Minerals leach downward as water filters through the soilMinerals leach downward as water filters through the soil If leaching occurs too quickly and plants are deprived of nutrientsIf leaching occurs too quickly and plants are deprived of nutrients Iron, aluminum, and silicate clay are commonly leached outIron, aluminum, and silicate clay are commonly leached out

48 Soil Characteristics Soils can be classified by their color, texture, structure and pHSoils can be classified by their color, texture, structure and pH Color – darker soils are usu. richer in humus (nutrients) & fertilityColor – darker soils are usu. richer in humus (nutrients) & fertility Texture – clay/silt/sand; influences its workability and how porous it isTexture – clay/silt/sand; influences its workability and how porous it is Structure – arrangement of soil particles, clumpiness is richer but may compact & hinder rootsStructure – arrangement of soil particles, clumpiness is richer but may compact & hinder roots pH – affects plant growth; acid rainpH – affects plant growth; acid rain

49 12.1 Review 1.Describe 3 major processes that contribute to the formation of most soils. 2.What is a soil profile? Describe the A, B, and C horizons. 3.What do each of the 4 characteristics of soil indicate about its ability to support plant life? 4.Recall the analogy between soil & coffee grounds (bottom page 355) in the section called “Lower Horizons.” In this analogy, what do you think the “soil coffee” consists of? In addition to the 4 questions above, complete the 12.1 packet.In addition to the 4 questions above, complete the 12.1 packet.

50 12.2 Soil Degradation & Conservation Soil degradation – deterioration of soil characteristics needed for plant growth or other ecosystem servicesSoil degradation – deterioration of soil characteristics needed for plant growth or other ecosystem services Farmers have shown that the most productive soil is loam with a neutral pH that is workable, contains nutrients, and holds water.Farmers have shown that the most productive soil is loam with a neutral pH that is workable, contains nutrients, and holds water. Human activities cause erosion, desertification & pollution making soil less productive.Human activities cause erosion, desertification & pollution making soil less productive.

51 Erosion Certain farming, ranching and forestry practices can erode soil, but other practices can protect itCertain farming, ranching and forestry practices can erode soil, but other practices can protect it Erosion & deposition are natural processes that can create soil; flood- plains are excellent for farmingErosion & deposition are natural processes that can create soil; flood- plains are excellent for farming Erosion usu. occurs faster than soil is formed; erosion tends to remove top- soil; and erosion can be hard to detectErosion usu. occurs faster than soil is formed; erosion tends to remove top- soil; and erosion can be hard to detect Erosion occurs from leaving soil bare after harvests, overgrazing rangeland & clearcutting forests on steep slopesErosion occurs from leaving soil bare after harvests, overgrazing rangeland & clearcutting forests on steep slopes

52 Farming Practices Plant cover protects soil from erosion by slowing wind & water, roots hold soil in place and absorb water.Plant cover protects soil from erosion by slowing wind & water, roots hold soil in place and absorb water. Intercropping – planting different crops in mixed arrangements; gives more crop coverIntercropping – planting different crops in mixed arrangements; gives more crop cover Crop rotation – alternate crops in a field to return nutrients to the soil & break diseaseCrop rotation – alternate crops in a field to return nutrients to the soil & break disease Shelterbelts – windbreaks, rows of treesShelterbelts – windbreaks, rows of trees No-till method – plant between the rowsNo-till method – plant between the rows Terracing – staircase the plants, labor intenseTerracing – staircase the plants, labor intense Contour farming – plant sideways across a hillside, perpendicular to the hill’s slopeContour farming – plant sideways across a hillside, perpendicular to the hill’s slope

53 Ranching Practices The raising and grazing of livestock affects soils and ecosystems.The raising and grazing of livestock affects soils and ecosystems. Livestock mostly feed on grasses.Livestock mostly feed on grasses. As long as livestock populations stay within a range’s carrying capacity and do not eat grasses faster than the grasses can grow back, grazing may be sustainable.As long as livestock populations stay within a range’s carrying capacity and do not eat grasses faster than the grasses can grow back, grazing may be sustainable.

54 Overgrazing When too many animals graze in an area for too long, and damage the grass beyond its ability to recoverWhen too many animals graze in an area for too long, and damage the grass beyond its ability to recover Soil erosion makes it difficult for vegetation to regrowSoil erosion makes it difficult for vegetation to regrow Influx of non-native weedsInflux of non-native weeds Common in FloridaCommon in Florida

55 Two Rangeland Management Techniques: 1.Grazing management – limit animal herd sizes 2.Range improvements – eliminating weedy plants, planting vegetation on bare soil, cross fencing, and increasing the number of waterholes

56 Desertification Loss of more than 10% of productivity due to erosion, soil compaction, forest removal, overgrazing, drought, salt buildup, climate change, depletion of water sources, etc.Loss of more than 10% of productivity due to erosion, soil compaction, forest removal, overgrazing, drought, salt buildup, climate change, depletion of water sources, etc. When overgrazing and harsh conditions convert rangeland to desert; Dust BowlWhen overgrazing and harsh conditions convert rangeland to desert; Dust Bowl Usually the land does not recover from this conditionUsually the land does not recover from this condition Ex. Fertile Crescent regionEx. Fertile Crescent region Affects 1/3 of Earth’s land areaAffects 1/3 of Earth’s land area

57 Soil Conservation Policies 1935 Soil Conservation Act – in response to the Dust Bowl1935 Soil Conservation Act – in response to the Dust Bowl 1994 renamed Natural Resources Conservation Service, expanded to include water quality & pollution control1994 renamed Natural Resources Conservation Service, expanded to include water quality & pollution control Farmers must adopt soil conservation plans before they can receive government subsidies; pay farmers to stop cultivating cropland that erodes easily, plant grasses & treesFarmers must adopt soil conservation plans before they can receive government subsidies; pay farmers to stop cultivating cropland that erodes easily, plant grasses & trees

58 “The nation that destroys its soil destroys itself.” F.D.R. The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck describes the Dust Bowl of the 1930’s Resulted from poor agricultural practices and severe drought This set the stage for wind erosion of the top soil

59 International Programs United Nations promotes soil conservation & sustainable agriculture through its Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO)United Nations promotes soil conservation & sustainable agriculture through its Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO) Supports creative approaches to resource management challenges in many developing countriesSupports creative approaches to resource management challenges in many developing countries Call on local leaders to educate and encourage local farmersCall on local leaders to educate and encourage local farmers

60 Soil Pollution Irrigation & Pesticide use can improve soil productivity in the short term, but pollute long-termIrrigation & Pesticide use can improve soil productivity in the short term, but pollute long-term Irrigation – providing of water other than precipitation to cropsIrrigation – providing of water other than precipitation to crops Too much results in water-logged crops & salinization (use drip method)Too much results in water-logged crops & salinization (use drip method) Pesticides – chemicals that kill organisms that attack plantsPesticides – chemicals that kill organisms that attack plants Toxic, may remain in the soil, water, biomagnification, kills pollinatorsToxic, may remain in the soil, water, biomagnification, kills pollinators

61 12.2 Review 1.Describe one farming practice that can erode soil and one that can conserve soil. 2.Explain how overgrazing and planting in poor soil can cause a cycle of desertification. 3.In your own words, write one paragraph about the effects of the Conservation Reserve Program (pg. 363, top paragraph). 4.How can irrigation and pesticides cause soil pollution? Besides the above 4 questions, complete the 12.2 review packet.Besides the above 4 questions, complete the 12.2 review packet.

62 12.3 Agriculture Began 10,000 years ago when a warmer climate allowed planting seeds & raising livestockBegan 10,000 years ago when a warmer climate allowed planting seeds & raising livestock It went from hunter/gatherer to selective breeding & settlementIt went from hunter/gatherer to selective breeding & settlement Traditional agriculture was performed by humans & animalsTraditional agriculture was performed by humans & animals Industrial agriculture introduced large-scale mechanization & fossil- fueled engines, replacing horse & oxen with faster, more efficient means of harvesting, processing, & transportingIndustrial agriculture introduced large-scale mechanization & fossil- fueled engines, replacing horse & oxen with faster, more efficient means of harvesting, processing, & transporting

63 Industrial Agriculture Resulted in irrigation improvements & synthetic fertilizers & pesticidesResulted in irrigation improvements & synthetic fertilizers & pesticides Produces huge amounts of crops & livestock, relying on huge inputs of energy, water & chemicalsProduces huge amounts of crops & livestock, relying on huge inputs of energy, water & chemicals This requires large areas to be planted in a single crop (monoculture), increasing harvests but less biodiversity and more genetic similarity & vulnerability to disease & pestsThis requires large areas to be planted in a single crop (monoculture), increasing harvests but less biodiversity and more genetic similarity & vulnerability to disease & pests

64 How can we feed more people in the world? Increase the crop yields with new varietiesIncrease the crop yields with new varieties New farming techniquesNew farming techniques Or…………………Or…………………

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66 The Green Revolution Agricultural scientists introduced new technology, crop varieties & farming practices to developing nationsAgricultural scientists introduced new technology, crop varieties & farming practices to developing nations 1940s Norman Borlaug introduced Mexico’s farmers to a specially bred strain of wheat, tripling their wheat production in 2 decades.1940s Norman Borlaug introduced Mexico’s farmers to a specially bred strain of wheat, tripling their wheat production in 2 decades. Developing nations began applying large amounts of synthetic fertilizers & chemical pesticides, liberally irrigating crops, & using heavy equipment powered by fossil fuels.Developing nations began applying large amounts of synthetic fertilizers & chemical pesticides, liberally irrigating crops, & using heavy equipment powered by fossil fuels.

67 Environmental Effects of the Green Revolution Green Revolution saved millions of lives.Green Revolution saved millions of lives. Technology comes at a high energy costTechnology comes at a high energy cost Less additional land was needed, so it preserved some ecosystemsLess additional land was needed, so it preserved some ecosystems Intensive application of water, inorganic fertilizers & pesticides has worsened erosion, salinization, desertification, eutrophication, & pollution. Increased fossil fuel use has increased air pollution & global warmingIntensive application of water, inorganic fertilizers & pesticides has worsened erosion, salinization, desertification, eutrophication, & pollution. Increased fossil fuel use has increased air pollution & global warming

68 Pests Chemical pesticides – since 1960, pesticide use has risen fourfold worldwide, continuing to rise in developing nations; resistance!Chemical pesticides – since 1960, pesticide use has risen fourfold worldwide, continuing to rise in developing nations; resistance! Biological pest control – battle pests & weeds with organisms that eat or infect them; wasps & caterpillars, soil bacterium (Bt), could create invasive speciesBiological pest control – battle pests & weeds with organisms that eat or infect them; wasps & caterpillars, soil bacterium (Bt), could create invasive species Integrated pest management – combin- ing both of above to achieve the most effective long-term pest reductionIntegrated pest management – combin- ing both of above to achieve the most effective long-term pest reduction

69 Pollinators Most insects are harmless to agriculture & some are essentialMost insects are harmless to agriculture & some are essential Without pollination, plants cannot reproduce sexuallyWithout pollination, plants cannot reproduce sexually Pollinators are among the most vital yet least appreciated factors in agriculturePollinators are among the most vital yet least appreciated factors in agriculture As pesticide use increases, pollinator populations decreaseAs pesticide use increases, pollinator populations decrease Pollinator conservation !!!!Pollinator conservation !!!!

70 12.3 Review 1.Write a paragraph describing when and how agriculture likely began. End with a description of the beginnings of selective breeding. 2.How have industrial agriculture & the green revolution affected the world’s population? 3.How do (a) chemical pesticides, (b) biological control, and (c) integrated pest management protect crops from pests? 4.How are pollinators important to crop agriculture? Besides the above 4 questions, do 12.3 review packet.Besides the above 4 questions, do 12.3 review packet.

71 12.4 Food Production How can we produce enough food for a rapidly growing population while sustaining our ability to produce it?How can we produce enough food for a rapidly growing population while sustaining our ability to produce it? Each year Earth gains 75 million people & loses 12-17 million acres of productive croplandEach year Earth gains 75 million people & loses 12-17 million acres of productive cropland Arable (suitable for farming) land is running out, yet world population of 9 billion is predicted by 2050Arable (suitable for farming) land is running out, yet world population of 9 billion is predicted by 2050

72 Food Security Is the guarantee of an adequate & reliable food supply for all people at all timesIs the guarantee of an adequate & reliable food supply for all people at all times Because hunger continues and the population is growing, we need to find a way to increase food production sustainablyBecause hunger continues and the population is growing, we need to find a way to increase food production sustainably The world’s soils are in decline, & nearly all arable land is being farmedThe world’s soils are in decline, & nearly all arable land is being farmed We must maintain healthy soil & water, protect biodiversity of food sources, & ensure safe distributionWe must maintain healthy soil & water, protect biodiversity of food sources, & ensure safe distribution

73 Undernourished/Malnutrition Hunger is a problem not only in developing nations, but in the US as wellHunger is a problem not only in developing nations, but in the US as well Malnutrition – shortage of nutrients the body needs; lacks quantity and/or qualityMalnutrition – shortage of nutrients the body needs; lacks quantity and/or quality Kwashiorkor – disease caused by eating too little protein; bloating, poor hair quality, skin problems, developmental de-lays, lower immunity, anemia, sunken eyesKwashiorkor – disease caused by eating too little protein; bloating, poor hair quality, skin problems, developmental de-lays, lower immunity, anemia, sunken eyes

74 Genetically Modified Organisms Genetic engineering – any process in which scientists directly manipulate an organism’s DNAGenetic engineering – any process in which scientists directly manipulate an organism’s DNA Uses recombinant DNA technology; scientists place genes that code for desired traits into the genomes of organisms lacking these traitsUses recombinant DNA technology; scientists place genes that code for desired traits into the genomes of organisms lacking these traits Ex’s – rapid growth, pest resistance, frost toleranceEx’s – rapid growth, pest resistance, frost tolerance Biotechnology uses creation of geneti- cally modified organisms, development of medicines, clean up pollution, etc…Biotechnology uses creation of geneti- cally modified organisms, development of medicines, clean up pollution, etc…

75 GM Crops GM crops are everywhere: crops that resist herbicides, insect attack; GM seed sales have increased rapidly in the USGM crops are everywhere: crops that resist herbicides, insect attack; GM seed sales have increased rapidly in the US Over 85% of corn, soybeans, cotton & canola crops are GMOver 85% of corn, soybeans, cotton & canola crops are GM Risks: resistance by pests, dangerous to eat?, GM genes will make their way into wild plantsRisks: resistance by pests, dangerous to eat?, GM genes will make their way into wild plants Benefits: reduces use of insecticides & therefore use of fossil fuels, increases no-till farmingBenefits: reduces use of insecticides & therefore use of fossil fuels, increases no-till farming

76 Industrial Food Production Feedlots – concentrated animal feeding operations; greater, more efficient production of food without degrading soil, manure can be used as fertilizer; manure can contaminate bodies of water, high density increases antibiotic use, inhumane treatment of animalsFeedlots – concentrated animal feeding operations; greater, more efficient production of food without degrading soil, manure can be used as fertilizer; manure can contaminate bodies of water, high density increases antibiotic use, inhumane treatment of animals Aquaculture – raising aquatic animals for food in controlled environments; disease spread, lots of waste; sustain- able, protects wild fish, less fossil fuelAquaculture – raising aquatic animals for food in controlled environments; disease spread, lots of waste; sustain- able, protects wild fish, less fossil fuel

77 Plant Diversity Risk of GM genes moving into the wild by pollinators & outcompete them leaving us with a monoculture in the wild & farmsRisk of GM genes moving into the wild by pollinators & outcompete them leaving us with a monoculture in the wild & farms Genetic diversity is decreasingGenetic diversity is decreasing Seed banks preserve seeds of diverse plantsSeed banks preserve seeds of diverse plants Production of meat for food is extremely inefficient, especially beef (eggs & milk are efficient)Production of meat for food is extremely inefficient, especially beef (eggs & milk are efficient)

78 Sustainable Agriculture Is agriculture that doesn’t deplete soil faster than if forms, nor reduce amount or quality of soil, water, & genetic diversityIs agriculture that doesn’t deplete soil faster than if forms, nor reduce amount or quality of soil, water, & genetic diversity Organic agriculture – use no synthetic fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides or herbicides; production increasing with demandOrganic agriculture – use no synthetic fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides or herbicides; production increasing with demand Low input agriculture – uses smaller amounts of pesticides, fertilizers, etc….Low input agriculture – uses smaller amounts of pesticides, fertilizers, etc…. Locally supported agriculture – average food product in US travels 1500 miles farm to shelf, often chemically treated to preserve it, less varieties; local, fresh, in-season cropsLocally supported agriculture – average food product in US travels 1500 miles farm to shelf, often chemically treated to preserve it, less varieties; local, fresh, in-season crops

79 12.4 Review 1.Why does the world need to grow more food? Why do the methods need to be sustainable? 2.What is a genetically modified organism? What questions would you ask about a food made from genetically modified corn before eating it? 3.What are 2 advantages & 2 disadvantages of industrial food production? 4.Do you think organic foods are worth the extra cost? Explain. In addition to above, do 12.4 Review Packet.In addition to above, do 12.4 Review Packet.

80 Unit 9C - Minerals & Mining Objectives: Identify Earth’s major geological processes and hazardsIdentify Earth’s major geological processes and hazards Describe the formation & recycling of rocks & mineralsDescribe the formation & recycling of rocks & minerals Identify Earth’s mineral resources & describe the environmental effects of using them.Identify Earth’s mineral resources & describe the environmental effects of using them. Identify methods of using minerals more sustainably.Identify methods of using minerals more sustainably.

81 Chp. 13 Case Study – Mining for….Cell Phones? Page 391 – Central CasePage 391 – Central Case Do a Decision-Making Analysis (15 pts.)Do a Decision-Making Analysis (15 pts.) What is the Problem? What is your proposed Solution? Now analyze your proposed solution: 3 Pros, 3 Cons, 3 Short-term consequences, 3 Long-term consequences. Now, form a Conclusion about your proposed solution & why.What is the Problem? What is your proposed Solution? Now analyze your proposed solution: 3 Pros, 3 Cons, 3 Short-term consequences, 3 Long-term consequences. Now, form a Conclusion about your proposed solution & why.

82 Minerals “Mineral” – solid inorganic substance that is found in nature and consists of a single element or compound in an orderly, repetitive crystalline structure“Mineral” – solid inorganic substance that is found in nature and consists of a single element or compound in an orderly, repetitive crystalline structure “Mineral Resources” – minerals useful to humans“Mineral Resources” – minerals useful to humans

83 Mineral Formation Formed by crystallization from magma or lava, from precipitation related to evaporation or hydrothermal solutions, from exposure to high pressure and temperature, or produced by organismsFormed by crystallization from magma or lava, from precipitation related to evaporation or hydrothermal solutions, from exposure to high pressure and temperature, or produced by organisms Rock – solid mass of minerals/mineral- like that occurs naturallyRock – solid mass of minerals/mineral- like that occurs naturally Rock cycle – rocks are heated, melted, cooled, weathered, & eroded as they slowly change between 3 types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary, & metamorphicRock cycle – rocks are heated, melted, cooled, weathered, & eroded as they slowly change between 3 types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary, & metamorphic

84 13.1 Review 1.Which of the 5 criteria that define minerals explains why polymorphs are actually different minerals? 2.How is the rate at which magma cools related to the size of the crystals in a mineral? 3.Explain the processes that would cause the material in an igneous rock to become sedimentary rock and then metamorphic rock. Also, do 13.1 review packet (if assigned).Also, do 13.1 review packet (if assigned).

85 Mining Involves breaking the ground to gain access to minerals, fossil fuel or water, and then extracting themInvolves breaking the ground to gain access to minerals, fossil fuel or water, and then extracting them Ore – mineral that is mined so a metal can be removed from itOre – mineral that is mined so a metal can be removed from it Copper, iron, lead, gold silver, alum- inum are the most common metalsCopper, iron, lead, gold silver, alum- inum are the most common metals Nonmetallic minerals include sand, grave, limestone, salt, gemstonesNonmetallic minerals include sand, grave, limestone, salt, gemstones Fuel sources include uranium, coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc…Fuel sources include uranium, coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc…

86 Strip Mining – machines clear away large strips of the Earth’s surface; coal, sand & gravel Subsurface mining – vertical shafts & horizontal tunnel networks are dug; zinc, lead, nickel, tin, gold, copper, uranium Open-pit mining – machines are used to dig large holes in the ground and remove mineral-containing rock; copper, iron, gold, diamonds, coal, clay, gravel, sand, limestone Mining Methods

87 Mining Methods, continued Mountaintop Removal – used primarily for coal mining; forests are clear-cut and the timber sold or burned, topsoil is removed and rock is blasted awayMountaintop Removal – used primarily for coal mining; forests are clear-cut and the timber sold or burned, topsoil is removed and rock is blasted away Solution mining – miners pump a chemical solution into a mine to leach the desired resource from the ore, removing the liquid after the solution has reacted with the ore; salt miningSolution mining – miners pump a chemical solution into a mine to leach the desired resource from the ore, removing the liquid after the solution has reacted with the ore; salt mining Placer mining – sifting through material in modern/ancient riverbed deposits; gold miningPlacer mining – sifting through material in modern/ancient riverbed deposits; gold mining Undersea Mining – dredging the sea floor, limited as it is so expensiveUndersea Mining – dredging the sea floor, limited as it is so expensive

88 Effects of mining: Wildlife habitat is lostWildlife habitat is lost Disruption of the land surfaceDisruption of the land surface Land erosionLand erosion Toxic substances left behind after processingToxic substances left behind after processing

89 Mining in Florida SandSand ClayClay PhosphatePhosphate TimberTimber

90 13.2 Review 1.In your own words, explain why all sources of valuable metals are not considered to be ore. 2.A mining geologist locates a horizontal seam of coal close to the surface. What type of method will the mining company most likely use to extract it? Explain your answer…..why? 3.What are tailings?

91 Mining Impacts & Regulation Impacts include erosion, increased sediment & debris, and pollution of water, land & air.Impacts include erosion, increased sediment & debris, and pollution of water, land & air. As mining continued to grow, the technology became more powerful and destructive to the environmentAs mining continued to grow, the technology became more powerful and destructive to the environment Laws became necessary to control access, effects & safety of minersLaws became necessary to control access, effects & safety of miners Mining regulations that govern mining consider the environmental and safety impacts of mining along with the economic costs to the industryMining regulations that govern mining consider the environmental and safety impacts of mining along with the economic costs to the industry

92 Regulations General Mining Law of 1872 – enacted in response to gold mining; governs mining on public lands, claim stakingGeneral Mining Law of 1872 – enacted in response to gold mining; governs mining on public lands, claim staking Mineral Leasing Act of 1920 – governs leasing of public lands for mining of fossil fuels, phosphates, sodium & sulfurMineral Leasing Act of 1920 – governs leasing of public lands for mining of fossil fuels, phosphates, sodium & sulfur Amending the General Mining Law – critics say it gives away valuable public resources, defenders say mining companies take on great financial risksAmending the General Mining Law – critics say it gives away valuable public resources, defenders say mining companies take on great financial risks

93 Regulations, continued Surface Mining Control & Reclama- tion Act (1977) – due to negative environmental effects of strip mining, gov’t requires coal mining companies to reclaim/restore the land after mining is completed; still have acid drainage and non-native plant damage persisting for yearsSurface Mining Control & Reclama- tion Act (1977) – due to negative environmental effects of strip mining, gov’t requires coal mining companies to reclaim/restore the land after mining is completed; still have acid drainage and non-native plant damage persisting for years Mining Safety – ventilation require- ments, minimum age; modern day mining safety is regulated under Federal Mine Safety & Health ActMining Safety – ventilation require- ments, minimum age; modern day mining safety is regulated under Federal Mine Safety & Health Act

94 Reclamation Restore the mined land to the condition it was in before mining beganRestore the mined land to the condition it was in before mining began “Mining companies should restore the land the same successional stage it was in when they mined it.” Do you agree or disagree, and why?“Mining companies should restore the land the same successional stage it was in when they mined it.” Do you agree or disagree, and why?

95 Responsible Mineral Use Because minerals are a nonrenewable resource, we need to be concerned about finite supplies and ways to use them more responsibly, such as reducing use, reusing and recycling mineralsBecause minerals are a nonrenewable resource, we need to be concerned about finite supplies and ways to use them more responsibly, such as reducing use, reusing and recycling minerals Increased cell phone use boosted demand for tantalum but decreased demand for copper used in wiringIncreased cell phone use boosted demand for tantalum but decreased demand for copper used in wiring Recycled car batteries saves lead, half of aluminum used is recycled saving 1/20 th the energy extracting it from oreRecycled car batteries saves lead, half of aluminum used is recycled saving 1/20 th the energy extracting it from ore

96 13.3 Review 1.Describe 2 ways that mines can continue to cause damage to communities even after mining is complete. 2.Compare & contrast the goals of the General Mining Law of 1872 and the proposed Hardrock Mining & Reclamation Act of 2009. 3.Although both minerals & fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources, how is mineral use more sustainable than fossil fuel use? Also, if assigned, do 13.3 review packet.Also, if assigned, do 13.3 review packet.


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