3 Unit 9A – Forestry (Chp. 11)Page 323 – Battling over Clayoquot’s Big Trees – Central CaseDecision Making AnalysisWhat is the problem?What is your proposed solution?Analyze your solution: 3 Pros, 3 Cons, 3 Short-term consequences, 3 Long-term consequencesConclusion: was your solution a good one? Why or Why not?
4 Unit 9A ObjectivesExplain the importance of managing specific renewable resources such as water, soil, animals and timberDescribe 3 different resource management approaches & their goalsIdentify methods used to strike a balance between the ecological & economic values of our resourcesIdentify & explain methods used to harvest timber sustainably
5 How can we manage renewable resources for sustainable use? 11.1 Resource ManagementHow can we manage renewable resources for sustainable use?
6 Renewable Resource Management To manage resource harvesting so that resources are not depleted.Soil – made by natural processes, but fertile topsoil can take can take hundreds of years to form; major topsoil erosion concernsFresh water – maintaining clean, adequate supplies for drinking & agriculture; pollution issuesWild animals – animals hunted legally are called game; fishing has caused numbers to dwindle (cod); poaching, CITES, problems with enforcementTimber – harvesting timber is essential to our standard of living; forests are disappearing
7 How We Use Land Non-urban lands include: Forests (harvest timber for paper and lumber)Grasslands (support livestock and farmlands)Other (mineral resources)
8 Resource Management Approaches Maximum Sustainable Yield – harvest the maximum amount of a resource without reducing the amount of future harvests; quicker growth at intermediate size well below carrying capacity; could result in changes of other populationsEcosystem-Based Management – harvest resources in ways that minimize impact on the ecosystems & ecological processes that provide the resources; challenging for managersAdaptive Management – scientifically test different approaches & then customize an approach based on the results; can be time consuming & complicated
9 11.1 Review Define resource management. Why is it important? Describe the goals of maximum sustainable yield management, ecosystem-based management, and adaptive management. List a drawback of each.How may managing a resource for maximum sustainable yield sometimes conflict with what is best for its ecosystem?Besides answering the above 3 questions, complete the 11.1 review packet.
10 11.2 Forests & their Resources How can resource managers strike a balance between the ecological and economic value of forest resources?
11 Forest ResourcesEcological value: different habitats, biodiversity (mature forests have more), prevent soil erosion, slow water run-off, reduce flooding, take in C02 & release 02 (moderate climate)
12 Forest ResourcesEconomical value: provide timber for many products, fuel for fires, building houses & ships, paper, food & medicine (fruit, nuts, spices, herbs come from forest plants), cancer treating drugs (Paclitaxel – yew, rosy periwinkle)
13 Timber HarvestingThere are costs & benefits to every method of timber harvesting2 categories:Even-aged stands – result from regrowth of trees that were mostly cut at the same timeUneven-aged stands – result from regrowth of trees that were cut at different times
14 Uneven stands typically have more biodiversity, offering more diverse habitats All methods of logging disturb forest communities, changing forest structure and composition as larger trees forming canopies/subcanopies are removedMost methods increase soil erosion, leading to muddy waterways and degrade animal habitatsMost methods increase runoff, causing flooding & landslides
15 Clear-cuttingThe process that involves removing ALL of the trees from a land areaResults in even-aged standsDestroys wildlife habitatsIncreases soil erosionDiminishes beautyCost efficientIncreases light to groundBegins secondary succession
16 Seed Tree ApproachSmall numbers of mature and healthy seed-producing trees are left standing so that they can reseed the logged areaLeads to regrowth that is mostly even-aged.
17 Shelterwood ApproachSmall numbers of mature trees are left in place to provide shelter for seedlings as they grow.Leads to regrowth that is mostly even-aged.
18 Selective Cutting Involves cutting only middle-aged or mature trees Has less impact on the forest than any other methodMaintains wildlife/ecosystems
19 Selection Systems Only some of the trees in a forest are cut at once Result in uneven-aged standsSingle-tree selection – trees spaced widely apart are cut one at a timeGroup selection – small patches of trees are cutRoads compact soil, more expensive, more dangerous
21 DeforestationInvolves clearing trees from an area without replacing themHelps nations develop, but it can be ecologically destructiveProvides warmth, shelter, & trade, but causes soil degradation & loss of biodiversityNegative effects are greatest in the tropical regions (loss of biodiversity) & arid regions (loss of soil productivity)Adds CO2 to the atmosphere
23 Deforestation in the US By 1850s, we deforested our vast deciduous forests to expand, making way for small farmsTimber built the cities of the East Coast and MidwestWith the Industrial Revolution, logging moved to Texas, Florida and the Carolinas. Then the timber companies moved west for the bigger trees/old-growth forests
24 TodayMost of the redwoods, oaks and maples are no longer old-growth trees in North America, leading to a concern for old-growth ecosystemsDeforestation is rapid in the Tropical Rain Forests of developing nations, leading to loss of biodiversity on a large scale and worsening global warming due to CO2 from burning as well as fewer trees
25 Quick Lab Page 334 A Tree’s History Turn to page 334 in your textbook, read the directions (#1-3 in blue) and then answer questions 1-4 with your partner.
26 11.2 ReviewWhat is one way a forest is ecologically valuable? What is one way a forest is economically valuable?How are clear-cutting and the shelterwood approach similar? How are they different? How do both differ from select systems?What, generally, is the current level of deforestation in the U.S.? In developing nations? How would you expect deforestation in developing nations to change in the next 100 years? Explain.Also, do 11.2 review packet.
27 Forest Management 11.3What steps toward sustainable forestry have been taken in the last 100 years?
28 US National ForestsLogging in national forests is managed by the Forest Service, but profits go to timber companiesPublic lands set aside to grow trees for timber and to protect watersheds.Established in 1905 after deforesting our deciduous forests caused a fear of “timber famine.”
29 National Forest Logging Timber is harvested by private timber companies.Forest Service plan & manage timber sales & build roads to provide access, but the logging companies receive the profitsTaxpayers’ money is being used to help private corporations harvest publicly held resources for profitRecreation, wildlife, and ecosystem health are being urged
30 National Forest Management Act 1976 Multiple use – forests were to be managed for recreation, wildlife habitat, mining and other uses in addition to timberNFMA requires plans for renewable resource management be drawn up for every national forest and to be consistent with multiple use and maximum sustainable yield.
31 NFMA, continuedSuccess stories – logging has declined in national forests since the 1980s, and in 2006, tree regrowth outpaced tree removal on these lands by more than 11:1.Challenges – in 2004, Bush passed regulations that weakened the NFMA & repealed the “roadless” rule that had limited building new roads. In 2009, Obama reinstated the roadless rule.
32 Private LandMost logging in the US today takes place on tree plantations owned by timber companiesMost harvesting is fast-growing tree species in the NW and SouthThese plantations are mostly monocultures – single crop, even-aged stands cut in rotation time and the land is replanted with seedlingsLow biodiversity due to little variation
33 Fire PoliciesSuppression of all wildfires can endanger ecosystems, property, and people.Many ecosystems depend on fire, and diversity & abundance of species decline without itJack pine seeds germinate only after a fire, and Kirtland’s Warbler (songbird) nest in 5-7 year old jack pines
34 Future Fire PotentialSuppression of small, natural fires can lead to larger, more dangerous fires by allowing limbs, sticks & leaf litter to build upPrescribed burns – burning areas of forest under carefully controlled conditions, which ultimately lowers the risk of injury, property damage, and ecosystem loss from catastrophic wildfires.
35 Healthy Forest Restoration Act Goal: make forests less fire-pronePrimarily promotes the removal of small trees, underbrush, and snags by timber companiesSalvage logging – removal of snags/dying trees following a natural disturbanceSnag value: insect food, holes provide nesting/roostingRemoving timber from recently burned land can cause erosion & soil damage, and slow forest regrowth
36 Sustainable Forestry Products Sustainable forestry certification – certifies products produced using methods they consider sustainableThe Forest Stewardship Council has the strictest certification process, carry logos (FSC)70% of annual timber harvest in British Columbia Canada is certifiedMore costly, but consumers demand
37 11.3 ReviewWhat are the roles of the Forest Service & timber companies in logging US National Forests? What are the requirements of the NFMA?Generally, how does a tree plantation’s biodiversity differ from that of a natural forest? Give 2 reasons for your answer.Suppose you lived very close to a fire-prone forest where there had been no fire for many years, & the Forest Service wanted to have a prescribe burn there. What are 2 questions you would ask the Forest Service?How do organizations such as the FSC decide whether to certify a product?Also, do 11.3 review packet.
38 Unit 9B – Soil & Agriculture Chapter 12 Page 351 Chp. 12 Case Study – Possible Transgenic Maize in Oaxaca, MexicoAnalyze using Decision Making ModelWhat is the problem?What is your proposed solution?Analyze your solution: 3 Pros, 3 Cons, 3 Short-term Consequences, 3 Long-term ConsequencesConclusion: Is your solution a good one? Why or Why not?
39 Unit 9B Soil & Agriculture Objectives Explain how soil forms, the horizons that make up a soil profile, & the characteristics used to classify soil.Describe the practices that can lead to soil erosion, desertification, & pesticide pollution and their resulting impacts economically & environmentally.Describe the development of agriculture from its beginnings to the green revolution.Understand the increasing need to increase food production in a sustainable way.Explain how biotechnology may be the key to future food production, but it is not without risk.
40 12.1 SoilWe use about 38% of Earth’s land surface for agriculture, which depends on fertile soilSoil – a complex plant-supporting system made up of disintegrated rock, remains & wastes of organisms, water, gases, nutrients, and microorganisms.Soil is a renewable resource, it could take 100s or 1000s of years to make 1”
41 Factors that Influence Soil Formation Climate – forms faster in warm, wet climatesOrganisms – worms mix & aerate soil, add organic matterLandforms – runoff, erosion, leaching, exposure to sunParent material – chemical & physical attributes influence soilTime – soil formation takes time
42 Soil FormationSoil is a complex substance that forms through weathering, deposition & decomposition.Soil is roughly 45% mineral matter & 5% organic matter.Parent material – the base geological material in a particular location; lava, glacier rock, sand dunes, river sediment, bedrockBedrock – continuous mass of solid rock that makes up the crust
43 WeatheringPhysical & chemical processes that break down rocks & minerals into smaller particles, 1st process in soil formationPhysical – anything that touches a rock, ex. Wind, rain, temperatureChemical – water & other substances chemically break down the parent rock; warm, wet conditions increase chemical weathering
44 Deposition & Decomposition Deposition – the drop-off of eroded material at a new location; erosion may help form soil in one area by depositing material eroded from anotherDecomposition – activities of living & formerly living things help form soil; organisms deposit waste or die & decompose, incorporating nutrients into the soil; leaf litter, humus
45 Soil Horizons A soil profile consists of layers known as horizons Soil profile – a cross-section of all the soil horizons in a specific soil, from surface to bedrockSimplest way to categorize:A – topsoilB – subsoilC – weathered parent material
46 Top soil Crucial horizon for agriculture and ecosystems Consists mostly of mineral particles with organic matter and humusIs the horizon that has the most plant nutrients availableIts loose texture, dark color, and ability to hold water come from its humus contentTopsoil is fragile, eroding or being depleted easily
47 Lower HorizonsGenerally, particle size increases and organic matter decreases as you move down the profileMinerals leach downward as water filters through the soilIf leaching occurs too quickly and plants are deprived of nutrientsIron, aluminum, and silicate clay are commonly leached out
48 Soil CharacteristicsSoils can be classified by their color, texture, structure and pHColor – darker soils are usu. richer in humus (nutrients) & fertilityTexture – clay/silt/sand; influences its workability and how porous it isStructure – arrangement of soil particles, clumpiness is richer but may compact & hinder rootspH – affects plant growth; acid rain
49 12.1 ReviewDescribe 3 major processes that contribute to the formation of most soils.What is a soil profile? Describe the A, B, and C horizons.What do each of the 4 characteristics of soil indicate about its ability to support plant life?Recall the analogy between soil & coffee grounds (bottom page 355) in the section called “Lower Horizons.” In this analogy, what do you think the “soil coffee” consists of?In addition to the 4 questions above, complete the 12.1 packet.
50 12.2 Soil Degradation & Conservation Soil degradation – deterioration of soil characteristics needed for plant growth or other ecosystem servicesFarmers have shown that the most productive soil is loam with a neutral pH that is workable, contains nutrients, and holds water.Human activities cause erosion, desertification & pollution making soil less productive.
51 ErosionCertain farming, ranching and forestry practices can erode soil, but other practices can protect itErosion & deposition are natural processes that can create soil; flood-plains are excellent for farmingErosion usu. occurs faster than soil is formed; erosion tends to remove top-soil; and erosion can be hard to detectErosion occurs from leaving soil bare after harvests, overgrazing rangeland & clearcutting forests on steep slopes
52 Farming PracticesPlant cover protects soil from erosion by slowing wind & water, roots hold soil in place and absorb water.Intercropping – planting different crops in mixed arrangements; gives more crop coverCrop rotation – alternate crops in a field to return nutrients to the soil & break diseaseShelterbelts – windbreaks, rows of treesNo-till method – plant between the rowsTerracing – staircase the plants, labor intenseContour farming – plant sideways across a hillside, perpendicular to the hill’s slope
53 Ranching PracticesThe raising and grazing of livestock affects soils and ecosystems.Livestock mostly feed on grasses.As long as livestock populations stay within a range’s carrying capacity and do not eat grasses faster than the grasses can grow back, grazing may be sustainable.
54 OvergrazingWhen too many animals graze in an area for too long, and damage the grass beyond its ability to recoverSoil erosion makes it difficult for vegetation to regrowInflux of non-native weedsCommon in Florida
55 Two Rangeland Management Techniques: Grazing management – limit animal herd sizesRange improvements – eliminating weedy plants, planting vegetation on bare soil, cross fencing, and increasing the number of waterholes
56 DesertificationLoss of more than 10% of productivity due to erosion, soil compaction, forest removal, overgrazing, drought, salt buildup, climate change, depletion of water sources, etc.When overgrazing and harsh conditions convert rangeland to desert; Dust BowlUsually the land does not recover from this conditionEx. Fertile Crescent regionAffects 1/3 of Earth’s land area
57 Soil Conservation Policies 1935 Soil Conservation Act – in response to the Dust Bowl1994 renamed Natural Resources Conservation Service, expanded to include water quality & pollution controlFarmers must adopt soil conservation plans before they can receive government subsidies; pay farmers to stop cultivating cropland that erodes easily, plant grasses & trees
58 “The nation that destroys its soil destroys itself.” F.D.R. The Grapes of Wrath by John Steinbeck describes the Dust Bowl of the 1930’sResulted from poor agricultural practices and severe droughtThis set the stage for wind erosion of the top soil
59 International Programs United Nations promotes soil conservation & sustainable agriculture through its Food & Agriculture Organization (FAO)Supports creative approaches to resource management challenges in many developing countriesCall on local leaders to educate and encourage local farmers
60 Soil PollutionIrrigation & Pesticide use can improve soil productivity in the short term, but pollute long-termIrrigation – providing of water other than precipitation to cropsToo much results in water-logged crops & salinization (use drip method)Pesticides – chemicals that kill organisms that attack plantsToxic, may remain in the soil, water, biomagnification, kills pollinators
61 12.2 ReviewDescribe one farming practice that can erode soil and one that can conserve soil.Explain how overgrazing and planting in poor soil can cause a cycle of desertification.In your own words, write one paragraph about the effects of the Conservation Reserve Program (pg. 363, top paragraph).How can irrigation and pesticides cause soil pollution?Besides the above 4 questions, complete the 12.2 review packet.
62 12.3 AgricultureBegan 10,000 years ago when a warmer climate allowed planting seeds & raising livestockIt went from hunter/gatherer to selective breeding & settlementTraditional agriculture was performed by humans & animalsIndustrial agriculture introduced large-scale mechanization & fossil-fueled engines, replacing horse & oxen with faster, more efficient means of harvesting, processing, & transporting
63 Industrial Agriculture Resulted in irrigation improvements & synthetic fertilizers & pesticidesProduces huge amounts of crops & livestock, relying on huge inputs of energy, water & chemicalsThis requires large areas to be planted in a single crop (monoculture), increasing harvests but less biodiversity and more genetic similarity & vulnerability to disease & pests
64 How can we feed more people in the world? Increase the crop yields with new varietiesNew farming techniquesOr…………………
66 The Green RevolutionAgricultural scientists introduced new technology, crop varieties & farming practices to developing nations1940s Norman Borlaug introduced Mexico’s farmers to a specially bred strain of wheat, tripling their wheat production in 2 decades.Developing nations began applying large amounts of synthetic fertilizers & chemical pesticides, liberally irrigating crops, & using heavy equipment powered by fossil fuels.
67 Environmental Effects of the Green Revolution Green Revolution saved millions of lives.Technology comes at a high energy costLess additional land was needed, so it preserved some ecosystemsIntensive application of water, inorganic fertilizers & pesticides has worsened erosion, salinization, desertification, eutrophication, & pollution. Increased fossil fuel use has increased air pollution & global warming
68 PestsChemical pesticides – since 1960, pesticide use has risen fourfold worldwide, continuing to rise in developing nations; resistance!Biological pest control – battle pests & weeds with organisms that eat or infect them; wasps & caterpillars, soil bacterium (Bt), could create invasive speciesIntegrated pest management – combin-ing both of above to achieve the most effective long-term pest reduction
69 PollinatorsMost insects are harmless to agriculture & some are essentialWithout pollination, plants cannot reproduce sexuallyPollinators are among the most vital yet least appreciated factors in agricultureAs pesticide use increases, pollinator populations decreasePollinator conservation !!!!
70 12.3 ReviewWrite a paragraph describing when and how agriculture likely began. End with a description of the beginnings of selective breeding.How have industrial agriculture & the green revolution affected the world’s population?How do (a) chemical pesticides, (b) biological control, and (c) integrated pest management protect crops from pests?How are pollinators important to crop agriculture?Besides the above 4 questions, do 12.3 review packet.
71 12.4 Food ProductionHow can we produce enough food for a rapidly growing population while sustaining our ability to produce it?Each year Earth gains 75 million people & loses million acres of productive croplandArable (suitable for farming) land is running out, yet world population of 9 billion is predicted by 2050
72 Food SecurityIs the guarantee of an adequate & reliable food supply for all people at all timesBecause hunger continues and the population is growing, we need to find a way to increase food production sustainablyThe world’s soils are in decline, & nearly all arable land is being farmedWe must maintain healthy soil & water, protect biodiversity of food sources, & ensure safe distribution
73 Undernourished/Malnutrition Hunger is a problem not only in developing nations, but in the US as wellMalnutrition – shortage of nutrients the body needs; lacks quantity and/or qualityKwashiorkor – disease caused by eating too little protein; bloating, poor hair quality, skin problems, developmental de-lays, lower immunity, anemia, sunken eyes
74 Genetically Modified Organisms Genetic engineering – any process in which scientists directly manipulate an organism’s DNAUses recombinant DNA technology; scientists place genes that code for desired traits into the genomes of organisms lacking these traitsEx’s – rapid growth, pest resistance, frost toleranceBiotechnology uses creation of geneti-cally modified organisms, development of medicines, clean up pollution, etc…
75 GM CropsGM crops are everywhere: crops that resist herbicides, insect attack; GM seed sales have increased rapidly in the USOver 85% of corn, soybeans, cotton & canola crops are GMRisks: resistance by pests, dangerous to eat?, GM genes will make their way into wild plantsBenefits: reduces use of insecticides & therefore use of fossil fuels, increases no-till farming
76 Industrial Food Production Feedlots – concentrated animal feeding operations; greater, more efficient production of food without degrading soil, manure can be used as fertilizer; manure can contaminate bodies of water, high density increases antibiotic use, inhumane treatment of animalsAquaculture – raising aquatic animals for food in controlled environments; disease spread, lots of waste; sustain-able, protects wild fish, less fossil fuel
77 Plant DiversityRisk of GM genes moving into the wild by pollinators & outcompete them leaving us with a monoculture in the wild & farmsGenetic diversity is decreasingSeed banks preserve seeds of diverse plantsProduction of meat for food is extremely inefficient, especially beef (eggs & milk are efficient)
78 Sustainable Agriculture Is agriculture that doesn’t deplete soil faster than if forms, nor reduce amount or quality of soil, water, & genetic diversityOrganic agriculture – use no synthetic fertilizers, insecticides, fungicides or herbicides; production increasing with demandLow input agriculture – uses smaller amounts of pesticides, fertilizers, etc….Locally supported agriculture – average food product in US travels 1500 miles farm to shelf, often chemically treated to preserve it, less varieties; local, fresh, in-season crops
79 12.4 ReviewWhy does the world need to grow more food? Why do the methods need to be sustainable?What is a genetically modified organism? What questions would you ask about a food made from genetically modified corn before eating it?What are 2 advantages & 2 disadvantages of industrial food production?Do you think organic foods are worth the extra cost? Explain.In addition to above, do 12.4 Review Packet.
80 Unit 9C - Minerals & Mining Objectives:Identify Earth’s major geological processes and hazardsDescribe the formation & recycling of rocks & mineralsIdentify Earth’s mineral resources & describe the environmental effects of using them.Identify methods of using minerals more sustainably.
81 Chp. 13 Case Study – Mining for….Cell Phones? Page 391 – Central CaseDo a Decision-Making Analysis (15 pts.)What is the Problem? What is your proposed Solution? Now analyze your proposed solution: 3 Pros, 3 Cons, 3 Short-term consequences, 3 Long-term consequences. Now, form a Conclusion about your proposed solution & why.
82 Minerals“Mineral” – solid inorganic substance that is found in nature and consists of a single element or compound in an orderly, repetitive crystalline structure“Mineral Resources” – minerals useful to humans
83 Mineral FormationFormed by crystallization from magma or lava, from precipitation related to evaporation or hydrothermal solutions, from exposure to high pressure and temperature, or produced by organismsRock – solid mass of minerals/mineral-like that occurs naturallyRock cycle – rocks are heated, melted, cooled, weathered, & eroded as they slowly change between 3 types of rocks: igneous, sedimentary, & metamorphic
84 13.1 ReviewWhich of the 5 criteria that define minerals explains why polymorphs are actually different minerals?How is the rate at which magma cools related to the size of the crystals in a mineral?Explain the processes that would cause the material in an igneous rock to become sedimentary rock and then metamorphic rock.Also, do 13.1 review packet (if assigned).
85 MiningInvolves breaking the ground to gain access to minerals, fossil fuel or water, and then extracting themOre – mineral that is mined so a metal can be removed from itCopper, iron, lead, gold silver, alum-inum are the most common metalsNonmetallic minerals include sand, grave, limestone, salt, gemstonesFuel sources include uranium, coal, petroleum, natural gas, etc…
86 Mining Methods Open Pit Copper Mine Strip Mining – machines clear away large strips of the Earth’s surface; coal, sand & gravelSubsurface mining – vertical shafts & horizontal tunnel networks are dug; zinc, lead, nickel, tin, gold, copper, uraniumOpen-pit mining – machines are used to dig large holes in the ground and remove mineral-containing rock; copper, iron, gold, diamonds, coal, clay, gravel, sand, limestoneOpen PitCopper Mine
87 Mining Methods, continued Mountaintop Removal – used primarily for coal mining; forests are clear-cut and the timber sold or burned, topsoil is removed and rock is blasted awaySolution mining – miners pump a chemical solution into a mine to leach the desired resource from the ore, removing the liquid after the solution has reacted with the ore; salt miningPlacer mining – sifting through material in modern/ancient riverbed deposits; gold miningUndersea Mining – dredging the sea floor, limited as it is so expensive
88 Effects of mining: Wildlife habitat is lost Disruption of the land surfaceLand erosionToxic substances left behind after processing
90 13.2 ReviewIn your own words, explain why all sources of valuable metals are not considered to be ore.A mining geologist locates a horizontal seam of coal close to the surface. What type of method will the mining company most likely use to extract it? Explain your answer…..why?What are tailings?
91 Mining Impacts & Regulation Impacts include erosion, increased sediment & debris, and pollution of water, land & air.As mining continued to grow, the technology became more powerful and destructive to the environmentLaws became necessary to control access, effects & safety of minersMining regulations that govern mining consider the environmental and safety impacts of mining along with the economic costs to the industry
92 RegulationsGeneral Mining Law of 1872 – enacted in response to gold mining; governs mining on public lands, claim stakingMineral Leasing Act of 1920 – governs leasing of public lands for mining of fossil fuels, phosphates, sodium & sulfurAmending the General Mining Law – critics say it gives away valuable public resources, defenders say mining companies take on great financial risks
93 Regulations, continued Surface Mining Control & Reclama-tion Act (1977) – due to negative environmental effects of strip mining, gov’t requires coal mining companies to reclaim/restore the land after mining is completed; still have acid drainage and non-native plant damage persisting for yearsMining Safety – ventilation require-ments, minimum age; modern day mining safety is regulated under Federal Mine Safety & Health Act
94 ReclamationRestore the mined land to the condition it was in before mining began“Mining companies should restore the land the same successional stage it was in when they mined it.” Do you agree or disagree, and why?
95 Responsible Mineral Use Because minerals are a nonrenewable resource, we need to be concerned about finite supplies and ways to use them more responsibly, such as reducing use, reusing and recycling mineralsIncreased cell phone use boosted demand for tantalum but decreased demand for copper used in wiringRecycled car batteries saves lead, half of aluminum used is recycled saving 1/20th the energy extracting it from ore
96 13.3 ReviewDescribe 2 ways that mines can continue to cause damage to communities even after mining is complete.Compare & contrast the goals of the General Mining Law of 1872 and the proposed Hardrock Mining & Reclamation Act of 2009.Although both minerals & fossil fuels are nonrenewable resources, how is mineral use more sustainable than fossil fuel use?Also, if assigned, do 13.3 review packet.