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METSÄNTUTKIMUSLAITOS SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE www.metla.fi Political culture and Forest Programmes in Finland Pekka.

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Presentation on theme: "METSÄNTUTKIMUSLAITOS SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE www.metla.fi Political culture and Forest Programmes in Finland Pekka."— Presentation transcript:

1 METSÄNTUTKIMUSLAITOS SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Political culture and Forest Programmes in Finland Pekka Ollonqvist & Harri Hänninen Finnish Forest Research Institute

2 METSÄNTUTKIMUSLAITOS SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Political culture and Governance in Finland  Elements of Political Culture  State and Local Governance  Main features of power structures of political arena: dominance of president during steps to parliamentary democracy during adaptation to international communities from  Forest policy culture through decades

3 METSÄNTUTKIMUSLAITOS SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE The Concept of Political Culture  Political culture Case: Parliamentary democracy Concentration of public and private power and activities on policy arena Legal base of institutions; extent and coverage  Levels of political arena Legislative level - President/constitutional monarch - Parliament Executive level - Government – NGOs  Political culture implement: how to legitimate social institutions the set of legitimate actions for:  Public power  NGOs on legislative(lobbying)/executive (corporatist networks) levels set of candidate actions to modify or revise social institutions set of candidate agendas to modify or revise social institutions

4 METSÄNTUTKIMUSLAITOS SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE State governance in Finland  Legislate level president  common (currently direct) election,  a six-year term,  prior strong status dismantled for parliament unicameral parliament  common (proportional) election  a four-year term  president can dissolve (for specified reasons)  Executive level government  multi-party tradition non-governmental organisations (NGOs)  strong advocacy colitions among labour unions and agriculture

5 METSÄNTUTKIMUSLAITOS SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Local governance in Finland  provincial advocacy administration only executive institutions on state power (parliament election, justice, defence, environment…)  strong municipal self-governance 450 municipalities common (proportional) election access to taxation, educational and health institutions  Multicultural regions in culture, language, religion and strong minority rights  Identification of citizenship on local and national state level

6 METSÄNTUTKIMUSLAITOS SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Political arena Towards Scandinavian welfare state Legislate level :  president and elite dominates Executive level:  Governments  short lived  short run policy targets  freqent parliamentary minority  NGOs  increasing political power  single advocacy for organised interest  Economic Council  major arena neo-corporatist actions Forest policy arena Intensive, expanding timber production Legislate level:  Unchanged STM Executive level:  Timber investment programs ( MERA I-III, )  integrated part of macroeconomic planning  initiative from forest strong, closed network  top-down approach  technocrat planning President substituted Parliament and Government during

7 METSÄNTUTKIMUSLAITOS SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Forest policy arena Intensive, expanding timber production and use Legislate level :  Unchanged STM Executive level: Programs for timber investments and use  Forest 2000 (1985)  Rev Forest 2000 (1992)  Economic Council initiator  forest network  dominating role  forest science society higly involved  extended representation of interest groups  first ENGO since 1991  top-down approach Political arena Parliamentary state for individuals Legislate level :  new president initiated actions to strenghten parliamentary power Executive level :  Governments  multi- party majority  living parliamentary period  long run policy tragets  NGOs  multiple advocacies for organised interest  strong diversified political power strong  Economic Council  neo- corporatist actions extends to market prices and social policy  International dimension  associate contracts to international networks Towards parliamentary democracy during

8 METSÄNTUTKIMUSLAITOS SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Forest policy arena Increasing timber use parallel with ecological biodiversity preservation Legislate level :  comprehensive revision of legislation for SFM Executive level:  Environmental Programme for Forestry (1994)  Finland’s NFP (1999)  formal status by government  forest network  forest science society in minor role  pluralist participation  many ENGOs involved  new participation channels  bottom-up approach  regional forest programmes Political arena Internationalization & pluralism Legislate level:  strog parliament substitutes president into formal position by new constitution Executive level:  Government  multi-party parliamentary majority  living parliamentary period  detailed long run policy tragets  NGOs  multiple advocacies for organised interest  diversified arenas  pluralist participation  Market allocation  International dimension  restricting agreements & commitments  EU & EMU membership Adaptation to international communities during

9 METSÄNTUTKIMUSLAITOS SKOGSFORSKNINGSINSTITUTET FINNISH FOREST RESEARCH INSTITUTE Forest policy culture through decades  Policy initials: government substitute forest networks  Policy preparation: from mono-corporatism to pluralist- corporatism  Policy agenda: from closed preparation to new channels providing access to participation from top-down approach towards bottom-up approach from technocratic planning towards participatory planning  Policy implementation: from fixed compherensive plans towards iterative policy formulation


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