2Motte and Bailey Castles The Norman Invasion & their Pre-built CastlesThe Battle of Hastings in 1066 marked the end of the Anglo Saxon Kings of England and the Norman Invasion led by Duke William of Normandy who became King of England, also known as William the Conqueror. His strategy of utilising Pre-Built Norman Timber Castles with Motte and Bailey structures played a highly successful role when he conquered England. Three pre-built wooden castles were built by the Norman Invaders - the Battle of Hastings and the throne of England was taken. Each of the following links to Motte and Bailey Castles will provided detailed facts and information about these famous Norman constructions. The Norman strategy of building Motte and Bailey Castles began.
3The definition of the Motte and Bailey Castles are as follows: Definition of a MotteThe Motte can be defined as a giant mound of earth with a keep, or tower, built on topDefinition of a BaileyThe Bailey consisted of the outer wall of a castle and a courtyard which surrounded the keepDefinition of a Motte and Bailey CastleA Motte and Bailey Castle can be defined as a Medieval Norman castle which consisted of two connecting ditched stockaded mounds with the higher mound surmounted by a keep, a tower, and the other containing a courtyard, barracks, other buildings and livestock
5Norman Strategy of building Motte and Bailey Castles William the Conqueror employed a strategy of quickly building of wooden Motte and Bailey Castles. Timber Motte and Bailey Castles could not be viewed as permanent castles as the wood built on earth rotted quickly and they could easily be destroyed by fire. But they were of great temporary value! His aim was to build as many of these small castles as possible. A Motte and Bailey castle could be erected quickly - some only took a couple of weeks! It is believed that as many as 1000 Medieval Motte and Bailey castles were built in England by the Normans.The sites of the castles followed a pattern covering some, or all, of the following requirements:They were built on the highest ground in the areaThey often adjoined RiversThey often overlooked TownsThey made use of existing sites of Roman or Saxon forts and BurhsThey overlooked harboursThe Normans wanted their rule to be confirmed completely and quickly. Between the Battle of Hastings and the Norman Invasion in 1066 and the date that William the Conqueror died in 1087 a total of 86 stone castles had been built! Eighty-six castles in just 21 years! It is believed that as many as 1000 Medieval Motte and Bailey castles were built in England. Many of the initial wooden constructions of the Motte and Bailey Castles were fortified. The first fortification was to raise the timber buildings on stone walls and once this was complete to entirely re-build the Castle Keep in stone. Thus emerged the first Stone Castles of the Medieval Era - including, of course, the famous Tower of London.
7The Purpose of the Motte and Bailey Castles To act as a fortified postTo provide a base where men, provisions and horses could be housedTo overawe and frighten the indigenous populationMotte and Bailey Castles provided a base from which the Normans could govern the surrounding district
8Storm and capture the Tower Climb, or crawl up, the embankment of the Motte - these were extremely steep and designed so that a horse could not climb itStorm the gateTake the gate of the MotteNegotiate the outer ditch and embankmentNegotiate the defences within the BaileyThe most successful form of attack was fire! The timber buildings would burn easily.
9Life in the Motte and Bailey Castles The Normans were the victors - the invaders of the English Anglo Saxons. Life for the Normans was good. Their successful invasion of England meant wealth for the Norman invaders. Lands were divided between Norman Lords and they built the Motte and Bailey Castles. Life in the Norman Motte and Bailey Castles depended on the rank of the people who inhabited the castle. The Lord of the Castle and possibly his family would live in the most protected part of the castle - the Tower or the Keep. Servants would be expected to provide food for the Nobles and soldiers. The Soldiers were well paid and lived within the Bailey of the castle. Other occupations within the castle were the Blacksmiths - to keep a supply of arrowheads, the Stable hands to help with the horses and the kitchen staff.
10The History of the Norman Stone Castles The wooden Motte and Bailey castles were seldom occupied for long periods. Nearly 1000 wooden Motte and Bailey Castles were constructed. Their rapid construction enabled the Normans to control and subjugate the conquered English. Wooden Motte and Bailey Castles were not viewed as permanent castles as wood built on earth rotted quickly and the castle could easily be destroyed by fire. Stone Castles were the solution! But they took considerable time to build, requiring a significant labour force, and they were expensive. The location of the stone castles were therefore carefully chosen for the most advantageous political and military purposes. Then the Norman strategy of building Stone Castles began...
11Converting wooden castles to stone castles! Many of the initial wooden constructions of the Motte and Bailey Castles were strongly fortified by converting them to stone castles. The first development and fortification was to raise the timber buildings on stone walls and once this was complete to entirely re-build the Castle Keep (tower) in stone. Thus emerged the first Stone Castles of the Medieval Era - including, of course, the famous Tower of London. William the Conqueror's chief stone castle architect and builder was called Robert, Lord of Belleme.
13The process of building The stone used for building medieval castles was generally mined in quarries. However, the Romans had been great builders in Britain and local Roman structures would be pillaged for old Roman bricks to be used when building the new stone castles. Different types of other materials were used in the building and development of stone castles:Hard ChalkFlintLimestoneSandstone
14Stone Chart Type Color Location Sandstone Purple St Asaph Wales Stone Light redCheshire EnglandYellowFlint WalesLimestoneGreyRhuddlan WalesTrassic SandstoneBrownRadyr WalesLias SandstoneBlue-greyGlamorgan WalesSutton StoneConglamerateSouthern Down and Sutton England
15Mortar used in Stone Castles Mortar (habarcs) consists of bonding materials which are used in masonry, surfacing, and plastering that hardens in place and is used to bind together bricks or stones. The mortar used to bind together the stones when constructing medieval castles was made of water, sand, and lime mixed together.
16The Purpose and sites of the Norman Stone Castles To act as a fortified postTo provide a base where men, provisions and horses could be housedTo overawe and frighten the indigenous populationTo provide a site from which the Normans could govern the surrounding districtTo provide a place from which the Normans could dispense justiceThey were built on the highest ground in the areaThey often adjoined RiversThey often overlooked TownsThey made use of existing sites of Roman or Anglo Saxon forts
18The Norman Stone Castles were often extensions of, or built around the existing Keeps Ditches and banks continued to be a featureMoats were introduced as an added defence featureThe stone for the castles were transported wherever possible via riversRoman bricks were also usedLimestone was used for the walls ( giving a cream-coloured finish )The Norman Castle Keep (tower) was built as the most protected part of the castleMassive stone Gateways were introducedA Barbican ( a tower or other fortification on the approach to a castle) was erected at the gateThe Norman Stone Castles had a rampart - an embankment built around a space for defensive purposesThe wooden Palisades used in the Baileys were replaced with stone walls
19Life in the Norman Stone Castles The Normans were the victors - the invaders of the English Anglo Saxons. Life for the Normans was good. Their successful invasion of England meant wealth for the Norman invaders. Lands were divided between Norman Lords and they built the Norman Stone Castles . Life in the Norman Medieval Castles depended on the rank of the people who inhabited the castle. The Lord of the Castle and possibly his family would live in the most protected part of the castle - the stone Tower or the Keep. Servants would be expected to provide food for the Nobles and soldiers. Other occupations within the castle were the blacksmiths - to keep a supply of arrowheads and bolts, the Stable hands to help with the horses and the kitchen staff.
20The Number of Norman Stone Castles built in the Medieval period Between the Battle of Hastings and the Norman Invasion in 1066 and the date that William the Conqueror died in 1087, 86 stone castles and more than 1000 wooden Motte and Bailey castles had been built in England!
21Characteristics of Early English Medieval Gothic Style Large blocks of stone used by Normans were replaced by shaped stoneNorman hollow stone were replaced with solid walls and pillarsEmphasized heightGood use of the pointed archThe pointed arch could support greater weight, allowing the walls to be thinner with wider window openingsIntroduction of flying buttresses distributed the weight of roofs and walls right down to the ground
24History and Description of Windsor Castle Oldest and largest castle900 years oldQueen Elizabeth II and the Royal family regard Windsor Castle as their homeIn 1694 a bill, in the English parliament ,to demolish the castle was defeated by just one voteHas been neglected and declared inhabitable and then transformed into a luxurious palaceSurvived two World Wars, then nearly destroyed by an accidental fireContains about 1000 roomsOccupies 13 acres of land100 feet above the river ThamesThe central mound still in the same position as William the Conqueror built it
26Warwick Castle Warwick means ‘dwellings by the weir’ A weir was a fence or wattle built across a stream to catch or retain fishImportant feature: its access to the River AvonEquipment and building materials were easily transported by boatsThe wooden castle was replaced by fortified stone castle in 1260Guys Tower and Ceasar’s Tower were added at the end of the fourteenth century
27Interesting facts about Warwick Castle The building of wooden Warwick Castle started in 1068The architecture /style – Norman Romanesque and later MedievalBuilt next to the South side of the River AvonIt has over 60 acres groundIt has oubliette (várbörtön), a pit prison
28The changes in Medieval Architecture were made in response to Social and cultural changes during the Medieval eraChanging needs of populationChanges in technology, in terms of building tools, which were availableNew building techniques, construction methodsThe desire for more comfort in castle Interiors