Presentation on theme: "WILDLAND ENGINE OPERATIONS WARDEN AND DEPUTY FOREST FIRE WARDEN"— Presentation transcript:
1 WILDLAND ENGINE OPERATIONS WARDEN AND DEPUTY FOREST FIRE WARDEN PART 2 - TacticsWARDEN AND DEPUTY FOREST FIRE WARDENTRAINING 2008Dept. of Resources and Economic Development
2 General Recommendations Fight fires in fuels consistent with engine capabilitiesUse direct attack whenever possibleAttack flank with greatest potential for escapeUse extreme caution during frontal assaultsBurn out unburned fuels if necessaryReference: FLHB Pages
3 General Recommendations Recognize topography hazardsAvoid fire path of least resistancePreserve area of originRecognize education & experienceConsider needs for additional or specialized resourcesContinually assess L.C.E.S.
4 Arrival on Scene Implement L.C.E.S Size of fire/Plan of Attack Fire environmentLocation of fire headTime of dayValues at riskSufficient resources?Correct tactical decisions always provide for safety first. Comply with Fire Orders and heed watch-out situations.
5 Size-up Considerations FuelsTopographyWeatherFire BehaviorReference: IRPG inside front cover
6 At the Scene Size-Up Weather Wind Temperature Humidity SpeedDirectionTemperatureSolar heating and drying of fuelsHumidityAtmospheric stability
7 LCES Lookout(s) Communications Escape Route(s) Safety Zone(s) ObjectiveHazardCommunicationsFirefightersEscape Route(s)Safety Zone(s)LCES must be established & known to ALL firefighters BEFORE needed
9 Fuel GroupsFor determining strategy and tactics you must identify the following for each fuel group:Rate of spreadReaction to waterMop up time requiredDuration of heat and flameBest engine type utilizedBest method of attack (indirect, direct, or parallel)
10 Fuel GroupsGrassFuel Models 1-3Found in most areas of the country
11 Fuel Group (Grass)Has moderate to high spread and low to moderate fireline intensity (flame length)Reacts very quickly to water and additives.Doesn’t require as much mopup as in the other three fuel groups.Short duration of heat and flames.Engine types 3-7 are most effective.Direct mobile attack is effective.
12 Fuel Groups Shrub Fuel models 4-7 Usually shoulder height Some contain natural flammable resins
13 Fuel Group (Shrub) Moderate to high rate of spread. Moderate to high fireline intensity (flame length).Short duration of heat and flame.Engine types 3-7 are most effective.Direct mobile attack is effective.
15 Fuel Group (Timber) Low to moderate rate of spread. Low to high fireline intensity (flame length).Water and additives effectively reduce rate of spread.Usually requires more mopup then the grass and shrub fuel groups.Engine types 3-7 are most effective.Direct mobile attack with engine may be effective depending on flame length and terrain.
16 Fuel Groups Logging Slash Fuel models 11-13 Ranges from light to heavy fuel loading
17 Fuel Group (Logging Slash) Low to high rate of spread.Low to very high fireline intensity (flame length).Water and additives may react slowest in this fuel group.Requires the most mopup of the four fuel groups.Long duration of heat and flame.Engine types 3-7 are most effective.Indirect attack is most often effective due to fuel loading.
19 Fire Attack TacticsMobileStationaryInside-OutTandemPincerEnvelopmentCorrect Tactical Decisions Always Consider Safety First!
20 Direct Attack ?Constructing a fireline right on the fire perimeter. Keep one foot (or tire) in the black and one in the unburned area.What are some of the advantages?What are some of the disadvantages?Reference: IRPG page 9
22 Direct Attack Advantages If necessary, crews can escape to safety in burned areas.The fire is stopped with least spread and minimum acreage.Full advantage is taken of burned out areas along the control line.Need for burning out is reduced.
24 Direct Attack Disadvantages Personnel subject to heat, smoke and flame.Control line is long and irregular and must follow fire edge.Does not always take advantage of natural fire barriers.Less effective against extremely fast moving hot fires.Potential for reburn.
25 Safety Considerations Consider the following to ensure the safety of your assigned personnel:Fight fire in fuels consistent with engine capabilities.Use direct attack when possible.Attack flank with greatest potential for escape.Burn out unburned fuels after coordinating with adjoining forces.
26 Safety Considerations, Continued Use extreme caution during frontal assaults.Avoid fire path of least resistance and recognize topography hazards (chimneys, chutes, Saddles).Preserve area of origin.Be aware of environmental factors.Recognize education and experience.
27 Pincer AttackDirect attack around fire in opposite directions by two or more enginesSafest to anchor at rear of fire, flank the fire, and cut off the headIdentify & flag anchor point(s)Make sure everyone knows the anchor point(s)
28 Pincer-direct attack around a fire on opposite flanks by two or more fire control resources.
29 Tandem Fire Attack Two engines used in a mobile attack First engine crew hits hot spots, second crew totally extinguishes fireVery safe - one engine can help another in times of need.
30 Direct attack alonga part of the fire perimeter by two or more fire control resources. Control resources follow each other (can leap frog)
31 Envelopment TacticInvolves striking critical segments or structures at the same timeDifferent anchor points are required for each resourceEngines move towards each other, tying lines togetherAttack MUST be well coordinated
32 Envelopment Tactic Most complicated attack Trying to do as much as you can as fast as possibleRequires good communications & experienced crewsGood method for interface situations
33 Critical areas are attacked first, Using the hotspotting technique, then the engines start movingtowards each other.
34 Parallel AttackConstructing a fireline parallel to, but further from, the fire perimeter than in direct attack.
36 Constructing a fireline parallel to, but further from, the fire perimeterthan direct attack, due to fire intensity.May shorten line by cutting across unburnedfingers. Intervening strips of fuel are immediatelyburned out.
37 Parallel Attack Works well with engines in tandem Safer to anchor a wet line & flank the fire instead of attacking headLine firing personnel must be qualified!Quicker than direct attackReduces heat & smoke exposureSafety may be compromised prior to burning out
38 Parallel Attack, Advantages May shorten line by cutting across unburned fingers.Shortened line reduces actual line construction.Personnel exposed to a reduced amount of heat and smoke.
39 Parallel Attack, Disadvantages Requires personnel experienced in burning out.Personnel do not always have access to the black for safety.Safety may be compromised prior to the time that the unburned fuel can be burned out.
40 Indirect AttackConstructing a fireline some distance from the fire perimeter.Reference: IRPG page 10
42 Indirect Attack Timing and Coordination are critical!
43 Firing Operations Make sure firing is necessary. Do not fire without consulting command and obtaining approval.Coordinate firing operation with those around you.May have to wait for favorable conditions.Make sure you have adequate holding forces.
44 Indirect Attack, Advantages Permits easier work for crew because there is less smoke, heat and flame contact.May reduce length and irregularity of fire edge and control line.Permits crews to take advantage of natural fire barriers.Reduces danger of slopovers.
45 Hand Crews can be used to: Construct handlineConduct site preparationSet up hose laysSupport engine crewsConduct burn out operationsMop up and patrolCrew Production Rates-IRPG Page 88
46 Indirect Attack, Disadvantages Fire can catch firefighters working in unburned fuel..Fire can outflank firefighters and put crew in jeopardy.Increased acreage burned.Burning out can cause control problems.Burnout operations must be well coordinated.
47 Simple Hose LayA hose lay consisting of consecutively coupled lengths of hose without laterals.The lay is extended by inserting additional lengths of hose in the line between pump and nozzle.Can be utilized instead of the live reel in mobile attack.
49 Stationary Attack Popular on smaller incidents. Utilizes progressive hose lays for more efficient water delivery.Removes engine from ability to quickly & safely respond elsewhere on incident.Consider folding tanks or natural water sources & replace engine with a portable pump.
51 Progressive Hose LayA hose lay in which gated wyes are inserted in the main line at intervals.Lateral lines are run from wyes to the fire edge.Permits continuous application of water during extension of hose lay.Utilized during stationary attack when access via engine is not available.
52 Progressive HoselayCharged lengths of hose are connected and extended from the engine. Laterals are put in for hot spots and mop-up.
53 Mobile AttackMobility is essential for most efficient engine operations.Mobile attack best when combined with hand crews.Utilize simple hose lays from engine to reduce time in re-location or demobilization.
54 Mobile Attack Fastest & most effective method Nozzle operator always in view of driverFollow up with hose & hand toolsRequires pump & roll capabilityAll-wheel drive desirableShort wheel base best for off-road situationsTwo nozzles best in heavier fires
59 Inside-Out Tactic Direct attack on head or flanks from the black Excellent for light fuelsGood safety for personnelAlways have a charged line to protect the engineWatch for hot material!
60 (Working from inside the black) “Inside Out”(Working from inside the black)
61 Situations Where Mobile Attack With Engines Should Not Be Used? Firefighter safety is jeopardized.Poor fireline access.Terrain is too rough to travel.Long turnaround times to obtain water.Frontal attacks with fast flame spread.Attacking long flame lengths.Fuels too dense to negotiate.
62 Utilize a Combination of Attacks If the direct attack is not working, start thinking about going parallel or indirect attack.Be Flexible
63 Alternate Methods To Accomplish Assigned Task Use of hand tools.Use of backpack pumps.Use spare pump to work with other engine crews to accomplish the assigned task.Request assistance when necessary.
64 Responsibilities In The Event Of Engine Or Equipment Breakdown Keep your supervisor informed.Re-evaluate safety considerations.Keep assigned personnel informed of any changes in the tactical assignment.Keep adjacent forces informed.
65 THANK YOU! Continue your engine training with PART 3 - Exercises REMEMBER SAFETY IS EVERYONE’S RESPONSIBILITY!