Presentation on theme: "Insects Attacking Forest Products. Introduction Much damage to timber and finished wood products Damage to cut timber and finished products especially."— Presentation transcript:
Hosts: Boxelder Maples – Many species Horse chestnut Mulberry Poplar – Many species Black Locust Willow – several species Elm - Chinese
Asian Longhorned beetle is unusual: 1) It attacks healthy trees 2) It spends major part of life cycle in Phloem, not Xylem 3) It kills healthy trees 4) Adults feed on the twig bark of healthy trees. Wounds serve as entry sites for pathogens.
4 th instar larvae and/or pupae commonly infest wood used for shipping crates and arrive alive in US. Untreated wood is commonly used for shipping crates and pallets = ‘dunage’
First found in Brooklyn, NY - 1996 Second infestation found in Long Island, NY in 1996 Later, in 1999 found in Chicago, IL 2002 – established infestation in Jersey City, New York Quarantined area within a 1.5 mile radius of site – all trees were cut & burned
Management & Control Cut infested trees and burn. Clear cut trees around infestation. Strengthened importation rules on crates using wood & dunage. Believed to be eradicated & not yet established.
Emerald ash borer: Newly introduced pest Discovered 2002 in Michigan Attacks all species of Fraxinus, as well as some Ulmus, & Juglans spp. Larval galleries girdle branches and trees Trees often die 2-3 years after Infestation Established!
Since 2002: Emerald Ash Borer Killed at least 8 - 10 million ash trees in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana. Most of the mortality is in southeastern Michigan. Resulted in quarantines in Ohio, Indiana and Michigan and fines to prevent infested ash trees, logs or firewood from moving out of areas where EAB occurs. Cost municipalities, property owners, nursery operators and forest products industries tens of millions of dollars.
Emerald Ash Borer: Signs/Symptoms Distinct, D-shaped exit holes in the bark Serpentine-shaped tunnels under the bark on the surface of the wood Young sprout growth clustered at the base of the tree Unusual activity by woodpeckers Die-back on the top third of the tree Vertical splits in the bark
Management & Control 1.Quarantine of wood/trees Intra- and Inter-state from Michigan with stiff fines 2. Early detection in quarantined areas 3.Eradication of infested material 4.Researching possible insecticide use – expensive and difficult
Many customers demand high quality, defect free lumber. Especially the export markets Holes in wood, or stains not acceptable. Bundled timber with insect damage must be unpacked, sorted repacked. Management for beetles expensive and adds to lumber costs. Ambrosia Beetle
Striped Ambrosia Beetle - Conifers Trypodendron lineatum Degrades wood of all conifer species
Over-winters in stump & logging debris Flies in spring to felled trees or logs Females produce pheromone / mate Tunnels into sap wood of tree and lays eggs in the “Cradles” Inoculates fungus which stains wood black Mycelia gardens – food for larvae & adults Insect Biology
1.Timber must be used & processed quickly / kiln dry 2.Keep wood wet - sprinklers 3.Use insecticides or repellants on log decks. 4.Set pheromones away from deck (Last two steps significantly increase lumber costs) Management
Primary southern pine Ambrosia beetle Platypus flavicornis Attacks weakened, dying or fresh cut pines. Attack pine bark beetle killed trees within 5-10 days. Infest sapwood and heart wood by the hundreds of insects. Produces piles of fluffy, white boring dust at base of infested trees. Reduce value of salvaged timber.
Timber must be used & processed quickly / kiln dry Get to beetle spots quickly Keep wood wet Management Platypus flavicornis
While most ambrosia beetles attack weakened, dying or dead trees. The Columbian timber beetle prefers healthy trees. Ambrosia Beetles in Hardwoods Columbian Timber Beetle Corthylus columbianus
Over-winters in litter layer & flies in spring to healthy trees Males produce pheromone to attract females Female tunnels in sapwood and lays eggs in “cradles’ 2-3 generations / year Fungal stains – extend several cm from galleries Degrades wood quality so it can’t be used for Veneer or Furniture Insect Biology
Formosan Subterranean Termites Introduced from Asia Doesn’t need access to moisture: 25% w/o soil contact. Barriers installed in homes don’t work. Larger colonies More aggressive Summer/Spring wood Chew through plastic, asphalt and soft metal