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Insects Attacking Forest Products. Introduction Much damage to timber and finished wood products Damage to cut timber and finished products especially.

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Presentation on theme: "Insects Attacking Forest Products. Introduction Much damage to timber and finished wood products Damage to cut timber and finished products especially."— Presentation transcript:

1 Insects Attacking Forest Products

2 Introduction Much damage to timber and finished wood products Damage to cut timber and finished products especially serious because damage comes after much investment Estimated – 1-5 % annual cut

3 Insects attacking living trees Insects attacking cut trees Insects attacking wood in use

4 Asian Longhorned Beetle Anoplophora glabripennis Newly introduced insect menace

5 Egg Larva 4 instars Pupa Adult

6 Asian Longhorned Beetle Life cycle Beetles spend most of life in tree. Very difficult do control

7 Beetle exit holes are ½ in or more in diameter Adults can fly 100’s of feet to infest new trees Damage / ID

8 Asian longhorned Beetle damage

9 Dead branches on Asian LHB infested tree

10 Hosts: Boxelder Maples – Many species Horse chestnut Mulberry Poplar – Many species Black Locust Willow – several species Elm - Chinese

11 Asian Longhorned beetle is unusual: 1) It attacks healthy trees 2) It spends major part of life cycle in Phloem, not Xylem 3) It kills healthy trees 4) Adults feed on the twig bark of healthy trees. Wounds serve as entry sites for pathogens.

12 4 th instar larvae and/or pupae commonly infest wood used for shipping crates and arrive alive in US. Untreated wood is commonly used for shipping crates and pallets = ‘dunage’

13 Difficult inspection job for APHIS Officials

14 Serious insect and political problem

15 First found in Brooklyn, NY - 1996 Second infestation found in Long Island, NY in 1996 Later, in 1999 found in Chicago, IL 2002 – established infestation in Jersey City, New York Quarantined area within a 1.5 mile radius of site – all trees were cut & burned

16 Asian longhorned beetle

17 Video of Asian Longhorned beetle

18 Management & Control

19 Quarantines, fines!

20 Management & Control Cut infested trees and burn. Clear cut trees around infestation. Strengthened importation rules on crates using wood & dunage. Believed to be eradicated & not yet established.

21 Emerald ash borer: Newly introduced pest Discovered 2002 in Michigan Attacks all species of Fraxinus, as well as some Ulmus, & Juglans spp. Larval galleries girdle branches and trees Trees often die 2-3 years after Infestation Established!

22 Since 2002: Emerald Ash Borer Killed at least 8 - 10 million ash trees in Michigan, Ohio and Indiana. Most of the mortality is in southeastern Michigan. Resulted in quarantines in Ohio, Indiana and Michigan and fines to prevent infested ash trees, logs or firewood from moving out of areas where EAB occurs. Cost municipalities, property owners, nursery operators and forest products industries tens of millions of dollars.


24 Emerald Ash Borer: Signs/Symptoms Distinct, D-shaped exit holes in the bark Serpentine-shaped tunnels under the bark on the surface of the wood Young sprout growth clustered at the base of the tree Unusual activity by woodpeckers Die-back on the top third of the tree Vertical splits in the bark

25 Emerald ash borer – stages/damage

26 Management & Control 1.Quarantine of wood/trees Intra- and Inter-state from Michigan with stiff fines 2. Early detection in quarantined areas 3.Eradication of infested material 4.Researching possible insecticide use – expensive and difficult


28 Insects attacking recently cut trees

29 Ambrosia Beetles Early observers noted droplets of a fluid in the beetle galleries. Called it “ambrosia” hence their name Found in both conifer and hardwood tree species

30 General Feeding Habits of Ambrosia Beetles 1.Invade wood but do not feed on phloem or xylem 2. Inoculate galleries in the xylem with fungus, adults and larvae feed on mycelium

31 Ambrosia beetle stages & damage

32 Ambrosia beetles attack: Felled trees Weakened trees Logs & green lumber Entire shipments damaged Degrade wood value Small holes Fungal stains

33 Ambrosia beetle immatures in “cradles” LarvaPupaNew Adult Main gallery Pupa

34 Damage

35 Holes / Staining

36 Staining in veneer log

37 Many customers demand high quality, defect free lumber. Especially the export markets Holes in wood, or stains not acceptable. Bundled timber with insect damage must be unpacked, sorted repacked. Management for beetles expensive and adds to lumber costs. Ambrosia Beetle

38 Striped Ambrosia Beetle - Conifers Trypodendron lineatum Degrades wood of all conifer species


40 Over-winters in stump & logging debris Flies in spring to felled trees or logs Females produce pheromone / mate Tunnels into sap wood of tree and lays eggs in the “Cradles” Inoculates fungus which stains wood black Mycelia gardens – food for larvae & adults Insect Biology

41 Beautiful Damage?

42 1.Timber must be used & processed quickly / kiln dry 2.Keep wood wet - sprinklers 3.Use insecticides or repellants on log decks. 4.Set pheromones away from deck (Last two steps significantly increase lumber costs) Management

43 Primary southern pine Ambrosia beetle Platypus flavicornis Attacks weakened, dying or fresh cut pines. Attack pine bark beetle killed trees within 5-10 days. Infest sapwood and heart wood by the hundreds of insects. Produces piles of fluffy, white boring dust at base of infested trees. Reduce value of salvaged timber.

44 Ambrosia Beetle boring dust

45 Timber must be used & processed quickly / kiln dry Get to beetle spots quickly Keep wood wet Management Platypus flavicornis

46 While most ambrosia beetles attack weakened, dying or dead trees. The Columbian timber beetle prefers healthy trees. Ambrosia Beetles in Hardwoods Columbian Timber Beetle Corthylus columbianus

47 Over-winters in litter layer & flies in spring to healthy trees Males produce pheromone to attract females Female tunnels in sapwood and lays eggs in “cradles’ 2-3 generations / year Fungal stains – extend several cm from galleries Degrades wood quality so it can’t be used for Veneer or Furniture Insect Biology

48 Columbia Timber beetles

49 Columbian Timber Beetle Damage

50 No effective control available Usually controlled by not selecting infested trees or culling on log decks Management - Columbian Ambrosia Beetle

51 Flatheaded Borers or Metallic Wood Borers

52 Flatheaded Borer Larva – note “V”

53 Round-headed Borers or Longhorned borers

54 Locust Borer Adult - Cerambycidae

55 Borer Damage on Black Locust

56 Cottonwood Borer Adult

57 Longhorned Borer: Adults, larvae & damage

58 Insects attacking wood in use

59 Powderpost beetles Coleoptera Adult Lyctus sp

60 Powderpost beetle damage


62 Chlorpyrifos Cyfluthrin Cypermethrin Permethrin

63 Carpenter Ants Order – Hymenoptera

64 Carpenter ant damage

65 Carpenter Bee & damage Unpainted/stained wood Paint/stain Chlorpyrifos etc Tennis racket

66 Native Subterranean Termites Order – Dictyoptera or Isoptera Must have access to moisture. Barriers installed in homes. Soil treatments: Cypermethrin Fenvalarate Imidacloprid


68 Formosan Subterranean Termites Introduced from Asia Doesn’t need access to moisture: 25% w/o soil contact. Barriers installed in homes don’t work. Larger colonies More aggressive Summer/Spring wood Chew through plastic, asphalt and soft metal

69 Current range of FST

70 Drywood Termites Order – Dictyoptera or Isoptera Need little or no water Smaller colonies Less damage

71 End of wood product pests

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