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Cruising Timber 1

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Objectives 1.To evaluate the importance of measuring timber. 2.To identify tools used in measuring trees. 3.To understand how to measure trees. 4.To identify formulas used in determining tree volume. 2

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Cruising Timber Is the practice of field measurement and estimation of potential harvest volumes Is the process of measuring and recording the diameter, height, species, product and grade of trees Is often used before timber harvest to estimate the volume of standing timber to be harvested 3

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Standing Tree & Log Volumes Are essential for a purchaser of timber harvest products to determine the volume of timber before purchasing Can be measured using a scale stick for the following: –tree diameter –number of 16-foot logs –length of pulpwood in a tree –diameter and length of saw logs 4

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Terminology Diameter: the width of a circle Radius: the measurement of the exact center of a circle or trunk to the outside edge Circumference: the distance around a circle or trunk π = 3.14 and is pronounced pi 5

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Standing Tree Measurement Tools Include the following: –diameter tape is a tape used to measure the diameter of a tree when wrapped around the circumference of a tree trunk it reads the diameter directly –Biltmore stick is similar to a yard stick is used to measure the height of a tree 6

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Standing Tree Measurement Includes the following measurements: –tree diameter –tree height 7

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Tree Diameter Is the most important tree measurement when cruising timber Is measured diameter at breast height, DBH –is measured 4.5 feet from the base of the tree –can use either diameter stick or Biltmore stick –diameter tape should be tightly wrapped around the tree 8

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Biltmore Stick Is also known as a cruiser’s stick Resembles a wooden yardstick with a diameter scale stamped on the edge Measures tree diameter in the following ways: –place stick crosswise against the tree 4.5 feet above ground about 25 inches from your eye –adjust stick so it looks like it extends to the left side of the tree –move your eye and look at the right side of the tree and the number which intersects the stick is the trees diameter 25 inches from your eye is normally arms length. Tree Fact 9

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Tree Diameter Can be measured without a diameter tape or Biltmore stick –measure the circumference of the trunk –use the following formula to determine diameter circumference ÷ π = diameter nrcs.usda.gov 10

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Tree Height Is determined by using a clinometer –measures the amount of rise in 100 feet –first – user paces out 100 feet from the tree –second – user sights the tree and the stump and reads the scale on the clinometer if uphill from stump, measure stump at eye level and add the tree height if downhill from stump, measure stump at eye level and subtract the tree height 11

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Merchantable Tree Height Is the measurement from the stump to the point were the tree is too small to be valuable Is measured with a Biltmore stick –has Merritt Hypsometer on edge and calculates the number of 16 foot logs –first – user paces 66 feet away from the tree –second – user holds the stick 25 inches from the eye and lines the bottom of stick with stump –third – user reads the number of logs or partial logs on sticks 12

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Board Foot Board foot – a unit of volume for timber equal to 144 cubic inches. 1 foot Wide x 1 foot Length x 1 inch Thick 12 inches Wide x 12 inches Length x 1 inch Thick Width(inches) x Length(inches) x Thickness(inches) 144 13

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Stand Measurement Is measured for the following reasons: –forest management planning –forest health monitoring –timber appraisal 14

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Stand Measurement Is normally measured in with sampling techniques or small sample plots to gather information about the forest Can be measured by a sampling technique called a timber cruise which is accurate when applied correctly 15

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Cruising Timber Includes the following steps: –locate a good map of the forest –be familiar with the variation of the timber types –establish sample points use around 10 percent of the stand draw grid lines on the map 16

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Establishing Grid Lines Includes the following: –evenly place point centers on stands –begin with 30 points and if stand is variable add more points –distance between the points will be based on the scale of the map –use a compass to move from one point to another 17

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Cruising Timber Includes the following steps: –collect data at sample point which includes the following tools: compass measuring tape prism diameter tape or Biltmore stick hypsometer tally sheet 18

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Collecting Data Preformed by doing the following: –at each point, hold prism over the point and look through prism at trees in a circle around the point –if tree is within the prism, measure the diameter, merchantable height and volume –record the measurements on a tally sheet –use a different tally sheet for each point 19

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Cruising Timber Includes the following steps: –summarize data use formulas or tables to determine the volume of forest per acre 20

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Volume Formulas Include the following for sawtimber: –trees average one to two 16-foot logs (number of 16-foot logs in countable trees × 650) ÷ number of point samples = board feet per acre –trees average 2.5 or more 16-foot logs (number of 16-foot logs in countable trees × 600) ÷ number of point samples = board feet per acre 21

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Volume Formulas Include the following for pulpwood or cords: –(number of 8-foot sticks in countable trees + number of countable trees) ÷ (2 × number of point samples) = cords per acre –trees average two to three sticks (number of 8-foot sticks in countable trees × 0.7) ÷ number of point samples = cords per acre –trees average four sticks or more (number of 8-foot sticks in countable trees × 0.6) ÷ number of point samples = cords per acre 22

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Volume Tables Are provided by the USDA Forest Service –www.fs.fed.uswww.fs.fed.us 23

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Assessment 1.____________________ is the practice of field measurement and estimation of potential harvest volumes. 2.Cruising timber is often used before timber harvest to estimate the volume of standing timber to be harvested. a.true b.false 24

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Assessment 3._______________ is the width of a circle. 4.Name two tools which measure tree diameter. 5.________________ is the tool used to measure tree height. 25

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Assessment 6.Tree diameter is measured at the base of the tree close to the ground. a.true b.false 26

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References Measuring Standing Trees & Logs www.ext.vt.edu Tree & Stand Measurement extension.unh.edu Measuring Trees and Estimating Volume learningstore.uwex.edu Using the Tree Measuring Stick ohioline.osu.edu How to Measure Trees and Logs extension.missouri.edu 27

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Acknowledgements Project Coordinator: Meghan Blanek Production Manager: Dusty Moore Executive Producers: Gordon Davis, Ph.D., Jeff Lansdell Production Coordinator: Brandon O’Quinn Graphic Designer: Ann Adams © MMIX CEV Multimedia, Ltd. 28

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