2Contingency Operations References:[a] COMSECONDNCB/COMTHIRDNCBINST Rapid Runway Repair[b] ABFC View Program, https://ncf.navy.mil/abfcview/abfcviewabout.cfm[c] UT Basic Vol. 2, p 2-1[d] CE Basic p 3-21[e] FM 5-277, Bailey Bridge
4Contingency Operations [j] CIN , Airfield Damage Repair Crew Training Guide[k] Mabey Johnson User Manual[l] Training Guide for Command Post Bunker S[m] Training Guide for Observation Tower S[n] Training Guide Heavy Construction 1 A
5OVERVIEW Airfield Damage Repair (ADR) Methods of (ADR) Battalion Tent Camp LayoutCamp MaintenanceTransportable BridgesHeavy Timber Construction
6Level IA Level I schedule lists all of the projects assigned and contains a broad schedule for each project. The schedule also includes a planned rate of accomplishment for the entire deployment.
7Level IAfter the operations officer has balanced the estimated workload against the battalion’s manpower skills and equipment the Level I is submitted through the chain of command up to the Commanding Officer.The level I is updated by the Operations Officer .
8NCF LEVEL II Used by company CDRs, Ops Project specific By master activityBi-weekly bar chartQuick view of project progressPlanned progress verses actual progress curveSitrep input to S3 biweeklySitrep input to brigade monthly
12Contingency Operations PQS Question 106.1Describe the duties of the following Rapid Runway Repair (RRR)/ Airfield Damage Repair teams and state what type of equipment is necessary to perform their mission under Battle Damage repair (BDR)/RRR. [ref.a, ch. III]MOS [Annex C]DAT [Annex]Crater/Spall [Annex E,F]
13Airfield Damage Repair The most important mission of the NCF after an airfield has been attacked.Mission of an NMCB (as tasked by MEF)Repair airfield pavement and facilities. Enables mission essential aircraft to launch and recover.
14Airfield Damage Repair Airfield Damage Repair PrioritiesDamage AssessmentRough InitialDetailedEstablish an MOS (Minimum Operating Strip)Temporary repair of taxiways and parking apronsEstablish secondary or back-up operating stripsPermanently repair all airstrips and taxiways
15ADR Phases Airfield Damage Repair Planning Mobilization: NMCB personnel and equipment ready for ADR on-site and other deployment sitesPre-attack:Staging and stockpiling operationsPost-attack:Temporary repairs to runways and facilitiesAirfield restoration:Permanent repairs and expansion
16Airfield Damage Repair Training Requirements46 personnel – E-6 & below ADR Level ICrew leaders, DATs20 personnel – E-5 & above ADR Level IICommand center personnel, crew chiefs, OIC/AOIC6 personnel – E-6 & below Crete mobile(All FOD cover crew leaders)72 personnel total trained in battalion
17ADR OPERATIONS Establish Station Command Center Establish Battalion Command CenterEstablish Damage assessment teamsEstablish communications networkSurvey Area (DAT)Recommend Repairs to Air OpsMake Repairs
18Contingency Operations PQS Question 106.1Describe the duties of the following Rapid Runway Repair (RRR)/ Airfield Damage Repair teams and state what type of equipment is necessary to perform their mission under Battle Damage repair (BDR)/RRR. [ref.a, ch. III]MOS [Annex C]DAT [Annex]Crater/Spall [Annex E,F]
19(MOS) Minimum Operating Strip MOS- The launch and recovery surface selected for repair is called the minimum operating strip (MOS). The MOS is the area from which aircraft actually takeoff and land.When a MOS is combined with access taxiways from aircraft staging areas such as shelters and parking ramps, the entire area becomes the minimum airfield operating surface (MAOS).
20Battalion Liaison Officer MOS Selection Team (Primary & Alternate) MOS TeamBattalion Liaison OfficerOICAOICMOS Selection Team (Primary & Alternate)Team ChiefSelectorPlotterCommunicator
21MOS Selection Team1 – Receives information from damage assessment teams2 – Plot ALL damage on runway map3 – Maintain Status Boards4 – Select new runway location5 – Determine size of new runway6 – Determine quality of repair for craters in new MOS
22MOS Kit Transparent templates for marking MOS Plotting board Critical resource chartsTransparent circle templates that match the airfield map scaleMarkers, Pens, PencilsBase map 1:4800 scale (1”=400’)Air Field Map 1:1200 scale (1”=100’)
23Damage Assessment Team Responsible for ALL members on the Damage Assessment TeamOrganizes & directs the team down the runway.Receives all information from Damage Assessment Team membersEnsures ALL information is accurately transmitted to the MOS selection team.5 members (1 EOD, 2 Public Works, 2 Seabees)
25Explosive Ordnance Reconnaissance Report Type & LocationGrid CoordinatesRadiological ResultsDescriptive informationDetailed Drawing of UXOELEVATION VIEWCLOCK METHOD
26ADR FactorsAircraft Type and Load. Each aircraft has distinct characteristics (e.g., wing span, tire pressure, load capacity, braking mechanism.) Available Material. The type and quantity of material (e.g., backfill, crushed stone, fiberglass mat) available for a repair. Available Equipment. The type and quantity of CESE available for a repair. Time Constraints. The time allotted to accomplish the repairs before the first aircraft arrival or departure. Repair Crew Capability/Equipment/Manpower. The repair crew’s capacity for the task (e.g., experience, number of repair people, resource availability). Type of Damage Sustained
27Airfield Damage ABFC P-36 RRR – Ref. Manual Crater: is damage that penetrates through the pavement surface into the underlying base and subgrade soil uplifting the surrounding pavement and ejecting soil, rock, and pavement debris around the impact area. Craters represent much more severe damage than spalls.Large craters: diameter equal to or greater than 4.57 m (15 ft). Small craters: diameter less than 4.57 m (15 ft).ABFC P-36 RRR – Ref. ManualSpall: is damage that does not penetrate through the pavement surface to the underlying layers. Spalls may be up to 1.52 m (5 ft) in diameter.
29Crater Crew Chief Responsible for crater crew Responsible for the FOD cover crewEach crew responsible for two cratersEnsures proper repair criterion is metReceives and relays input to & from crew leaders and ADR OIC
30Crater Repairs Crush Stone Repairs Sand Grid Crush stone without a FOD cover – quickest (taxiways & parking aprons)Crush stone with FOD cover – higher cost from FOD cover useCheap crushed stone repair – least expensiveChoked ballast repair – when water is presentSand GridRequires FOD coverHeight of sub-base criticalRegulated Set Portland CementBatched from ‘Crete Mobile’6” – 12” thick (set in 20 – 30 minutes, 2500 psi in 2 hours)(traffic ready)Precast SlabsCold weather climates (European theater)Need specialty tools
33Spall Repair Silikal Set in 8 to 30 minutes Highly flammable above 32 degrees with additiveTraffic ready within 1 to 2 hoursCold mix asphaltLife of repair ~ 100 sortiesMagnesium phosphateCan extend mix by adding 50% gravel by volumeRegulated set Portland CementInitial set is degrees
34106 Contingency Operations PQS Question 106.2Describe the following methods of RRR/ADR:Folded Fiberglass MattingAM-2 aluminum mattingCrete mobile
35Folded Fiberglass Matting This procedure is currently the primary MOS repair method. It involves the installation of an anchored FFM over a crater which was prepared with a layer of well-compacted crushed stone. Crater preparation is essentially identical to that used with the AM-2 matting system. Again, this is the principle method of ADR employed for MOS repairs.The FFM is air-transportable, can be moved easily by vehicles, can be positioned at greater distances from airfield pavement surfaces, and must be stored indoors out of the elements.
36Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic FOD CoversFolded Fiberglass MattingTwo patches per kit¼” thick 6’ wide, 30’ long30’ x 54’ patch – bolted together 60’ x 54’ patchTow into positionAnchor Leading and Trailing edge onlyDo not store in direct sunlightCan be used as flush finishUsed primarily on runway and taxiway
37Fiberglass Reinforced Plastic FOD CoversBolted Fiberglass Matting (FRP)Air shippable 8’x 8’x 20’ ISO container1/4” – 3/8” thick4 small patches or 1 large patch per containerTow into positionAll tools contained in each kitDo not store in direct sunlightCan be used as flush finishUsed primarily on runway and taxiwayAverage weight 2,144 lbsOne small patch is 32’ x 32’ 9”One large patch is 62’ x 69’ 4”
38AM-2 Aluminum MattingHand-assembled and anchored over the crater which was prepared with a layer of crushed stone. This repair surface is the most manpower intensive of the two primary ADR techniques
40AM-2 Aluminum Matting Primarily used on taxiway and parking apron Package contains matting, tools and accessories to assemble 54’ x 72’ FOD cover5 boxes contains 9 bundles of AM MattingCan be towed from side to sideMust be centered on the taxiwayAM2 patch is 54’ x 77’Must be towed by two pieces of like equipmentAM2 Matting cannot be a flush repair
41Crushed Stone Repair Clear debris from the crater perimeter. Determine the actual crater diameter versus the apparent crater diameter, i.e., the extent of crater pavement damage/upheaval.Remove the up-heaved pavement.Remove large objects 36” or larger and water from inside the crater, as required.Backfill the crater with ejecta, ballast rock, or clean fill.Backfilling the crater with crushed stone.Compaction of the crushed stone.
42Crushed Stone RepairInstall a 12” layer of crushed stone over the backfill material.Compact the crushed stone material in lifts approx 6” thick.Compact each lift of crushed stone using a minimum of four initial passes of a single-drum vibratory rollerFinal compaction with 28 passesRoll done parallel to runwayFor every inch above runway surface 3’ taper required
44Crete mobileThe trailer-mounted crete mobile carries the cement, sand, and coarse aggregates in divided bins on the unit.Sand and aggregates are proportioned accurately by weight or volume with cement mixture and water and mixed.The mixing process will proceed until the aggregate bins are empty.Material feed to project can be stopped and started at any point to allow finishing crews to continue at a steady pace.
45PavementAsphalt Pavements. Anchoring in asphalt pavement requires a 9.5-inch bolt and polymer. A hole 10 inches deep and 1.5 inches in diameter is drilled at the center of each predrilled mat hole. A two-part resin polymer is mixed and poured into each hole to about 0.5 inch below the surface of the pavement. An anchor bushing and bolt are immediately placed into each hole and pressed firmly (standing on the bolt and bushing) against the mat. The polymer will harden in about three minutes. Unless extra people are available, there may not be time to drill all the holes before beginning to pour the polymer
46106Contingency Operations PQS Question 106.3Explain the fundamentals of a typical Battalion tent camp layout.
47Tent Camp Layout Tactical Sufficient space for command dispersion Concealment from ground and air observationProtection from bombing and strafing attacksProtection from mechanized attack
48Tent Camp Layout Sanitary Water supply Drainage Shade Access Site not occupied by other units in last two months
51Camp MaintenanceControl Inspections - A control inspection reviews all camp facilities to determine the maintenance required during a deployment to preserve or improve the condition of the camp structures and property.It is the foundation for the camp maintenance program and workload.A control inspection is conducted within the first 30 days of a deployment.
52Camp MaintenanceAnnual Inspection Summary – The AIS report documents deficiencies in camp facilities.AIS reports are produced annually.Validating deficiencies and costs is important to justify the money to support the proper maintenance and repair of camp facilities.
53Camp MaintenanceOperator Inspections –consist of examining and making minor adjustments.Are performed by the operator assigned to the equipment.Are part of the operator's day-to-day responsibilities.
54Camp MaintenanceThese inspections occur before, during, and after operation of the equipment.Operator inspection of constantly used equipment is another form of PM.
55Camp MaintenanceTrouble Desk attendant receives all customer trouble calls, enters this information into the trouble desk log and fills out emergency/service authorization forms.Trouble desk attendant makes sure that ESA forms are properly routed and that outstanding ESA’s are completed within the required deadlines.
56106 Contingency Operations PQS Question 106.4Explain the purpose of maintaining operators logs for generators and boilers [ref. c]
57Camp Maintenance Operators Log Daily operating logs are kept on some Equipment. The main purpose for using operating logs is to continuously record data on equipment performance
58Ground Rods Ground Rods Grounding protects human life, the generator, and the distribution systemProvides a path for electrical current to earth
59Generator ShelteringGenerator sheltering protects and prolongs the life of advance-base portable generatorsProtects the equipment from rain, wind, and other adverse conditionsGood for noise discipline during contingency operations
60106 Contingency Operations PQS Question 106.5Discuss the following transportable bridges:Bailey BridgeMedium Girder BridgeMabey Johnson Bridge
72Bailey BridgeThrough-type metal truss bridge with heavy timber decking, roadway carried between two main girders.Highly mobile and versatile bridge, can span a variety of gapsTransported in 5-ton dump & 40 ton trailerQuickly assembled by manpower, personnel12’-6” wide, can span up to 210’
73Bailey Bridge Configurations: Single / Single bridge, 100’ Double / Single bridge 140’Double / Double bridge 180’
74Bailey Bridge Launched and de-launched via roller system Additional bays are added to counter balance during launching and de-launchingComponents:Truss panel - form girder, 5’ x 10’ panelTransom - main support, 10” x 20’ flange beamStringer - 10’ steel beams
75Bailey Bridge Chess - 2” x 8” x 14’ wood decking Rollers - launching & de-launchingBearing & base platesRampsVarious pins, clamps, braces, tie plates, bolts, jacks, and carrying bars and tongs
77Medium Girder Bridges MGB is a two girder deck bridge Launched and de-launched via roller system and 5 ton dump.Three types of MGB’sSingle story MGBDouble story MGBLinked reinforced MGB
78Medium Girder BridgesTransported to site via 5 ton dump & 40 ton trailerCrew size 24 to 32 personnelBridge is formed with 2 main girders from a number of panels pinned together.
79Medium Girder BridgesRoadway is formed by hanging deck units between girders and connecting ramps at each end13’-2” wide bridgeUsed for light vehicle loads
80Single Story MGBBridge is formed with 2 main girders from a number of panels pinned together.Roadway is formed by hanging deck units between girders and connecting ramps at each end13’-2” wide bridgeUsed for light vehicle loadsMilitary Load Class (MLC) 70 (tracked) over a length of 32 ft decreasing to MLC 16 at 74 ft
81Double Story MGBUses same parts as single story MGB, with the addition of triangular bottom panels, junction panels, and end taper panels, which make the bridge stronger.Military Load Class (MLC) 70 (tracked) over a length of 102 ft decreasing to MLC 16 at 162 ft
82Link Reinforced MGBReinforced Links are added under each girder for additional supportPermits longer Military Load Class (MLC) 70 bridgesMilitary Load Class (MLC) 70 (T) up to 150 ft and MLC 60 (T) up to 162 ft
84Mabey Johnson BridgeThis bridge is widely used throughout Iraq by US Army Engineers and US Navy Seabee Engineers in fixed and floating configurations. (a.k.a. Logistics Support Bridge)The MJB has replaced aging stocks of Bailey Bridge and Heavy Girder Bridge.
85Mabey Johnson Bridge Carrying Load Capacity: MLC80 Tracked and MLC110 WheeledDesigned to be left in site as a semi-permanent bridge.The modular design of the equipment means it can be constructed in a large number of different configurations, to match various sized gaps throughout the support area.
87Mabey Johnson Bridge Panel chords and Transoms made of 55C Steel. All Structural components are hot dip galvanizedSingle span up to 60mMulti span using intermediate piers or floating pontoons as supportsEasily returned to stock after useCan be assembled by hand if necessaryLargest component weights 700lbs.
91Heavy Timber Bunker Standard Timber Bunker : 10FT X 24FT X 8FT Bill of Materials (BOM): Lumber 3x12x12 / 2x4x12 / 4x12x16 / 10x10x12 / 4x8x16Plywood ¾” X48”X96” Nails: 8D / 16D / 60D Roofing nails, Drift Pins, Sandbags, Chain link fence, fence post, cement, Plastic sheet polyetherine.
92Heavy Timber Bunker Sandbag stacked on all four sides 3’ X 6” opening on all four sides or as requiredSimilar bracing on all four sidesChain liked fence towards the enemyCanopy over entrance for inclement weather protection
97Heavy Timber Tower Bill Of Materials (BOM): 60’ Pile, Treated wood; Lumber, 12”X12”X16’ / 6”X6”X16’/ 2”X4”X12 ; Plywood, Steel Plate , Bolts, Nuts & washers Cement, Nails 60d,16d,8d,Note: For a complete list of all BOM for specific tower height refer to P437 or ABFC View
98Heavy Timber TowerFooting Embedment for all towers is a constant 6’ Below GradeInstead of concrete Footings sandbags can be substituted, 2’ high on top tower roofInterior Plywood Bunker walls are lined with sandbags a minimum of 5’ high.