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Forest sector dynamics: lessons for marine resources?

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Presentation on theme: "Forest sector dynamics: lessons for marine resources?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Forest sector dynamics: lessons for marine resources?

2 Two related, but distinct, issues Deforestation: conversion of forests to other land uses Depletion: harvesting more timber than grows

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4 Global deforestation Between 1990 and 2000, 94 million hectares of forest were lost –About two Californias

5 Deforestation is not occurring everywhere

6 Forest cover increased during in the world’s most populous countries, China and India –And also in the U.S.

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9 Why is the deforestation rate lower in richer countries?

10 Because they are less dependent on agriculture, which uses land

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12 Why is the deforestation rate lower in richer countries? Because they are less dependent on agriculture, which uses land Countries’ economies undergo structural changes as they grow –The share of agriculture decreases, while the shares of manufacturing and services increase –People leave rural areas and move to cities –Agriculture intensifies –Deforestation slows down and may reverse

13 Why is the deforestation rate lower in richer countries? Because they are less dependent on agriculture, which uses land Countries’ economies undergo structural changes as they grow –The share of agriculture decreases, while the shares of manufacturing and services increase –People leave rural areas and move to cities –Agriculture intensifies –Deforestation slows down and may reverse Forest conservation: byproduct of development

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20 The world is not running out of wood Industrialized countries harvest less timber than they grow –Harvest from all sources is 79% of growth in North America, and 59% in Europe Harvest exceeds growth mainly in low- income countries

21 Myth: Consumption in North is driving depletion in South

22 Most of wood harvested in developing countries is fuelwood, not industrial roundwood (only 21%)

23 Myth: Consumption in North is driving depletion in South Most of wood harvested in developing countries is fuelwood, not industrial roundwood (only 21%) Most of industrial roundwood is consumed within countries where it is harvested, not exported (only 20%), directly or indirectly

24 Myth: Consumption in North is driving depletion in South Most of wood harvested in developing countries is fuelwood, not industrial roundwood (only 21%) Most of industrial roundwood is consumed within countries where it is harvested, not exported (only 20%), directly or indirectly Developing countries import more industrial roundwood and wood products than they export (by 18%)

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26 Property rights and scarcity

27 Big institutional difference between forests in North and South: property rights

28 Property rights and scarcity Big institutional difference between forests in North and South: property rights 20 th Century: as timber stocks in old-growth forests depleted, price of timber rose In response: 1.More investment in management of second-growth forests 2.More investment in plantations Today, < 20% of timber (globally) comes from old- growth forests

29 Property rights and scarcity Big institutional difference between forests in North and South: property rights 20 th Century: as timber stocks in old-growth forests depleted, price of timber rose In response: 1.More investment in management of second-growth forests 2.More investment in plantations Today, < 20% of timber (globally) comes from old- growth forests Cheap wood from plantations makes logging of natural forests less profitable –Unintentional conservation

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