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Grand Canyon, Arizona

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2 Grand Canyon, Arizona

3 Yellow Stone National Park

4 Old Faithful, Yellowstone National Park

5 Why study public ownership and management of lands?

6 Public lands  allocated by political processes, not through markets; taxpayer is stakeholder Different types of goods produced by forests Ownership –36% (public), 2% (Native Amer,), 62% (private) Much of federal landholdings are reserved for natural resource purposes Federal agencies have mandates to manage

7 Chapter 12: Public Ownership and Management of Land Text: Cubbage et al., 1992

8 Early American Land Policy Rooted in European cultures but developed differently British crown set up 13 colonies in Atlantic Seaboard. Native Americans –land held in common –used as part of their spiritual beliefs –sustained yield practiced but based on hunting (not farming) Early Americans –fled from British aristocracy control of most lands –land ownership and control very important to new settlers

9 Expanding the Public Domain Resulted from wars, treaties, purchases –Louisiana Purchase (1803, from France) –Texas – annexed (1845) & purchased (1850) –Oregon, WA, Idaho (1846) became territories – Oregon Compromise –CA, NV, UT, AZ, NM (Mexican Treaty (1848) –Alaska (1867, purchased from Russia) –Native American displacements – native lands to reservations

10 Public Land Disposal Federal gov’t once owned 82.5% of land; now owns only 29% Land Ordinance of 1785 Public Land Survey (began in 1785) Gen. Land Office (Treasury Dept.) – estab 1812 to help sell public lands 1862 Homestead Act Grants to states  328 million acres or about 15% of America’s land 1873 Timber Culture Act 1877 Desert Land Sales Act 1872 Mining Law Timber and Stone Act of 1878

11 Looting the Public Domain (Illustration) Puter (1908/1972) -- “Looters of the Public Domain” - chronicled lawlessness as lands transferred hands Timber and Stone Act of 1878 – designed to transfer lands to indiv farmers; resulted to massive transfer of prime timberland to sawmillers & loggers at very low prices Fraud and means to loot public domain -- accounts By 1890: public concerned with disposal process, start of conservation movement calling for reservation of some public forest lands

12 Retaining Public Lands George Perkins Marsh (1864) – triggered first conservation movement with his book Man and Nature (1864) USDI Sec Carl Schurz (1877-81) – leading proponent of forest land protection gov’t control. Federal Forest Reserves of 1891— President can “set apart and reserve … public lands … as forest reserves.” Organic Act of 1897 – defined purposes of forest reserves. John Wesley Powell – 1878 Report on the Lands of theArid Region –suggested federal policy should consider the landscape –Proposed political jurisdictions be organized around watersheds

13 Retaining Public Lands Pres. Harrison & Cleveland – reserved 17.5 million acres by 1893 T. Roosevelt & Pinchot  1907, NFs rose from 38.8 to 140 mill ac Transfer Act of 1905 –forest reserves transfer from USDI to USDA –renamed reserves to “national forests”. Eastern National Forest Purchases (3 laws - land acquisition policy) –1911 Weeks Law – for watershed protection –1924 Clarke-McNary Act – purposes included timber production –1928 McNary-Woodruff Act –limit purchases to < 1 million ac per state

14 Federal Land Management Agencies FederalTotal Area (millions) Managed USDA201.9 Forest Service190.8 USDI432.4 Bu. Indian Affairs 2.7 BLM266.3 Bu. Reclamation 5.7 Fish & Wildlife Service 83.4 National Park Service 74.2 Dept of Defense 26.0 Army Corps of Eng. 5.5 Other 1.9 Total Federal Lands662.2 State & Local155.0 Total government817.2 Total Area of US 2316.0

15 The Department of the Interior USDI created in 1849 (USDA in 1862) 5 agencies under USDI –National Park Service –Fish & Wildlife Service –Bureau of Land Management –Bureau of Indian Affairs –Bureau of Reclamation First forest lands (forest reserves) under USDI Early National Parks –Yellowstone National Park (1872) –Yosemite (1890) Antiquities Act of 1906 – authorized president to proclaim national monuments

16 Grand Canyon, Arizona

17 USDI: National Park Service National Park Service Organic Act of 1916 –“to conserve the scenery and the natural and historic objects and the wildlife therein and to provide for the enjoyment of the same in such a manner and by such means as will leave them unimpaired for the enjoyment of future generations.” The National Park System –1916: 11 national parks, 18 national monuments, and 2 other reservations –1967: there were 32 national parks, 77 national monuments, & 93 other areas (75 mil ac.) 3 Park Land Types –natural, historical, and recreational areas

18 USDI: National Park Service Public Recreation Providers –NPS: best known provider but provides only about 20% of total –Forest Service – biggest provider (40%) – Corps of Engineers provide 25% 1958 ORRRC (Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission) – studied problems due to increased recreation on federal lands Issues identified before are same today! –external threats to federal parks & recreation (air pollution), energy needs, water development, wildlife protection and hunting, private land inholdings, new laws –Internal policies include political appointments taking precedence over professionalism, park responses to use pressures, recreation’s effects on wildlife, recreational damage to vegetation and soils, vandalism and crime in the parks, recreational carrying capacity, and user fees.

19 USDI: Bureau of Reclamation established in 1906 Purposes: irrigation, electric power generation, flood control John Wesley Powell pioneered development of arid West, published report on “Lands of the Arid Regions of the United States” Reclamation Act of 1902 – led to extensive system of dams in West Reclamation Service - established in Geological Survey in 1907 1930s/1940s – Reclamation Era, due to huge no. & sizes of multipurpose water projects 1st major project – Boulder Project (Hoover Dam) on Colorado River

20 USDI: Bureau of Land Management Created in 1946 by combining GAO & Grazing Service The Grazing Service –Created by Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 which ended the disposal of federal public lands –Taylor Grazing Act –established grazing districts, leasing to local stockowners who had a prior use of the range. The New BLM –1964 Public Land Law Review Commission (PLLRC) – reviewed public lands, recommended retention of USDI lands under gov’t control –Classification and Multiple-Use Act of 1964 – authorized BLM to inventory public lands, classify them for disposal or retention

21 USDI: Bureau of Land Management Federal Land Policy & Management Act of 1976 –The BLM’s organic act, gave BLM statutory status as permanent federal agency –Gave BLM a multiple-use mandate, similar to USFS under MUSYAof 1960 –Required comprehensive long-range planning –Authorized a wilderness review of BLM lands, like that of the FS Current BLM Programs –Grazing – remains dominant use of BLM lands –O&C lands (Oregon & California) from railroad companies –Leasing oil & mineral rights on most federal lands

22 USDI: Fish and Wildlife Service established in 1940 –Charge: protection and restoration of migratory, threatened and endangered species of wildlife –From consolidation of former Bu. of Biological Survey (USDA) and Bu. of Fisheries (Dept of Commerce) –Origins in early conservation movement in late 19th century –Jay N. Darling from Iowa – first head of Bu. of Biological Survey

23 USDI: Fish and Wildlife Service A New Agency –Darling fought for wildlife program funding, helped promote Pittman- Robertson Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act of 1937 –Pittman-Robertson authorized an 11% excise tax on sporting arms & ammunition; allocates funds back to states –Dingle-Johnson Act - provided tax on fishing equipment in 1950, expanded to include boats & fuel in 1985 Current Programs –Oversees 443 national wildlife refuges, with more than 90 mill acres (77 million in Alaska, the rest are in continental US_ –Operates about 75 hatcheries, 50 coop research units at state universities, and several research labs –Monitors US wildlife populations, sets migratory bird hunting seasons and limits, and distributes excise tax funds

24 USDI: Bureau of Indian Affairs Created in 1824 by the War Dept, added to USDI in 1849 Charge: provides technical assistance to tribal gov’ts, help to obtain maximum benefits from Native American resources Manages 3 mill ac of federal land on behalf of Native Americans 83 agency offices on reservations; employ about 10,000 people Native Americans have some reserved rights to hunt, fish, and gather wood on other public lands Rights range from unlimited hunting and fishing in many western states to logging timber (gathering wood) on some public lands in the Lake Sates

25 The USDA Forest Service Transfer Act of 1905 – from USDI to USDA –Organic Administration Act of 1897 – established custodial management direction for the Forest Service Land Areas –Owns 190.8 million acres of land in 1987 –National Forest System – 230 million acres; most national forests are in AK & west (155 NFs) –Not all lands are forested; some lands reserved for wilderness, rangelands, etc. –about 4 million acres are formally designated as National Grasslands (23 NGs)

26 The USDA Forest Service Policy and Issues –Use of clear-cutting as a silvicultural tool –Timber harvesting, regardless of methods used –Harvesting of old growth or ancient forests –Road building on national forests –Below-cost timber sales (ex. Harvesting in the Tongass National Forest) –Herbicide & pesticide use –Allowable sale quantities of timber –Site conversions –Silvicultural systems –Withdrawals of multiple use lands for wilderness –Use of timber sale revenues to fund wildlife and recreation management under the Knutson- Vandenburgh Act –Inholdings, recreation pressures, visitor safety, wildlife management (same as in NPS) –Giving local counties payments-in-lieu-of property taxes

27 Other Public Lands The Department of Defense –The Army Corps of Engineers State and Local

28 Modern Public Land Reservations Wilderness (Wilderness Act of 1964) – LBJ signed Sept 3/64; now 91 million acres -- “a wilderness … as an area where the earth and community of life are untrammeled by man, where man himself is a visitor who does not remain.” Howard Zahniser of the Wsociety -- created the National Wilderness Preservation System (in 2010: has 91 million acres) Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968 (2008: 11,000 miles in 166 rivers in 38 states&PR) –Preserve rivers of national significance for present and future generations –As of 1987: 75 river segments about 7709 miles under Wild & Scenic Rivers System –3 classifications: wild rivers, scenic rivers, recreational rivers National Trails – National Trails System Act of 1968 (2010: 50,000 miles) –Designed to preserve scenic and interesting trail routes for present and future use –3 classes of trails: national recreation trails, national scenic trails, connecting or side trails –As of 1987: 14 designated federal trails, stretching more than 23,500 miles. –National Trails may be designated only by Congress, administered by the USDI or USDA

29 Modern Public Land Reservations (cont.) Alaska National Lands –Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) of 1980: Largest modern public land reservation occurred in 1980 when Congress enacted Statehood and Native Claims –Prior to statehood in 1959, about 99% of Alaska was federally owned. –Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) of 1971 provided native groups with $1 billion cash settlement right to select 44 million ac of federal land from a pool of mostly national forest lands

30 Modern Public Land Reservations (cont.) The Tongass National Forest Controversy  below-cost timber sales –Sect. 705a of ANILCA – set timber harvests at 4.5 billion bd ft. per decade –Gives $40 million for USFS to maintain timber supply from Tongass –Critics: revenues from timber sale much below costs of sale (ex. 1982: $234 cost but revenues were $31 million) –Critics: fisheries destroyed by harvests exceeded timber values The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Controversy  oil drilling in ANWR –Alaska depends on oil taxes & revenues  85% of state’s income –Oil deposits in ANWR could be connected with Trans-Alaska Pipeline –US oil demand  prodded Congress for more exploration & drilling –Congress cooled to the idea of drilling after oil spills in 1989 and 1990 –Environmentalists – tremendous influence by use of pictures, studies, and other adverse effects of Exxon Valdez Spill in 1989 –STILL A RELEVANT ISSUE TODAY

31 Land Acquisitions Ongoing Purchases Land & Water Conservation Fund – authorizes funding for land purchases in order to develop outdoor recreational facilities and for wildlife purposes Illustration: The Land & Water Conservation Fund (1964) –Establishment and Structure –Revenue Sources and Disbursements –Accomplishments –Ongoing Issues


33 Summary

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