Presentation on theme: "Expectations Effort Attitude. Why study history? “To gain access to the laboratory of the human experience.” -American Historical Society To develop an."— Presentation transcript:
Why study history? “To gain access to the laboratory of the human experience.” -American Historical Society To develop an enhanced capacity for: Informed Citizenship Critical Thinking Awareness
Multiple Perspectives Beware of Bias! What Contributes to Bias? Experience Education Environment Who’s Bias? Zinn Beard Mr. Schmitz Mr. Brewer
About me Studied Politics at Whitman College in Walla Walla Washington White middle class Politically left leaning Student teacher at Seattle U Grew up in Chile
My Experience with US History State Hero of Connecticut Captured an executed on an intelligence gathering mission during the battle of Long Island in 1776 “I only regret I have but one life to live for my country.”
Today: “The Articles of Confederation” 1777- 1781 (Jeeze Maryland) Federalism Treaty of Paris
Democracy “Democracy is nothing more than mob rule, were fifty-one percent of the people may take away rights of the other forty nine.” -Thomas Jefferson
First Government: “A Firm League of Friendship” Effective Central Government needed because of Wartime Urgency Progress was slow 1777-1781 because fear of a central authority and debate between states over extensive land claims. 6 Drafts: Franklin – Dickinson (x3) United STATES of America vs. UNITED States of America
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation -Political -Economic -Foreign Policy
Political Weaknesses NO Executive Branch NO National Court System UNICAMERAL Congress ONE Vote for each state regardless of size Amendments Required UNANIMOUS consent Each State retains its sovereignty, freedom, and independence
Articles of Confederation National GovernmentState Government
Economic Weaknesses Congress could NOT impose taxes. Congress could NOT regulate commerce. Individual states could impose tariffs on other states.
Treaty of Paris (Part Deux) Signed in 1783 in the city of… Ended the revolutionary war and recognized independence of who? Established US boundaries Jay, Adams, and Franklin
Complicated Negotiations… The Americans/thirteen states wanted… The British wanted… The French wanted… Why did the Americans and British broker their own treaty?
Stipulations Regulated expansion of the US by establishing boundaries. Was supposed to guarantee fair treatment of loyalists. Prisoner exchange Debt collection, regardless of nationality British troops were supposed to leave the United States
Foreign Policy Problems British built forts, disrupted trade, armed natives Colonies can’t trade with British colonies in the West Indies Spanish banned American shipping along the Mississippi France demands repayment for helping with the war
Dissent Amongst the Troops Greatest potential danger to the success of the American Revolution = the disintegration of the Continental Army. After 1780 Congress promised officers lifetime pension of half their pay. 1782, Financier Robert Morris stopped army pay as a cost saving measure.
Newburgh Conspiracy Threatened uprising of the Continental Army So called because a letter was circulating the amongst the officers at their camp in Newburgh, New York on March 10, 1783. It had been a hot topic of debate throughout 1782 Washington reacts and calls a meeting of the officers on March 15.
Conspiracy? Credited to John Armstrong, some historians believe it was sent by nationalists in Congress in order to give congress power over the states. Some believe that nationalists simply took advantage of the situation.
Successes of the AOC: $$$ Land Ordinance of 1784 Written by Thomas Jefferson calling on congress to develop land west of the Appalachians and north of the Ohio River into 10 separate states. Didn’t have a game plan.
Land Ordinance of 1785 Set forth how the government would measure, divide, and distribute the land it had acquired from the Treaty of Paris. A way for the Continental Congress to make money. Territory was to be divided into individual townships, 6 miles in length, divided into 36 separate square miles of territory. Was the precedent for westward expansion until the homestead act of 1862
Breakdown Each section encompasses 640 acres Section 16 (And later 36) were set aside for Public School 8, 11, 26, 29 to provide veterans with land bounties after the Revolutionary War. Government would sell the rest at public auction, minimum was $640 per section or $1 per acre. Roughly 260,000sq miles
Question to Consider What’s the best government for a new nation? Consider: debt, fragmentation, decision making
Federalists Wanted a strong central government Alexander Hamilton and James Madison Federalist Papers
Anti-federalists Were afraid of a centralized government Patrick Henry and Sam Adams Why?
For Tomorrow Finish the vocabulary section of the worksheet Watch the videos and fill out the worksheet Be prepared for a cooperative learning lesson