Plant Housekeeping programme …to promote order & cleanliness in organization, …to eliminate accident & fire hazards, …to conserve space, time, material & efforts, …to improve employee morale. Also, a place for everything and everything in its place A clean place Where things are in their proper position, properly arranged and in satisfactory condition
Plant Housekeeping programme There is a definite relationship between number of accidents and housekeeping conditions in an industry. Orderly management… … is conducive to good accident record, …represents competent management, efficient workmanship and better place to work.
Need for Housekeeping o Factory by laws down minimum standards of cleanliness, proper disposal of gases, vapours and fumes. o Trade unions are demanding better working conditions. o Emphasis on good H.keeping – imposed by nature of industry and products.
Need for Housekeeping Loss due to not having good housekeeping o Accidents - caused due to men tripping on loose objects on floors, stairs & platforms. o Men – hit by articles falling from above, slip on wet and greasy floors, run against projecting, poorly piled or poorly placed materials. Most accidents are indicative of bad housekeeping.
Need for Housekeeping Fire – starts in rubbish or in oil-soaked rags; presence of unnecessary flammable or combustible materials help to spread. High standard of housekeeping is basic to fire prevention. Dusts and fumes affect employees’ health & efficiency; form fire & explosion.
Planning aids Housekeeping A well designed, well built factory is easier to keep clean and free from disorder and hazards. Essentials are aisles of ample width, sufficient working space, enough storage space, plant layout for material flow, good ventilation and lighting & proper placement of personal services. Various factors should be considered, e.g., kinds of materials, required quantities, methods of storage & transportation; (for storage) strength of support, location, type & height of piles, means of storing articles, kinds of mechanical aids & methods of handling.
Planning aids Housekeeping Proper arrangement for disposal of scrap and waste. Keeping waste and scrap down helps both safety and profits. Storage spaces – clearly marked and aisles – kept clean. Layout of machinery & equipment – to permit reasonable working space. Don’t add machine in already well filled floor space which creates overcrowding, increases accident hazards, decreases efficiency of the room.
Planning aids Housekeeping Consumable oils & inflammable liquids – store in proper condition. Limited quantity – keep on shopfloor. Waste containers with self-closing lids should be used. Painting – important in H.keeping. Colours – such that conserves light, improves visibility & provides pleasant and cheerful surroundings. Sufficient natural & artificial means of ventilation. Removal of contaminants at their sources is necessary. Dust and fumes should be removed by suitable exhaust systems.
Planning aids Housekeeping Employees’ participation – individual responsibility for maintaining cleanliness, enough time for housekeeping, necessary equipment, clean machine & equipment after work and keep clean while working, put scrap & trash in trash-bins, keep floors & aisles free, properly stack & store materials. Management responsibility – responsible for planning & enforcing measures necessary facilities & equipment, floors & buildings in good condition, proper storage arrangements, suitable incentives for good H.keeping.
Accident An event that takes place all of a sudden unexpectedly resulting in something bad is called an accident. For example, a child falling from a roof, a house catching fire or a person receiving an electric shock. Types of accident: A.Based on compensation – i) Lost time accidents – paid compensation e.g., fracture of bone ii) Home cases – no compensation, only rest and medical treatment iii) First-aid cases – minor effect, gets only first-aid treatment
Types of accident B. Based on nature of accidents – a) Traffic accidents – collision between moving vehicles, vehicles without collision, collision with fixed objects. b) Passenger accidents – a passenger falling from a moving vehicle or boarding of a moving vehicle. c) Machine accidents – breaking of a steel-rope or a first moving blade, protective guardless machines, moving or sliding part of machines, loose garments dragging the part of the body of the worker.
Types of accident B. Based on nature of accidents – (cont..) d) Non-machine accidents – fall of a heavy article from higher level, collapse of roof, wall or shed, electric shocks, chemical reactions. e) Natural accidents – due to natural calamities e.g., trap under snowfall, hail storm, flood, earth quakes, land slides, cyclones, tides and sea-storms. f) Injury – fatal, amputation, burns, bruises, fractures, cuts, sprain.
Effects of accidents Personal effects – death, disability, physical suffering, psychological suffering, loss of ability to work, loss of earning capability. Social effects – an asset in the form of earning hand becomes a liability, social status may get lost, family humiliation of the disability is prolonged. passenger falling from a moving vehicle or boarding of a moving vehicle. Other effects – loss of man hours, loss of machine hours, loss of material, damaged machinery, damaged property, loss of capital, loss of reputation, compensation costs.
Causes of accidents Improper working condition – improper temperature, intensity & quality of illumination, the working hours, extent of humidity, arrangements of machines, the workshift. Work methods – lengthy period of work, severity of work, rapidity of production, fatiguing work methods. Factors concerning the worker – immature age, inexperience, bad state of health, physical defects, influence of sex differences, unfavourable mental & emotional conditions.
Means of preventing accidents 1.Reform of the working conditions – condition should be improved, temperature not to discomfort (to improve health of worker), illuminate strong and not too intense, light source at correct angle, arrangement of machines to get maximum production with minimum movements (to conserve efforts), for accident-prone or dangerous machines safety devices to keep the workers away.
Means of preventing accidents 2.Provision of safety methods – provisions of safety in designing machines, workers – trained & encouraged to use these provisions. 3.Pay attention to individual differences – before allocating a task to a particular worker, information about his age, experience, mental health, emotional condition, sex, nature, intelligence, physical qualities and defects should be collected. According to requirements of job, suitable man should be selected and works should be allotted accordingly.
Means of preventing accidents 4.Training in right work methods – many accidents due to untrained operators using machines. Before allowing a worker to handle a machine, train him/her in use and maintenance of the machine. 5.Means of removing fatigue – one important cause of accidents is fatigue. To avoid accidents, remove fatigue. To eliminate fatigue, provide proper rest at frequent intervals to regain energy and to avoid reaching exhaustion, provide amenities and facilities, create atmosphere of cooperation and happiness.
Means of preventing accidents 6.Proper speed of work – over-speed causes accidents. Workers – encouraged to work at a speed that maintains efficiency and working throughout the time without fatigue. 7.Organization of safety committee – helps to train the workers, makes them more safety conscious, helps to develop or invent new safety techniques. 8.Safety campaigns and posters – organize a safety campaign in factory and office. Use posters and slogans in such campaign, to help workers control their actions.
Means of preventing accidents 9.Habits of safety – the best and most successful method is creation of habits of safety, developed through training and other similar methods. 10.Motivating safety – motivate workers to work cautiously, increase salary of workers who follow the safety regulations, counteract all opposite kinds of motivation.
Accident Proneness Tendency due to which some particular people get involved in more accidents than other people. Found not only in individuals but also in certain sets of circumstances. Laws of accident proneness: Laws governing a.p. (according to psychologists) a) If accidental, some people are rarely involved in accidents while some are involved very frequently whereas majority are a stage between two extremes.
Accident Proneness Laws of accident proneness: Laws governing a.p. (according to psychologists) b) If due to circumstances, people who suffer from many accidents in a particular period will be comparatively free of accidents in the following period. c) If accident proneness increases, particular individuals found involved in accidents in particular test will also be found to be involved in accidents at any later test. d) If accidents due to some particular qualities of individuals, people obtaining a certain grade in a particular accident will obtain same grade in future accidents.
Causes of Accident Proneness Low grade of muscular coordination Lack of emotional stability Absence of an appropriate mood (e.g., unhappy and depressed mood) Weak intelligence (feeble-mindness increases accident proneness) Lack of coordination between perceptual and motor speed Visual defects
Causes of Accident Proneness Frustration (it increases aggressiveness which is a major cause of accidents) Lack of experience Immature age (experience, skill, muscular coordination, perceptual speed, emotional stability, intelligence, etc. increase with age) Sex (women more accident prone than men) Lack of health (high blood pressure, mental ill health, nervous and mental disorders, emotionally excited conditions.
Characteristics of accident prone workers Physical characters: Poor eye sight, colour blindness, sluggishness, too bulky, high blood pressure, poor physique, poor hearing, etc. Psychological characters: Short temperament, inferiority complex, over confidence, carelessness, excessive liability, lack of professionalism, working attitude, lack of concentration, depression, fearfulness, nervousness, etc.
Cost of accident Direct cost: due to compensation and medical expenses Indirect or hidden cost: often ignored Cost of Society -Direct & indirect costs by management ultimately met by society through increased cost of products. -Society ultimately bear the financial burden of maintenance of all disabled employees and their dependents.
Cost of accident Cost of injured - themselves very heavy losers - if not covered by any benefit scheme or insurance, will have to bear cost of wages, cost of medical expenses. - if covered by any scheme, it is rarely adequate. -no costing to compensate suffering, pain, worry and effects due to incapacitation.
Cost of accident Cost of Management i)Direct costs: compensation paid to the injured person, medical expenses on treatment ii) Indirect costs: - lost time of injured employee - lost time of other employees - lost time of foremen, supervisors or other executives - cost of time spent by first-aid attendants & hospital staffs
Cost of accident Cost of Management i)Indirect costs: (cont.) - cost of damage to material or equipment - incidental cost due to interference with production - costs under employee welfare and benefit system - cost due to continuance of wages to injured persons in full - cost due to loss of profit on injured worker’s productivity - overhead cost over injured worker