DEVELOPED BY: Class: 8B MUKTA YASHWANT YADAV KISHORI KISHOR PAWAR ANKITA RAVINDRA MAGAR RUTUJA RAJENDRA CHAVAN ASHWINI DATTATRAV LORE
The Solar System Pictures & Information on the Sun, Moon & Eight Planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune)
Information on our Solar System The Solar System consists of the Sun and the other celestial objects gravitationally bound to it: eight planets, their 165 known moons, three dwarf planets (including Pluto) and their four known moons, and billions of small bodies (which includes asteroids, comets, meteoroids). In order of their distances from the Sun, the planets are Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Six of the eight planets are in turn orbited by moons. All the planets except Earth are named after gods and goddesses from Greco-Roman mythology
The Sun The Sun is by far the largest object in the solar system. It is the star at the center of the Solar System
The Earth and other matter (including other planets, asteroids, meteoroids, comets and dust) orbit the Sun. Energy from the Sun (sunlight) supports almost all life on Earth via photosynthesis, and drives the Earth's climate and weather. The Sun contains more than 99.8% of the total mass of the Solar System (Jupiter contains most of the rest). At present, the mass of the Sun is about 70% hydrogen, 28% helium by mass, other metals amount to less than 2%. This changes slowly over time as the Sun converts hydrogen to helium in its core. The Sun's energy output (3.86e33 ergs/second or 386 billion billion megawatts) is produced by nuclear fusion reactions. As it travels out toward the surface, the energy is continuously absorbed and re-emitted at lower and lower temperatures so that by the time it reaches the surface, it is primarily visible light.
Mercury Mercury is the innermost and smallest planet in the solar system, orbiting the Sun once every 88 days. It can only be seen in morning or evening twilight
Physically, Mercury is similar in appearance to the Moon as it is heavily cratered. It has no natural satellites and no substantial atmosphere. The planet has a large iron core which generates a magnetic field about 0.1% as strong as that of the Earth. Mercury is one of the four terrestrial planets, being a rocky body like the Earth. It consists of approximately 70% metallic and 30% silicate material. The density of the planet is the second-highest in the solar system at 5.43 g/cm³, only slightly less than Earth’s density.
Venus Venus is the second planet from the Sun and the sixth largest. Venus' orbit is the most circular of that of any planet, with an eccentricity of less than 1%.
Venus (Greek: Aphrodite; Babylonian: Ishtar) is the goddess of love and beauty. The planet is so named probably because it is the brightest of the planets known to the ancients. The phases of Venus can be viewed with a telescope from Earth. Galileo's observation of this phenomenon was important evidence in favor of Copernicus's heliocentric theory of the solar system. Venus' rotation is very slow (243 Earth days per Venus day). In addition, the periods of Venus' rotation and of its orbit are synchronized such that it always presents the same face toward Earth when the two planets are at their closest approach.
Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the fifth largest. Home to the human species, it is also referred to as "Planet Earth", "Gaia", "Terra", and "the World
The Earth formed around 4.57 billion years ago. At present, the Earth orbits the Sun once for every 366.26 times it rotates about its axis (which is equal to 365.26 solar days). The Earth's axis of rotation is tilted 23.5° (away from the perpendicular to its orbital plane), producing seasonal variations on the planet's surface. The Earth is divided into several layers which have distinct chemical and seismic properties. The crust varies considerably in thickness, it is thinner under the oceans, thicker under the continents. Unlike the other terrestrial planets, Earth's crust is divided into several separate solid plates which float around independently on top of the hot mantle below. The Earth's atmosphere is 77% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, with traces of argon, carbon dioxide and water. Earth has a magnetic field that, together with a primarily nitrogen-oxygen atmosphere, protects the surface from radiation that is harmful to life.
Mars Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. The planet is named after Mars, the Roman god of war. It is also referred to as the "Red Planet" because of its reddish appearance as seen from Earth.
Mars has a thin atmosphere and some of the most varied and interesting terrain of any of the terrestrial planets. It is the site of Olympus Mons, the highest known mountain in the solar system, and of Valles Marineris, the largest canyon. In addition to its geographical features, Mars’ rotational period and seasonal cycles are likewise similar to those of the Earth. Of all the planets in our solar system, Mars is the most likely, other than Earth, to harbor liquid water, and perhaps life. Mars can be seen from Earth with the naked eye, a brightness surpassed only by Venus, the Moon, and the Sun (and at times Jupiter).
Jupiter Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and by far the largest. Jupiter is more than twice as massive as all the other planets combined (the mass of Jupiter is 318 times that of Earth)
Jupiter is the fourth brightest object in the sky (after the Sun, the Moon and Venus). In 1610 Galileo first pointed a telescope at the sky and discovered Jupiter's four moons Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (now known as the Galilean moons) and recorded their motions back and forth around Jupiter. This was the first discovery of a center of motion not apparently centered on the Earth. It was a major point in favor of Copernicus's heliocentric theory of the motions of the planets.Galileo
Galileo was the first to observe it with a telescope in 1610; he noted its odd appearance but was confused by it. Early observations of Saturn were complicated by the fact that the Earth passes through the plane of Saturn's rings every few years as Saturn moves in its orbit. A low resolution image of Saturn therefore changes drastically. It was not until 1659 thatChristiaan Huygens correctly inferred the geometry of the rings.Christiaan Huygens
Saturn Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second largest
Uranus Uranus named after the Greek god of the sky, is the seventh planet from the Sun. It is a gas giant, the third largest by diameter and fourth largest by mass
Uranus is composed primarily of rock and various ices, with only about 15% hydrogen and a little helium. Its atmosphere is about 83% hydrogen, 15% helium and 2% methane. Uranus' blue color is the result of absorption of red light by methane in the upper atmosphere. There may be colored bands like Jupiter's but they are hidden from view by the overlaying methane layer. Like the other gas planets, Uranus has rings. Like Jupiter's, they are very dark but like Saturn's they are composed of fairly large particles ranging up to 10 meters in diameter in addition to fine dust. There are 11 known rings, all very faint
Neptune Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System. It is the fourth largest planet by diameter and the third largest by mass; 17 times the mass of Earth
The planet is named after the Roman god of the sea. Neptune's atmosphere is primarily composed of hydrogen and helium, with traces of methane that account for the planet's blue appearance. Neptune's blue colour is much more vivid than that of Uranus, which has a similar amount of methane, so an unknown component is presumed to cause Neptune's intense colour. Neptune's temperature at its cloud tops is usually close to -218 °C, one of the coldest in the solar system, due to its long distance from the sun. However, Neptune's centre is about 7,000 °C (13,000 °F), hotter than the sun's surface. This is due to extremely hot gases and rock in the center.