Presentation on theme: "A comparison of the book and movie and also why and how popular culture is able to create good guys out of pirates Treasure Island paper Due Wednesday."— Presentation transcript:
A comparison of the book and movie and also why and how popular culture is able to create good guys out of pirates Treasure Island paper Due Wednesday
Order was maintained by the signed agreement –Round Robin In addition ‘articles’ were often written defining parameters of behavior "they stipulate in writing what recompense or reward each one ought to have, that is either wounded or maimed in his body, suffering the loss of any limb, by that voyage.“ –Alexander Exquemeling
Pyrates and Buccaneers, are Princes to [Seamen], for there, as none are exempt from the General Toil and Danger; so if the Chief have a Supream Share beyond his Comrades, 'tis because he's always the Leading Man in e'ry daring Enterprize; and yet as bold as he is in all other attempts, he dares not offer to infringe the common laws of Equity; but every Associate has his due Quota... thus these Hostes Humani Generis as great robbers as they are to all besides, are precisely just among themselves; without which they could no more Subsist than a Structure without a Foundation –Barnaby Slush
Articles of Bartholomew Roberts I. Every man has a vote in affairs of moment; has equal title to the fresh provisions, or strong liquors, at any time seized, and may use them at pleasure, unless a scarcity makes it necessary, for the good of all, to vote a retrenchment.
Pirate captains power different to that of merchant or naval captain Hierarchy is banished Has a historical background Shore sailors had share of cargo Lost in time of blue water sailors Cromwell’s followers from English Civil War –Members of New model Army In Caribbean
One buccaneer was ‘a stout grey-headed’ and ‘merry hearted Old Man’ ‘who had served under Oliver in the time of the Irish Rebellion; after which he was at Jamaica, and had followed Privateering ever since’ NMA – elected officers
Pirate Captain –Total authority during fight or flight Rest of time no real authority “he or any other Officer is allowed no more [food] than another man, nay, the Captain cannot Keep his Cabbin to himself” “They permit him to be Captain, on Condition, that they may be captain over him” –Johnson
II. Every man to be called fairly in turn, by list, on board of prizes because, they were on these occasions allowed a shift of clothes: but if they defrauded the company to the value of a dollar in plate, jewels, or money, marooning was their punishment. If the robbery was only betwixt one another, they contented themeselves with slitting the ears and nose of him that was guilty, and set him on shore, not in an uninhabited place, but somewhere, where he was sure to encounter hardships.
Also had a early set of checks and balances in the shape of the quartermaster Elected to represent and protect “the Interest of the Crew” Tasks Adjudicate minor disputes Distribute food and booty “civil Magistrate” Ensuring no extension or abuse of authority
Neither Captain or Quartermaster highest authority That was the Common Council Met regularly Consisted of everyone on board From Captain to men before the mast
III. No person to game at cards or dice for money. IV. The lights and candles to be put out at eight o'clock at night: if any of the crew, after that hour still remained inclined for drinking, they were to do it on the open deck V. To keep their piece, pistols, and cutlass clean and fit for service.
VI. No boy or woman to be allowed amongst them. If any man were to be found seducing any of the latter sex, and carried her to sea, disguised, he was to suffer death VII. To desert the ship or their quarters in battle, was punished with death or marooning.
All aimed at keeping crew ready to fight others not each other 1722 Bartholomew Roberts crew Executed two men for desertion Each allowed to chose executioner Tied to mainmast & shot
VIII. No striking one another on board, but every man's quarrels to be ended on shore, at sword and pistol. If both miss, they come to their cutlasses, and then he is declaired the victor who draws the first blood. IX. No man to talk of breaking up their way of living, till each had shared one thousand pounds. If in order to this, any man should lose a limb, or become a cripple in their service, he was to have eight hundred dollars, out of the public stock, and for lesser hurts, proportionately.
Early social security/workers comp? Traditional image of pirate Hook, eye patch, wooden leg –stereotype Representative of dangerous life Portion of take put into common fund –To provide for disabled
Jeremiah Huggins received 14 gold pistoles 7 ½ ounces gold dust 82 pieces of eight 17 ounces of silver bullion “by reason of being wounded among them”
X. The captain and quartermaster to receive two shares of a prize: the master, boatswain, and gunner, one share and a half, and other officers one and quarter. XI. The musicians to have rest on the Sabbath Day, but the other six days and nights, none without special favour.
So if these were Bartholomew Roberts articles Who was Bartholomew Roberts? Where did he come from? It was a master surgeon, him that ampytated me - out of college and all - Latin by the bucket, and what not; but he was hanged like a dog, and sun-dried like the rest, at Corso Castle. That was Roberts' men, that was, and comed of changing names of their ships - Royal Fortune and so on. One of four pirates mentioned in treasure island
Follow a chain reaction in the interlinked pirate community beginning with Captain Christopher Winter In New providence when Woodes Rogers appears with pardon –Doesn’t take it Heads to Cuba –Converts to Catholicism Works for the spanish
Winter best know for capture of Edward Seegar Seegar changed name to Edward England Sailed with Winter before taking off on his own to Africa England fell in with French Pirate La Bouche –Louis la Bouse In Whydah harbor Careened ships and partied together
After leaving harbor met with third pirate John Taylor Around bottom of Africa –Taking ships Hoping to meet with Avery in Madagascar –Miss Avery La Bouche heads out on his own
Taylor and England took major prize –But with heavy losses Captain of defeated ship later asks for a negotiated surrender England after hours of trying persuaded crew to accept When out at sea again Taylor and other pirates maroon England on Mauritius
Eventually they gather drift wood build a raft and make it to Madagascar in 1721 Penny-less he dies shortly thereafter But in 1718 He had captured slaver Cadogan On board was Howell Davis
England Killed captain but was impressed by Davies Suggested that he turn pirate and take Cadogan & slaves as first prize Davies puts it to men who refuse They sail off on original course When they arrive in Barbados Crew turn Davies over as Pirate
No evidence could be found – set free “I may be a Slaver, But no pirate” But once accused he found honest work difficult to find Signed pardon papers –Got work from Woodes Rogers to transport goods Turned pirate
Davis was a trickster Tried to pass himself of as privateer to get inside towns St. Jago – not believed asked to leave St James Island, of Gambia – Worked 1719 Isle of Princes – betrayed and killed A Captive, forced pirate John Roberts elected captain –Only been on board a few weeks but a skilled navigator
changes name to Bartholomew Rodgers AKA Black Bart
Feb 6, 1721 HMS Swallow left England for Africa –Captain Chaloner Ogle June 18 anchored at Cape Coast Castle Spent time resupplying and getting local knowledge a set out to patrol coast Jan 15 1722, arrived in Whydah –Trading post was decimated Black Bart had been there three days before
Bart Roberts at Whydah –11- 12 ships at post Sailed in with black flag flying –All surrendered and agreed to pay ransom Except Captain Fletcher on Porcupine Enraged Roberts and crew Poured tar on deck and set fire to the boat Didn’t release the slaves on board all chained in pairs “under the miserable choice of perishing by fire or water: those who jumped over-board were seized by sharks, a voracious fish in plenty in this Road, and in their sight, torn limb from limb alive”
Roberts had also taken the best ship for his own use “Therefore I judge they must go to some place in the Bight to clean and fit the French ship before they would think of cruising again, which caused me to steer away into the Bight and look into those places which I knew had depth of water sufficient…” –Captain Ogle
Spotted Pirates Feb 5, 1722 –Royal Fortune & Ranger & Little Ranger Anchored in the lee of Cape Lopez Swallow had to sail away from coast to avoid sand bar before heading back in Pirates thought ship was fleeing Roberts sent Ranger after it
Oops! Ogle realizing what was happening pretended to be slower than he was Ranger caught him 1 ½ hours of fighting later pirates surrendered Overnight worked to fix both boats 2 am Feb. 7 th Ranger –with captives – sent to Isle of Princes Evening of 9 th Swallow back in sight of Roberts
“The pirate sailing better than us, shot ahead above half gun shot, while we continued firing (without intermission) such guns as we could bring to bear... Till by favour of the wind we came alongside again, and after exchanging a few more shot, about half past one, his main-mast came down, being shot away a little below the parrel, At two she struck, and called for quarters, proving to be the royal fortune of 40 guns”
Roberts was killed and crew as promised through his weighted body overboard So it could not be displayed Captain Ogle took Royal Fortune and Little Ranger back to Isle of Princes gathered Ranger and sailed to Cape Coast Castle March 16, given a 21 gun Salute Ogle received a knighthood 1739 became Rear Admiral Ended career as Admiral of the Fleet
One final bad boy Ned Low Born England Moved to Boston Married had a daughter Wife died Headed south to Honduras Turned pirate
Know to be cruel and vicious –Apart from to married men Portuguese ship captain through bag of Gold overboard rather than give it up Low tied him to mainmast, with Cutlass he Cut of mans lips Cooked them over fire forced first mate to eat them Then disemboweled or decapitated whole crew Disappeared in 1724 after taking 140 ships
1708 fellow Bristol merchants Sponsored global expedition to chase and attack pirates selected Rogers to command it William Dampier as his navigator
Under a letter of marque Rogers set sail –350-ton Duke (36 guns) –260-ton Duchess (36 guns) –333 men. Rogers' described crews as "tinkers, taylors, hay-makers, pedlers, fidlers etc, one negro and about ten boys."
Expedition very successful bringing home bullion, precious stones and exotic silks from Spanish vessels. Also brought home an extra passenger Scottish seaman named Alexander Selkirk.
When he returned to England East India Company tried to seize the treasure –Claimed Rogers had breached their trade monopoly Crew had to fight off –East Indiamen –press gangs eager to grab them for the navy. Merchants received £50,000 from the £148,000 –still doubled their stakes. 3 years before crew got their share – only after they petitioned the House of Lords
1717 Rogers appointed first royal governor of the Bahamas –charged with ridding the islands of pirates. Nassau had become a rouge possession Pirates dominated Nassau with "lawless riot and drunken revelry” Of his arrival Rodgers wrote
"...Your Lordships, I arr'ved in this Port on the 26 July last in company with the Men of Warr ordered to assist me. I met with little opposition in coming in, but found a French ship (that was taken by the Pirates of 22 Guns) burning in the Harbour -- which we were told was set on Fire to drive out His Majestys Ship the Rose who got in too early the evening before me, and cut her cable and run out in the Night for fear of being burnt by one Charles Vane who command'd the Pirates
Rogers received a group of representatives from Harbor Island assured him that many of the pirates eager to accept the King's amnesty following day, as he landed "he was received with joy by some three hundred persons. The repentant pirates formed a military guard of honor in two lines and fired off their muskets in celebration."
Offered pardon, many took it Announced anyone clearing land and building shelter Receive 120 acres Also said he had received dispatch that Spanish were going to attack –Lie, in fact Vane had sent note threatening to come back Men on Island helped rebuild fort And built houses
One of pirates who did not accept Pardon –Blackbeard Death in 1718 alongside Woodes Rodgers arrival seen as great coup But piracy was not yet dead Letter from Governor of South Carolina of the period read
The unspeakable calamity this poor province suffers from pirates obliges me to inform your lordships of it in order that his majesty may know it and be induced to afford us the assistance of a frigate or two to cruise hereabouts upon them for we are continually alarmed and our ships taken to the utter ruin of our trade
Now previous pirates asked for letters of marque to attack pirates To defend their new homes Expulsis Piratis/Restituta Commercia –Piracy Expelled, Commerce Restored National motto of the Bahamas until independence in 1973.
1715 navy had 1 ship NY 1 Virginia 1 new York 1 Maryland 5 West Indies 1719 2 more to Virginia 5 more West Indies
Combination of publicity about captures –Blackbeard 1718 –Black Bart 1722 Increased navy presence –Era coming to an end “the world was becoming to small a place for a wanted pirate to be able to find a safe hiding place”
Now we remain in America but jump forward a few decades
Creation of US Navy – Continental Congress October 13, 1775 One of four converted merchantmen that composed the first US Navy Andrew Doria Displacement: 190 tons Length: 75 ft. long Guns: 16 – 6 pounders and on-deck swivel guns. Crew: 130 men
British Royal Navy Ships of the Line Displacement: 1,796 tons Length: 150 ft. Long Crew : 550 Guns: 74 –28 x 36 pound guns –30 x 24 pounders –16 x 8 pounders
Massachusetts Privateering Law [T]he council of this colony...[may] commission, with let-ters of marque and reprisal, any person or persons within this colony, who shall, at his or their own expence, fix out and equip, for the defence of America, any vessel,... and [ ]all such persons so commissioned... shall have full power,... to sail on the seas, attack, take and bring into any port in this colony, all vessels offending or employed by the enemy...and also to retake and bring in...any vessel or vessels that may be taken from any person or persons by said enemy.
John Adams extolled Massachusetts Privateering Law as “One of the most important documents of the Revolution.” The law authorized private armed vessels to arise and established a court for condemning their prizes.
Continental Congress – March 1776 the force was to be directed at the capture of British ships, not their total destruction. Privateers were to bring ships and their cargoes to American ports for court proceedings and were to "keep and preserve every ship or vessel, and cargo... until they shall... be adjudged lawful prizes; not selling, spoil- ing, wasting, or diminishing the same, or breaking the bulk thereof, nor suffering any such thing to be done.” Congress warned against any killing "in cold blood,"maiming, or torturing, promised severe punishment, and warned that any act contrary to instructions might not only lead to forfeiting the bond but also to liability for damages.
Robert Morris Philadelphia Signed Articles of Confederation, Constitution, and Declaration of Independence. Wealthy financier who had made lots of money in pre-war privateering. Lost over 150 ships during the Revolution and claimed “to have come out even”
Other Merchants… Thomas and Nathaniel Shaw –New London, CT. Ben Franklin – Philadelphia –Black Prince, Princess, and Fearnot – Made no money but captured British soldiers and seamen to trade for American seaman captured by British John Hancock - Boston
"the feats of our American frigates and privateers have not been sufficiently published in Europe. It would answer valuable purposes, both by encouraging their honest and brave hearts and by exciting emulations elsewhere, to give them a little more than they have had of the fame they have deserved. Some of the most skillful, determined, persevering and successful engagements that have ever happened upon the seas have been performed by American privateers John Adams 1780.
"The Spirit of Privateering prevails here greatly. The Success of those that have before Engaged in that Business has been sufficient to make a whole Country privateering mad. Many kinds of West India Goods, that we used to be told we should suffer for want of, are now plentier and cheaper than I have known them for many Years.” James Warren – Boston, 1776
Privateering was in greater favor with seamen than the regular naval service: 1. On account of the comparative freedom from the restraints of discipline 2. The profits were larger. 3.The entire net proceeds from the sale of prizes and captured goods went to the owners and captors. 4.This resulted in the crews getting a larger proportion of prize money than regular naval seamen, who were obliged to share with the government.
Advertisement in Boston Gazette recruiting crew for privateer Deane An Invitation to all brave Seamen and Marines, who have an inclination to serve their Country and make their Fortunes. The grand Privateer ship DEANE, commanded by ELISHA HINMAN, Esq; and prov'd to be a very capitol Sailor, will Sail on a Cruise against the Enemies of the United States of America, by the 20th instant. The DEANE mounts thirty Carriage Guns, and is excellently well calculated for Attacks, Defense and Pursuit --- This therefore is to invite all those Jolly Fellows, who love their country, and want to make their fortunes at one Stroke, to repair immediately to the Rendezvous at the Head of His Excellency Governor Hancock's Wharf, where they will be received with a hearty Welcome by a Number of Brave Fellows there assembled, and treated with that excellent Liquor call'd GROG which is allow'd by all true Seamen, to be the LIQUOR OF LIFE. Advertisement in Boston newspaper recruiting crew for privateer D
Problems with Privateering 1. Privateers vs. U.S. Navy John Paul Jones complained of having to try and replace his crew after each mission for they would run from his ship to a privateer in the same port. Discipline and low pay of the Navy vs. the democratic governing style and potential for big payday.
2. Privateering corrupted public morals George Washington in a letter to John Hancock described privateers as a “plague of trouble and vexation.” Journals of Continental Congress -1775 Revealed concern “that if the defending of the country were left up to privateers then soon no law or property would be safe.”
A frequently quoted complaint is that of William Whipple to Josiah Bartlett (July 12, 1778) “No kind of Business can so effectually introduce Luxury, Extravagance and every kind of Dissipation, that tend to the destruction of the morals of people. Those who are actually engaged in it soon lose every Idea of right & wrong, & for want of an opportunity of gratifying their insatiable avarice with the property of the Enemies of their Country, will without the least compunction seize that of her Friends.
Comparison of Navy vs. Privateers in Revolutionary War Continental Navy Privateers Total ships 64 1,697 Total guns on ships 1,242 14,872 Enemy ships captured 196 2,283 Ships captured by enemy ? 1,323
Because of British policy regarding import of gunpowder, the colonists did not have enough to repel the third British charge at Bunker Hill. A survey by George Washington at the time showed army stockpiles were sufficient for 9 rounds per man. By 1777, the privateers and merchantmen brought in over 2 million pounds of gunpowder and saltpeter.
Privateer John Manley captured the Nancy, supplying the American army with 2,000 muskets, 31 tons of musket shot, 7,000 round-shot for cannon, and other ammunition. Captain Jonathan Haraden from Salem, Massachusetts, who captured 1,000 British cannon, was considered one of the best sea- fighters, successfully taking on three armed British ships at the same time. Privateers captured countless British reinforcements and over 10,000 seamen, keeping them out of the British Navy.
In 1777 George Washington's armies totaled about 11,000 men. At the same time there were 11,000 privateers at sea intercepting British shipping in the Atlantic, Caribbean, and even between Ireland and England. Together, the Continental Navy and privateers captured 16,000 British prisoners, a substantial contribution in comparison with the 15,000 prisoners taken by the entire Continental Army before the surrender at Yorktown. The crew of the privateers were well paid for their hazardous work, earning as much as $1,000 for one voyage, while average pay at the time was $9 per month Cost to insure British ships increased six-fold when they sailed without protection of Royal Navy.