Presentation on theme: "The Civil Rights Struggle Ch. 21, Sec 1, 2, 3. Civil Rights movement began with end of Civil War. – Accelerated after WWII. Several factors contributed."— Presentation transcript:
Civil Rights movement began with end of Civil War. – Accelerated after WWII. Several factors contributed to civil rights movement. – African American Migration-after Civil War, large movement from south to northern cities; alliances with political machines. – New Deal-Democrats went after black votes, blacks in prominent gov’t positions. – World War II-Black workers gained political power due to need for labor; Holocaust opened eyes to discrimination. – Rise of the NAACP-challenged segregation laws, Plessy v. Ferguson, won small victories that began to snowball.
Brown v. Board of Education NAACP’s biggest case. 1951-Oliver Brown sued Topeka, Kansas Board of Education to allow 8 year old daughter to attend nearby all-white school. – Bussed to distant all-black school. Through appeals process, case reached US Supreme Court. May 17, 1954- Supreme Court issued ruling on Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas case.
Unanimous decision-Court ruled that “separate but equal” unconstitutional, could not be applied to public education. – Separate was inherently unequal. – Local school boards must desegregate with all deliberate speed. Reactions to decision mixed. – Black citizens happy, white citizens either happy, okay if desegregation was peaceful, or very angry. – Ike privately disagreed, but swore to obey. – Southern whites very resistant. Georgia governor Herman Talmadge promised no segregation, KKK became more active. 90 southern congressmen signed Southern Manifesto, stating that Court ruling violated states’ rights.
Montgomery Bus Boycott Southern buses segregated: white in front, black in back. – Expected to give up seats if white section full. Montgomery, Alabama, December 1955-Rosa Parks sat at front of black section. – White man got on, no seats, driver ordered Parks to get up; she refused, even when threatened with arrest. – Parks arrested, ordered to stand trial for violation of segregation laws.
Montgomery civil rights leaders organized Montgomery bus boycott. – No black citizens ride buses until company changes policy. – Rev. Martin Luther King became spokesman for boycott. Majority of black citizens in Montgomery boycotted buses. – Bus company lost money, refused to change policy until Supreme Court ruled bus segregation unconstitutional. Boycott encouraged civil rights leaders.
Little Rock, Arkansas 1957-Arkansas Governor Orvil Faubus decided he couldn’t keep order he had to enforce integration. – Bringing together different races. Sent in Arkansas National Guard to Central High School in Little Rock to turn away 9 black students. – Challenge to Supreme Court & Constitution. Ike federalized (put under federal control)AR National Guard, sent in 101 st Airborne to enforce integration. – Showed USA that Ike would follow Court decision.
Hispanics also suffered under segregation. – TX-Delgado v. Bastrop ISD-segregation of Hispanic kids in schools illegal. League of United Latin American Citizens (LULAC) led many cases to end segregation against Hispanics.
Civil Rights Leaders Civil Rights movement was grass-roots; no central organization coordinating. – Many people, organizations worked together in struggle. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) – Led the way in Brown v. Board of Education. – Challenged laws preventing black citizens from exercising rights. – Pushed anti-lynching bills. – Challenged segregation laws. – Appealed to educated, middle & upper class blacks, liberal whites.
National Urban League. – Focused on economic issues. – Helped southern blacks moving into northern cities find homes, jobs, receive fair treatment at work. – Helped immigrant families as well. – Insisted that black factory workers have opportunity to learn skills that could lead to promotion.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). – Interracial, like NAACP. – Focused on bringing about change through peaceful confrontation. – Demonstrated in WWII against segregation in Baltimore, Chicago, Denver, Detroit. All groups advocated nonviolence, as violence would hurt cause.
1957-Martin Luther King Jr. and other civil rights leader began Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC). – Shifted focus of resistance to southern states. Dr. King emerged in major leadership role. – Followed Gandhi’s practice of nonviolent resistance. Do not resist, even if attacked. – King gained national reputation due to Montgomery Bus Boycott. – Involved in every major civil rights event, earned Nobel Peace Prize in 1964.
College students played big role in movement. 1960-SCLC began Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) in Raleigh, NC. – Helped students get more involved in struggle. – Where older organizations wanted slow and steady change, SNCC pushed for more radical change faster. Well-suited to student youth and energy. – SNCC members more willing to take risks, face anger of white society.
Tensions escalate CORE & SNCC began campaign of sit-ins. – Occupy public place and force owners to serve or have disruption & loss of trade. – Sit-ins at lunch counters, restaurants, cafes. – Thousands involved all over South. – Often faced violence from patrons, owners, public; almost always arrested. – King told SNCC members that arrest was “badge of honor”. – In 1960, 70,000 participated in sit-ins, 3,600 served time.
1960-Boynton v. Virginia desegregated bus station terminals & cafes. – Interstate buses already desegregated. 1961-CORE & SNCC tested new law with Freedom Rides. – Ride buses from north into south, eat & rest at desegregated terminals. – 13 black & white riders on two buses. In Alabama, armed mob met buses. – Slashed tires, burned buses. CORE begged SNCC Riders to quit, but they refused.
Riders were arrested repeatedly as they moved south. US was shocked at treatment of Riders. Gov’t sent Federal Marshalls to accompany later Riders. Due to Riders, Interstate Commerce Commission desegregated all interstate transportation. – Buses, planes, trains. – Communities that did not comply sued in federal court.
“Ole Miss” 1961-James Meredith wanted to transfer from Jackson State college to all-white U. of Miss. – Application rejected, NAACP sued that he was denied based on race. – Supreme Court sided with Meredith. Miss. Governor Ross Barnett personally blocked door, said no way. – JFK sent Federal Marshalls to let him in. – White mob rioted, destroyed cop cars. 2 killed, hundreds hurt; JFK sent in troops to restore order. – Marshalls escorted Meredith for months to class.
Meredith was later shot on a civil rights march.
Birmingham April 1963, King and SCLC went to Birmingham, AL. – 40% black, “most segregated city in USA”. SCLC planned boycotts, sit-ins, attempts to integrate local churches. – King said he planned to stay as long as it took. During protest marches, Police Commissioner Eugene “Bull” Connor arrested King, others. – In jail, King wrote “Letter from Birmingham Jail” – Said that action must happen, if we wait, then desegregation will never happen.
After a week, King released, continued protests with SNCC help. Bull Connor & police used high-pressure fire hoses & police attack dogs on protestors. – When protestors fell, police would beat them. – 900 arrested. Video & pictures of attacks shown across USA. – Caused many to join/support civil rights movement. Protestors won-city buildings desegregated, interracial committee set up to aid desegregation. – Proved that nonviolent resistance could work.