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Angular Velocity

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Rotational Motion When all points in a body move in circles Can be described in terms of angular velocity and angular acceleration θ is measured in radians r θ x

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Radian (rad) Angle swept out when the length of the arc (x) is equal to the radius (r) θ = x/r Radians can be related to degrees –1 rad = 57.3º

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Example A bird can distinguish objects that are within an area swept out by an angle of 3 x 10 -4 radians. A) how many degrees is this? B) How big of an object can be seen when he is flying at an elevation of 100m?

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Angular Velocity (ω) Change in θ over time ω = Δθ/ t Unit is rad/s All points in the object rotate with the same angular velocity since any point moves through the same angle in the same time

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Angular to Linear Velocity Linear velocity (v) is the velocity tangent to the curve Linear velocity will depend on how far away from the center of the circle you are since at a larger r, the linear distance x will be greater v = ωr

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Example A rotating carousel has one child sitting on a horse near the outer edge and another child on a lion halfway out from the center A) which child has the greater angular speed? B) which child has the greater linear speed?

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Angular Acceleration ( α ) Change in angular velocity over time α = Δω/t = Units – rad/s 2

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Tangential Acceleration Linear acceleration tangent to curve a tan = Δv/ t v = ωr a tan = ωr/t α = ω/t a tan = α r

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Centripetal Acceleration a r = v 2 / r = (ωr) 2 / r = ω 2 r Centripetal acceleration is greater the farther you are from the axis of rotation

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Total Acceleration Sum of tangential and centripetal accelerations Since centripetal and tangential acceleration are perpendicular to each other, it is a vector total for a right triangle a tot =

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Example A carousel is initially at rest. At t = 0 it is given a constant angular acceleration α = 0.060 rad/s 2 for a total of 8.0 s. At 8.0 s, determine a) the angular velocity and b) the linear velocity of a child 2.5m from the center c) tangential acceleration d) centripetal acceleration and d) total acceleration

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Frequency Revolutions per second Period (T) – time for one revolution T = 1/f v = ωr v = 2 r/T = 2 rf ω = 2πf

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Example What is the linear and angular speed of a child seated 1.2 m from the center of a steadily rotating merry-go-round that makes one revolution in 4.0 s?

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Example What is the frequency and period of a carousel when rotating at an angular velocity of 0.48 rad/s?

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