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GCE A Level History Revision Little Heath School Sunday 2 June 2013 Russia and Its Rulers.

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Presentation on theme: "GCE A Level History Revision Little Heath School Sunday 2 June 2013 Russia and Its Rulers."— Presentation transcript:

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2 GCE A Level History Revision Little Heath School Sunday 2 June 2013 Russia and Its Rulers

3 Meet the Examiner Top tips – Meet the Examiner Top tips – 10.30

4 What markers are told “ Candidates are expected to demonstrate understanding of the issues in each question over a period of at least a hundred years. Candidates are reminded of the synoptic nature of the Unit. Answers are required to demonstrate understanding of the processes of historical continuity, development and change across the full breadth of the period studied”.

5 How to be synoptic Those who write synoptically include references to various sections (or rulers) of the 100 year period in each paragraph Better candidates make cross references, comparisons and links between different periods in each paragraph The highest scoring essays will make consistent comparisons between different historical events relevant to the themes, often on a sentence by sentence basis.

6 How to achieve A* ‘Several candidates scored full marks on both essays. They demonstrated a remarkable ability to write synoptically. They produced a good overview introduction, then cross-referenced, thoughtfully selecting evidence to support their argument and counter-argument before concluding with a clear judgement based on their prior arguments’. Chief Examiner’s Report – January 2012

7 How to get stuck at C ‘There seems to be a reluctance or inability amongst some candidates to structure answers in such a way which provides direct cross comparison of material from different historical periods. This is a pity, because many candidates clearly have plenty of relevant knowledge at their disposal, and could boost their overall mark by a whole grade by simply making more direct cross comparisons within paragraphs’. Chief Examiner’s Report – June 2011

8 How to get stuck at C ‘Weaker candidates, graded at C or below, adopt a chronological approach, with synoptic assessments being made in a more random manner, often being left until the conclusion, or emerging fairly infrequently in the course of the essay’. Chief Examiner’s Report – June 2011

9 How to do really badly ‘Answering a question that has been written or prepared in advance rather than the EXACT QUESTION ON THE PAPER leads to candidates being marked down as their answers are insufficiently focused on the key words in the question’. Chief Examiner’s Report – Every Year!

10 How to plan in the exam The most effective answers were usually preceded by a brief outline or plan of the candidates' intended approach. This practice is strongly recommended. Better plans indicate the key words of the question and the direction in which the answer is to go. ‘Candidates who want to achieve high grades must focus their answer on the key word or phrase in the question’. ‘Candidates need to spend a significant amount of time planning their answer and thinking about the themes they will use before they begin to write’. Chief Examiner’s Report – June 2011

11 Introducing yourself First impressions are important! ‘The candidates who perform best are those who indicate some cross comparison in their opening paragraph as a way of establishing a particular argument in relation to the question. In this opening paragraph, they establish which themes are relevant to the question, then structure the rest of the essay around discussion of these themes’. Chief Examiner’s Report – June 2011

12 Turning Point Essays In the June 2011, January 2012 & June 2012 Chief Examiner’s reports these essays have been identified as causing candidates problems. This is because ‘they simply produce a list of possible turning points and then analyse each one in turn, but this does not allow synthesis or comparison between different turning points’. In other words although 4 or 5 possible turning points are discussed, each has its own separate paragraph with comparison missing until the end.

13 Turning Point Essays The Chief Examiner recommends 2 good approaches: 1.Select 4 or 5 major events and then approach the essay thematically by analysing their impact in terms of issues such as political, social, economic etc. In this way candidates will ensure that they compare the events in each paragraph and can conclude that event X might be most important in terms of political change, but event Y is more important in terms of economic development. However this approach is wrong if the question specifies ‘most important turning point in the development of Russian government’. ‘Development in government’ still confuses candidates, who include large sections on the economy and economic policies. The focus must be on governmental areas, politics, parties, one party state, structural changes, constitutions and the like; the failure to create constitutional monarchy or rule, the failure of representative government and representative bodies; repressive methods, methods of control, support, the fate of opposition etc.

14 Turning Point Essays Turning point essays specifying ‘Development in government’: ‘ There was a tendency to write off the importance Nicholas II and especially of the two Revolutions in 1917 without appreciating the significance of the massive changes generated by events in that year. There was a common formulaic dismissal of the February Revolution as insignificant simply because the Provisional Government was short- lived, ignoring the significance of the end of Tsarist rule and the way that this made October possible. Nevertheless, the best answers tended to suggest that October 1917 had more to offer than Stalin in terms of importance, often categorising by ideology, repression and liberalism and forms of benevolence. A good number of candidates presented Stalin’s government as a continuation of Lenin’s with Stalin taking further developments already begun, so they rated Lenin as more important’.

15 How to annoy the marker ‘Unfortunately some candidates still use abbreviations such as Alex II, AIII, N2 or PG; some even state at the start that this is what they will do. This short-hand neither looks good nor reads well’. Chief Examiner’s Report – June 2011

16 The Exam – The Exam – 10.45

17 The Examination Two essays 60 minutes each Choice of 3 titles

18 The Specification 4 topic areas Examiner will set one essay from 3 of the 4 topic areas in each examination season

19 The Specification 1.Russian rulers: similarities and differences in the main domestic policies of Alexander II, Alexander III, Nicholas II, the Provisional Government, Lenin, Stalin, Khrushchev. 2.The nature of government: autocracy, dictatorship and totalitarianism; change and continuity in central administration; methods of repression and enforcement; the extent and impact of reform; the extent and effectiveness of opposition both before and after The impact of the dictatorial regimes on the economy and society of the Russian Empire and the USSR: changes to living and working conditions of urban and rural people; limitations on personal, political and religious freedom; extent of economic and social changes. 4.The impact of war and revolution on the development of Russian government: the effects of the Crimean War, the Japanese War, 1905 Revolution, 1917 Revolutions, World War One, World War Two, the Cold War.

20 Question styles –Government before / after 1917 Aims – what did each ruler want to achieve Methods – how did each ruler rule; their policies (reform / repression) Outcomes – how successful was each ruler in achieving their aims Essays asking whether one ruler was better than the rest at ‘something specific’. –Essays comparing the nature of Russian government before and after 1917 –TURNING POINT essays especially related to turning points in how these changed the ways in which Russia was governed –Essays about opposition  Which ruler / regime controlled opposition most successfully  When and why was opposition more / less successful –Living and working conditions – society and the economy Peasants Proletariat (or BOTH together) –Essays about whether WARS or REVOLUTIONS changed Russian government most

21 UNIT F966 Question/ Topic Area JAN “The nature of Russian government was changed more by Stalin than by any other ruler.” How far do you agree with this view of the period from 1855 to 1964? [2] 11.Assess the view that all the rulers of Russia had similar aims in domestic policy in the period from 1855 to [1] 12.Assess the view that the lives of the peasants in Russia did not improve in the period from 1855 to [3] JUNE How far do you agree that the October Revolution of 1917 was the most important turning-point in the development of Russian government in the period from 1855 to 1964? [4} 11.Assess the view that Russia’s communist leaders did less than the Tsars to improve the lives of the working class in the period from 1855 to [3] 12.“Opposition to Russian governments was ineffective in the period from 1855 to 1964.” How far do you agree with this view? [2] JAN Assess the view that the 1905 Revolution changed Russian government more than other events in the period from 1855 to [4] 11.‘Communists and Tsars ruled Russia the same way.’ How far do you agree with this view of the period from 1855 to 1964? [1] 12.Assess the view that economic change in Russia was more successful under Stalin than any other ruler in the period from 1855 to [3] JUNE Assess the view that the condition of the peasantry in Russia was transformed in the period from 1855 to [3] 11.‘The communist rulers were effective autocrats; the Tsars were not.’ How far do you agree with this view of Russian government in the period from 1855 to 1964? [2] 12.‘‘All Russia’s rulers tried to modernise Russia.’ How far do you agree with this view of the period from 1855 to 1964? [1] See also past questions from previous very similar specification (ended in 1956 not 1964)

22 UNIT F966 Question/ Topic Area See also past questions from previous very similar specification (ended in 1956 not 1964) JAN ‘Lenin was more successful in dealing with opposition than any other ruler of Russia in the period from 1855 to 1964.' How far do you agree with this view? [2] 11.‘The development of Russian government was influenced more by war than any other factor.’ How far do you agree with this view of the period from 1855 to 1964? [4] 12.How far does a study of living and working conditions in the period 1855 to 1964 suggest that the Russian peoples lost more than they gained after 1917? [3] JUNE How far do you agree that Stalin’s rise to power was the most important turning-point in the development of Russian government in the period from 1855 to 1964? [2] 11.‘The rulers of Russia were reluctant reformers.' How far do you agree with this view of Russia in the period from 1855 to 1964? [1} 12.‘The peoples of Russia were consistently repressed by their rulers.’ How far do you agree with this view of the period from 1855 to 1964? {3] JAN ‘Wars had more impact than revolutions on the development of Russian government.' How far do you agree with this view of the period from 1855 to 1964? [4] 11.Assess the view that Russia’s communist leaders did less than the Tsars to improve the lives of the peasants in the period from 1855 to [3] 12.‘The aims of all the Russian rulers were the same.’ How far do you agree with this view of the period from 1855 to 1964? [1]

23 OFQUAL RULING Ofqual have recently told the Exam Boards that no question can be repeated in the life of a specification; Therefore however similar the questions you see on the paper this June may appear to those from a previous paper, there will be important differences.

24 Question Planning – Question Planning – 12.00

25 Three questions to plan – How far do you agree that the 1905 Revolution was the most important turning-point in the development of Russian government in the period from 1855 to 1964? – Assess the view that Stalin dealt with opponents more effectively than any other Russian ruler in the period from 1855 to – Assess the view that opponents of the rulers of Russia were consistently ineffective in the period from 1855 to 1964.

26 Question Key Words and Phrases in the question Key issues to be discussed Line of Argument PointIdeas and line of argument. (How does this tie to the key words in the title) Content (Which different periods to compare) Introduction Conclusion

27 How far do you agree that the 1905 Revolution was the most important turning- point in the development of Russian government in the period from 1855 to 1964?

28 First thoughts Key Words Key Theme to focus on My argument and counter-argument My probable overall judgement

29 Five Paragraphs What can I focus each paragraph on to enable me to then write synoptically, cross- referencing and comparing several turning points in each paragraph (if not sentence by sentence)? 1.P1 2.P2 3.P3 4.P4 5.P5

30 Assess the view that Stalin dealt with opponents more effectively than any other Russian ruler in the period from 1855 to 1964.

31 First thoughts Key Words Key Theme to focus on My argument and counter-argument My probable overall judgement

32 Five Paragraphs What can I focus each paragraph on to enable me to then write synoptically, cross- referencing and comparing several rulers in each paragraph (if not sentence by sentence)? 1.P1 2.P2 3.P3 4.P4 5.P5

33 Assess the view that opponents of the rulers of Russia were consistently ineffective in the period from 1855 to 1964.

34 First thoughts Key Words Key Theme to focus on My argument and counter-argument My probable overall judgement

35 Five Paragraphs What can I focus each paragraph on to enable me to then write synoptically, cross- referencing and comparing several opponents (opposition groups) / rulers in each paragraph (if not sentence by sentence)? 1.P1 2.P2 3.P3 4.P4 5.P5


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