Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

About 3000 b.C Greece was a rocky and scantily fertile country. The islands of the Aegean Sea were almost inhabitated, Crete was the unique exception.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "About 3000 b.C Greece was a rocky and scantily fertile country. The islands of the Aegean Sea were almost inhabitated, Crete was the unique exception."— Presentation transcript:

1

2

3 About 3000 b.C Greece was a rocky and scantily fertile country. The islands of the Aegean Sea were almost inhabitated, Crete was the unique exception. Few people habited Crete about the 6000 b.C.; usually hunters, farmers, stockbreaders and potters. Some potters founded in Crete had a high quality (well painted, well neats and well decorated). Certainly commerce were between Crete, Asia Minor and Egypt. Crete was in the area of influence of the phoenicians and the egiptians. Export trade favoured the change of ideas, technology and culture. This period of the Bronze Age hardly lasted 1500 years, between the 2600 b.C to the 1100 b.C, that was an age and a culture that have been called “minoan” - name taked from Minos, a legendary king of the island-.

4 At the XIII century b.C. the ancient kingdoms in Greece were attacked.by unknown warriors.The result was a global war: Troya. The rivality of the Aegean´s cities drived to an increase of piracy and military forces. The Troya´s War is the principal theme of a book: the Iliad (from “Ilion”, the ancient name of the city). The Iliad is the story of the first writted war between two different cultures. It described a greek campain against the phoenician city of Troya. The story starts when Helen, the Sparta´s* queen that fall in love by a Troya´s prince, Paris. His husband, Menelaos, wont revenge and called his brother Agameon, king of Mycenae* to help him. As the principal king of Greece, Agameon transformed a little expedition of punnishment to a very big expedition with more than 1,000 ships and 100,000 men. The best greek warriors of all went with Agameon, Menelaos and his fleet across the Agean Sea. The battle continued along 10 years. In a serie of duels most of trojean´s and greek´s heroes dyed. *Sparta: name of a ancient greek polis. Esparta was the most fighting city of the antiquity. *Mycenae: name of another city at the ancient Greece, near the istmus of Corinth.

5 The Odyssey tell us that at the end of the war the greeks made a very big horse made of wood that left in front of the city as a present while the greek fleet went away. But this a tramp, inside the horse were hided the best greeks warriors. The trojeans entered the horse in the city and at night the greeks went out the horse and open the doors of the city. Meanwhile the greek fleet tourned back and attacked.

6  MARATHON  Date : 490 b.C.  Forces:  Persians: 20.000-25.000 men  Greeks: 10.000  Localization: 42 km north from Athene  Deads:  Persians: 6.400 men  Greeks: 192 men  A fleet made of 600 triremes transported the persian army across the Agean Sea to Marathon, near Athene.  At the same time the athenians sent their hoplitas with a little Platea*´s force to the north. Miliciad, the most fighting athenian warrior, gave the order and the greeks attacked. The persians were surprised by the greek infantery, ordered in close formation direct to the enemy. The persian line was destroyed at the flanks. In the centre was the greek phalanx. This last was broken by a low a hail and the Persians´s auxiliary´s axes. The battle finished when the persians tried to go back to their ships.  *Platea: name of a small greek polis.  THE BLOCKADE OF SYRACUSA  Date: 415-413 b.C.  Forces:  Athenians:30,000 men  Spartans: 3,000 men  Localization: Syracusa, at the east of Sicyle.  Deads:  All the athenians forces.  At the year of 413 b.C the athenians sent an expedition to capture the city of Syracusa because it was an allied of Sparta. The objetive was to kill the defenders by hungry. But 3,000 spartans arrived and change the situation. Weakness, epidemies and the lack of medecines do the rest. At last 7,000 athenians were defeated and their generals were executed.

7 THE ATHLETE The mental and physique capacity had military involvements. The future soldiers (nowadays and before) must be in good form to defend their city. The stadiums and the gyms must secure future soldiers. At the classic age, in all the greeks polis the gyms were public places. The atletic reunions were religious and practical ones. THE MASCULINE BODY. Another basic element was the beauty of the male undress since women couldn´t enter in the stadiums. The female nudity only was in fashion in the greeks temples at the V century b.C. The winners of the olimpic games were almost gods for a day. The winners won only a crown made of olive´s leaves, taken from the forest of Olympia, that gave a physique link with gods and other criatures. THE OLIMPIC GAMES The olimpic games were celebrated every 4 years. They were celebrated in a small town called Olympia, built in a sacred forest called “Altis” near Cronos mountain. The first olimpics games ever celebrated were at 776 b.C, when Koribis –athlete from Elis- won the stadium´s running. This were the sports :the stadium´s runnin´g, putting the shot, pancration, long jump, running and racehorses.

8 After an easy infancy the boys were sent to school to became a model of soldier, of cityzen or politician. Maybe women only learnt things to be good wifes and good mothers. When a boy reach 7 years old, goes to school with the help of a paidagogos ( a very special slave). The paidagogos went with him anywhere. There was a law that say that the children couldn´t be at the street at night, so the classes started half an hour after dawn and it finished half past before the twilight. The classes were in teachers´s home and the boys learnt to read, write, maths and music. To the girls was very different, the slaves taught them how to be good cookers, wifes and mothers. When a boy was 12 years old learnt physical education (in this age this is the most important subject to the greeks). The classes were in the palaistra, a big clear space. The teacher of this subject was the paidotroves. The boys did this exercise undress. Then they ``have a shower´´ to be clean. The school finished when the boy was 18 years old.

9 ATHENE AND THE SEA ATHENE AND THE SEA At the 480 b.C Athene had a fleet of 200 ships. At the 477b.C was created the Delos League, Athene was the most important member of the League; it had the biggest navy of the Aegean Sea. To be oasman in a trireme was a big honor for the youngmen. But have a cost. The athenians docks had been Greece as a dessert almost without trees. At the 480 b.C Athene had a fleet of 200 ships. At the 477b.C was created the Delos League, Athene was the most important member of the League; it had the biggest navy of the Aegean Sea. To be oasman in a trireme was a big honor for the youngmen. But have a cost. The athenians docks had been Greece as a dessert almost without trees. SPARTA AND THE LAND SPARTA AND THE LAND All men in Sparta was a soldier. Only the strong people could live in Sparta. When a boy was 7 years old he left his house to learnt how be a well soldier. In Sparta almost had no food and the boys usually stole. All men in Sparta was a soldier. Only the strong people could live in Sparta. When a boy was 7 years old he left his house to learnt how be a well soldier. In Sparta almost had no food and the boys usually stole. THE SPARTAN ARMY THE SPARTAN ARMY 6 mora-1 mora: 4 lochos -1 lochos -4 enemotia 6 mora-1 mora: 4 lochos -1 lochos -4 enemotia 1 mora: 456 men /1 lochos: 114 men / 1 enemotia: 36 men 1 mora: 456 men /1 lochos: 114 men / 1 enemotia: 36 men

10 DEMOCRACY* DEMOCRACY* It was originated in Athene. In this age Athene had 50 bosses or pritans that wrote the laws. All the weeks the athenians went to a hill near the city to vote, they also chose the 10 generals that defend the city.If in the city were dangerous people, the pritans could sent them out of the city about 10 years (ostracism). It was originated in Athene. In this age Athene had 50 bosses or pritans that wrote the laws. All the weeks the athenians went to a hill near the city to vote, they also chose the 10 generals that defend the city.If in the city were dangerous people, the pritans could sent them out of the city about 10 years (ostracism). OLIGARCHY OLIGARCHY In this system a king or 2 kings have got all the power, this be title were transmitted from parents to the 1 st son. In this system a king or 2 kings have got all the power, this be title were transmitted from parents to the 1 st son. TYRANNY TYRANNY In this system a despot* have got all the power but in this case the power couldn´t be transmitted anywhere. In this system a despot* have got all the power but in this case the power couldn´t be transmitted anywhere. *Democracy: it came from the greeks words ``demos´´(people) and ``kratos´´(power). *Democracy: it came from the greeks words ``demos´´(people) and ``kratos´´(power). *Despot: Boss that have got all the power in his hands. *Despot: Boss that have got all the power in his hands.

11 SOCRATES SOCRATES He was born at the 470 b.C in Athene. He became famous for asking people questions about philosophy and ethics. When he was 70 years old the pritans sent him out the city. He was born at the 470 b.C in Athene. He became famous for asking people questions about philosophy and ethics. When he was 70 years old the pritans sent him out the city. PLATO PLATO He was born at 428 b.C. He wrote a lot of books about maths, politics and ethics. He also intented to make a perfect politic system. He created a school near Athene where the boys learnt philosophy. He was born at 428 b.C. He wrote a lot of books about maths, politics and ethics. He also intented to make a perfect politic system. He created a school near Athene where the boys learnt philosophy. ARISTOTLE ARISTOTLE He was an alumn of Plato. He was the master of Alexander Magnum about 3 years. He created a school, the liceum. He wrote books about politic, science, ethics, music and maths. He was an alumn of Plato. He was the master of Alexander Magnum about 3 years. He created a school, the liceum. He wrote books about politic, science, ethics, music and maths.

12 Euclid of Alexandria (Greek: Εὐκλείδης) (about 325 BC-265 BC) was a Greek mathematician who lived in Alexandria, Egypt. Little is known about this person, but people think he lived there when Ptolomy I was the pharaoh. Euclid of Alexandria (Greek: Εὐκλείδης) (about 325 BC-265 BC) was a Greek mathematician who lived in Alexandria, Egypt. Little is known about this person, but people think he lived there when Ptolomy I was the pharaoh. Many people see Euclid as the father of geometry, which is an important part of mathematics. His most popular work is Elements. Many people see the book as history's most successful textbook. In the book, Euclid shows the properties of geometric objects and of whole numbers. This is the same method as modern mathematics uses. Many people see Euclid as the father of geometry, which is an important part of mathematics. His most popular work is Elements. Many people see the book as history's most successful textbook. In the book, Euclid shows the properties of geometric objects and of whole numbers. This is the same method as modern mathematics uses. It is not known where or when he was born or why he died. It is not known where or when he was born or why he died. Herodotus of Helicarnassus was an Ancient Greek historian who lived between 484 BC and 425 BC. He was probably born in a rich family in Halicarnassus, a town in south-west Asia Minor (which is now Bodrum, Turkey). Herodotus is considered to be the "Father of History" for his writings about the ancient empires of Babylon, Egypt, and Persia, and about the Ancient Greeks. He is now most famous for his writings about the wars between the Persian Empire and the Greek city-states. He told the story from the Greek side but he never saw it becausethe war was mostly finished when he was still a child. In his books, Herodotus tells us that he travelled a lot. He says that he went to what is now Italy, the Ukranie, Egypt, and Sicily. He often used stories from people he met to write about other places and happenings. Some people think that Herodotus wrote about things that weren´t true. This is possible, but it is also possible that he thought these things were true. His work is important because he lived so long ago and there is very little writing on these subjects from this time.

13 Greek alphabet Αα Alpha Νν Nu Ββ Beta Ξξ Xi Γγ Gamma Οο Omicron Δδ Delta Ππ Pi Εε Epsilon Ρρ Rho Ζζ Zeta Σσς Sigma Ηη Eta Ττ Tau Θθ Theta Υυ Upsilon Ιι Iota Φφ Phi Κκ Kappa Χχ Chi Λλ Lambda Ψψ Psi Μμ Mu Ωω Omega The Greek alphabet (indo-european language) is the first and oldest alphabet, and has givan rise to many others alphabets used in Europe (Latin alphabet) and Middle East. It has notes: vowels and consonants with a separate symbol.The letters were also used to represent numerals, beginning in the 2nd century BC. The Greek alphabet (indo-european language) is the first and oldest alphabet, and has givan rise to many others alphabets used in Europe (Latin alphabet) and Middle East. It has notes: vowels and consonants with a separate symbol.The letters were also used to represent numerals, beginning in the 2nd century BC. Became from the Phoenician alphabet –semitic language- (not related to linear B or the Cypriot syllabary). The Greek alphabet arose after the Greek Dark Ages — the period between the downfall of Mycenar (ca. 1200 BC) and the rise of Ancient Greece, which begins with the appearance of the epics of Homer, around 800 BC, and the institution of the Ancient Olimpic Games in 776 BC.

14 ART CLASSIC After the persians wars, a new tipe of art was born that had as prime theme the human body. At the V century b.C this theme grow to study how the human body work, for example the kourus also called “The boy of Kritios” (look at the photo downwards) The statue has got a happy expression and it isn´t symmetrical. The greek art like to represent all the normal life. HELLENIC It was the time of the 7 wonders of the world, and the greek objects were sold to all the ancient world. The best sculptures of this age are the Victory of Samocracia, the Venus of Milo, the fighting gallic and the Pergamo gate. The potters were painted with different colors and the people sold more potters.The Roman Empire took from the greeks this tipe of art and copied it. ARCHITECTURE The creation of the polis showed an increment of the religious, and civil buildings. The mayority part of the normal buildings of the years 600-480 b.C. were very simple, but the temples were big and magnificient. The architecture was the most important art at that time because all the people could see the buildings. The greeks knew about the egiptians so could study their temples, and they made temples with a similar manner. There was 3 types of columns: dorich, Ionic and Corinthian.

15 By the increase of the business some greeks left their polis to create new cities. Some of this cities had commercial links with the metropolis. The creation of the new polis was in same way a reflex of their natal city with identical politic, laws and temples. About the VII th century b.C there was greek colonies at the Black Sea costs, Libya (Ciren),at the south of Italy, Sicily and also at the south of France. All of these colonies gave commodities: woll of the north of Ciren, Asia Minor and Italy, cereals from Black Sea cost, cereals and clothes from Sicily and papyrus from Egipt… Sicily was so big that the romans called it ” Magna Graecia”. About the VII century b.C wer created colonies at the Black Sea. The libyan colony of Cirene created sub-colonies in Afrika. But Carthage*, a phoenician colony, was angry with these colonys because they were a commercial competitor. A lot of colonies had military problems because of the rise of new states like Rome, Carthage and Macedonia. *Carthage: City at the north of Afrika. It was a city of sellers and traders.

16 BIOGRAPHY BIOGRAPHY He was born in the kingdom of Macedonia at 356 b.C. He was the son of the king Philip II of Macedonia and Olimpia, his 4th wife. He was born in the kingdom of Macedonia at 356 b.C. He was the son of the king Philip II of Macedonia and Olimpia, his 4th wife. He was the regent of Macedonia and he carryed the royal seal at his father´s expedition to Byzantium. When he was 18 years old sent the cavalry charge that destroy the Sacred Batallion at the battle of Queronean. He was the regent of Macedonia and he carryed the royal seal at his father´s expedition to Byzantium. When he was 18 years old sent the cavalry charge that destroy the Sacred Batallion at the battle of Queronean. When his father was killed he became the new king. When his father was killed he became the new king. At 334 b.C he crossed the Hellespont with 40,000 men and 10,000 cavalry to liberate Asia Minor and try to conquest the persian empire. Alexander thought that he was the son of Achilles. In Egipt, at the Amon temple, the high priest called him “son of Zeus.” At 334 b.C he crossed the Hellespont with 40,000 men and 10,000 cavalry to liberate Asia Minor and try to conquest the persian empire. Alexander thought that he was the son of Achilles. In Egipt, at the Amon temple, the high priest called him “son of Zeus.” At the battle he always were on vanguard and he liked to lead the cavalry charge. Usually he was also the first to climb the walls of a city blockade. At the battle he always were on vanguard and he liked to lead the cavalry charge. Usually he was also the first to climb the walls of a city blockade. His important victories in Issus and Gaugameal against persians with more soldiers and weapons ld him conquest all the Persian Empire. His important victories in Issus and Gaugameal against persians with more soldiers and weapons ld him conquest all the Persian Empire. At 327 b.C Alexander was married with Roxan, a persian princess, and he had a son. At 327 b.C Alexander was married with Roxan, a persian princess, and he had a son. At 326 b.C after the conquest of the Punjab kingdom (at the north of India) he defeated the king Poros at Hidasps, this was his last battle. At 326 b.C after the conquest of the Punjab kingdom (at the north of India) he defeated the king Poros at Hidasps, this was his last battle. At the 323 b.C he dyed in Babylonia without an official sucessor. At the 323 b.C he dyed in Babylonia without an official sucessor.

17 ISSUS ISSUS Date: November of 333 b.C Date: November of 333 b.C Forces: Forces: Macedonians: 35, 000 men Macedonians: 35, 000 men Persians: 110,000 men Persians: 110,000 men Localization: At the centre of Turkey Localization: At the centre of Turkey Deads: Deads: Macedonians: 450 men Macedonians: 450 men Persians: 50,000 men Persians: 50,000 men At 333 b.C Alexander had conquested all the north of the mediterranean cost. The persian king, Darius III, left Babylonia with a big army, and the two armies meet in Turkey. At 333 b.C Alexander had conquested all the north of the mediterranean cost. The persian king, Darius III, left Babylonia with a big army, and the two armies meet in Turkey. Alexander modificate the phalanx -made by 16 men by line-. The battle was this way: first the phalanx destroyed the centre of the persian line, mainwhile the cavalry destroyed the flanks. When all was a brawl Alexander started to pursuit Darius, but he left this action when the right flank started to broke. The persian king escaped to fight another time. Alexander modificate the phalanx -made by 16 men by line-. The battle was this way: first the phalanx destroyed the centre of the persian line, mainwhile the cavalry destroyed the flanks. When all was a brawl Alexander started to pursuit Darius, but he left this action when the right flank started to broke. The persian king escaped to fight another time. HIDASPS HIDASPS Date: 326 b.C Date: 326 b.C Forces: Forces: Alexander : 6,000 infantery, 5,000 cavalry King Parvataka: 30,000 men, 100 elefants Localization: North-west of the India Localization: North-west of the India Deads: Deads: Alexander 310 men King Parvataka 23,000 men At 326 b.C The Persian Empire were already conquest, Alexander went to the north of India. This action did not likethe king Parvataka. A new battle was settled. Alexander divided his forces. Parvataka put his army on the other side of the river when he found Alexander nearby. More than 100 elefants had in front of the bowmen and other infantery. Alexander sent his cavalry behind the enemies. The light infantery hurted the elefants, they became nervious and attacked the indian soldiers and allies behind them. The brawl was bloody, but the men of the king Parvataka left the battle at the twilight. At 326 b.C The Persian Empire were already conquest, Alexander went to the north of India. This action did not likethe king Parvataka. A new battle was settled. Alexander divided his forces. Parvataka put his army on the other side of the river when he found Alexander nearby. More than 100 elefants had in front of the bowmen and other infantery. Alexander sent his cavalry behind the enemies. The light infantery hurted the elefants, they became nervious and attacked the indian soldiers and allies behind them. The brawl was bloody, but the men of the king Parvataka left the battle at the twilight. This was the last big battle of Alexander the Great. This was the last big battle of Alexander the Great.

18  The hellenism represent the fusion of the greek culture with another cultures.  The words hellenic and hellenistic came from Helas (Greece) or Hellene (Greeks).In Greece, Macedonia, Asia Minor, Egypt and Persia, Alexander the Great created a new culture.  When Alexander dyed his generals fought between them making the sucessor states.Only the greek culture survived and the Romans copied it.

19  The end of the Ancient Egypt is a period of change. Egypt was an hellenistic province, an Roman province and afterwards a Byzantium province.  At 323 b.C when Alexander the Great dyed, Egypt was a province of a big empire and Ptolomeo Lagos was the regent. At the 304 b.C Ptolomeo became the pharaoh and his descendants reigned about 300 years more. The Ptolomeos made the first Egiptian money.  The ptolemaics made temples, statues… but they didn´t oblige the egyptians to be greeks. The greek-egyptian culture appeared at the Rosseta stone, write in 3 languages.  Ptolomeo became made his capital Alexandria. Alexandria was the symbol of the kingdom and his legendary library became an important place for the greek science.  About the I century b.C the roman appeared in Egypt. The egyptian liberty finished when Cleopatra VII be allied with the looser in civil Roman war. The winner Octavius Augustus incorporated Egypt to Rome as a province.

20  The greek world disappeared as all the empires has, but it gave us a legacy. The romans brought the greek culture to all Europe.  The romans became the protectors of Greece around the II century AC.  When the Roman Empire was divided the importance of the greek culture increased. Then a lot of intelligent men read some greeks books and thought about them.  Without the greeks there weren´t democracy, nor the french nor the american revolution.

21 SOME GENERAL INFORMATION SOME GENERAL INFORMATION Area: 131 857 km2 Area: 131 857 km2 Population: 10 561 000 (greeks) Population: 10 561 000 (greeks) Capital: Athene Capital: Athene Language: modern greek Language: modern greek Religion: Christianity (98%), Islam (1,5%) Religion: Christianity (98%), Islam (1,5%) Money: Euro. Money: Euro.

22

23


Download ppt "About 3000 b.C Greece was a rocky and scantily fertile country. The islands of the Aegean Sea were almost inhabitated, Crete was the unique exception."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google