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1 Mrs. Eby GA Studies The Revolutionary War Period.

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1 1 Mrs. Eby GA Studies The Revolutionary War Period

2 2 Objectives: SS8H3: The student will analyze the role of Georgia in the American Revolution. −Explain the immediate and long term causes of the American Revolution & their impact on Georgia including…the Declaration of Independence −Analyze the significance of people and events in Georgia on the Revolutionary War to include Loyalists, Patriots, Elijah Clarke, Austin Dabney, Nancy Hart, Button Gwinnett, Lyman Hall, George Walton, Battle of Kettle Creek, and the siege of Savannah

3 3 The shot heard ‘round the world The battle of Lexington & Concord (in MA) was the first battle of the war – April 1775 It was May before news of the battle reached Georgia Georgians were now forced to take a stand on their feelings toward Britain −Protests increased −Tories were openly harassed & the governor was ignored

4 4 Preparing for War Three weeks after the battle of Lexington & Concord, the Second Continental Congress met −Sent petition to King George III asking him to stop unfriendly steps against the colonies −Formed Continental Army which was to be led by George Washington Georgia sent a late unofficial delegate, Lyman Hall (from Midway) The other colonies were angered at Georgia for its lack of support −Some suggested the youngest colony be punished

5 5 Georgia takes action A Provincial Congress met and decided the colony should send representatives to Second Continental Congress −Lyman Hall, Archibald Bulloch, John Houstoun, Noble Wimberly Jones, & Rev. John Zubly −Delegates were instructed to vote as they thought best for the common good of Georgians

6 6 New Georgia Government Council of Safety met to prepare to form a new government −They officially withdrew from Great Britain which left Gov. Wright with no power −Wright was arrested by Patriots when he tried to convince the colony to allow Britain to buy supplies from them −Wright later escaped and left Georgia leaving the Council of Safety to govern Council issued “Rules & Regulations” which were to be used to govern until a more permanent document could be created

7 7 The Declaration of Independence In January of 1776, Thomas Paine’s Common Sense urged colonists to separate from Great Britain −By the end of the year, 500,000 copies were sold −His writings influenced colonial thought & the Second Continental Congress July 4, 1776 – Second Continental Congress approved the Declaration of Independence −Written mostly by Thomas Jefferson −3 parts: Preamble (Introduction) Body (27 grievances against King George III & government) Conclusion (Declared the colonies to be an independent nation for all future times) −Three Georgians signed: Lyman Hall Button Gwinnett George Walton

8 8 Reaction to Declaration Declaration meant that the colonies were one nation Most in Georgia were excited by the Declaration of Independence, but some returned to England Georgians began to prepare for war −Sent food & ammunition to the Continental Army −Began to strengthen Georgia militia

9 9 Georgia’s (&other colonies) new goal was statehood This meant a new method of government must be decided Work was begun on a new constitution Some wanted government to remain in control of wealthy landowners Some (Whigs) wanted everyone to have a chance to govern themselves Whigs won & new government was to based upon: the separation of powers the rights of citizens to agree with how they were governed Political Changes in Georgia

10 10 Constitution of Georgia May 1777-first state constitution was adopted in Savannah Eight counties were formed to replace parish system New constitution replaced bi-cameral legislature with unicameral legislature Powers of the governor were extremely limited −One-year terms −Selected by legislature instead of people −This left the 12 member executive council with most of the power (they could accept or reject any governor proposal) −John Treutlen, a Salzburger, was the first state governor

11 11 Articles of Confederation First constitution of United States (1781) Ratified by Georgia in 1778

12 12 Revolutionary War in Georgia 1777 & 1778 – Georgian members of Continental Army tried unsuccessfully to take over British controlled St. Augustine & parts of east Florida December 1778 – British troops attacked and took control of Savannah January 1779 – British troops took over port of Sunbury Georgia’s army was understaffed and poorly armed – there was little they could do to stop the British Georgia was again under British military rule −Governor Wright returned to take charge

13 13 Battle of Kettle Creek Morale in the colonies was low February 1779 – Georgia finally had a victory Rebel group led by Colonel Elijah Clarke defeated a force of more than 800 troops at the Battle of Kettle Creek This battle was a minor one, but very important to GA −Gave the troops much needed weapons & horses from British soldiers −Improved morale of militia

14 14 Siege of Savannah September 1779 – 4,000 French troops joined American forces to lay siege to Savannah October 1779 – American & French troops attacked British positions −Attack failed −Over 1,000 American & French forces were killed −Savannah was to remain in British hands for 3 ½ more years

15 15 Nancy Hart Georgia’s most famous war heroine In 1771, Hart’s neighbor, John Dooley, was murdered by Tories A few days later, five Tories stopped by Mrs. Hart’s house & demanded she feed them dinner −She overheard them bragging about the murder She gave them whiskey to drink and sent her daughters to get help As she served them, Nancy Hart quietly took their rifles −One of the men noticed when she took the third rifle −When they went after her, Mrs. Hart shot one of the men & took another rifle and held the rest at gunpoint until help arrived −The rest of the Tories were eventually put on trial and hanged

16 16 Battle of Yorktown George Washington & the Continental Army received help from the French to win this battle French forces delayed the arrival of ships carrying 6,000 British troops to Yorktown, VA American forces won the battle and General Cornwallis of Britain was forced to surrender By 1782, British forces in Savannah believed they could not defeat the Americans and left The Treaty of Paris was signed by Great Britain, France, and the United States in September1783 −Independence was a reality!

17 17 Blacks in the American Revolution One of the men who fought alongside Elijah Clarke in the Battle of Kettle Creek was Austin Dabney (freeborn mulatto) He had come from North Carolina with a man who did not want to serve in the militia, so he recommended Dabney serve in his place Dabney served honorably and was wounded in battle After the war, veterans were given land to repay them for their service −Some did not want Dabney to receive the land, but he eventually did and made the land very profitable

18 18 Blacks in the Revolutionary War Other blacks served in the War Virginia proposed freeing all slaves who were willing to fight Some people, fearing slave rebellion, were afraid to arm slaves Georgia & South Carolina were the only two states to refuse to legalize slave enlistments After the war, antislavery sentiment mounted Many blacks were given freedom & land after the war In the south, the decline of crops made farmers reluctant to free their slaves

19 19 Looking Back at the Revolution Clearly Britain began the war at an advantage: −Strong central government −Better, more professional army −Strong Navy −Well-financed −Divided loyalty of colonists The colonists had a few advantages, but they could not be overcome by England: −Fighting on their home soil −British were far from home (difficulty getting supplies) −No central area that could be captured (spread out) −Battle areas were forests & swamps unfamiliar to British

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