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Lecture 6: Health & Safety & Environment (29 slides) Lecturer: Prof. Anatoly Sachenko Information Technology.

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Presentation on theme: "Lecture 6: Health & Safety & Environment (29 slides) Lecturer: Prof. Anatoly Sachenko Information Technology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lecture 6: Health & Safety & Environment (29 slides) Lecturer: Prof. Anatoly Sachenko Information Technology

2 2 Lecture Overview  Ergonomics  Health Issues  Precautions  Environment

3 3 Ergonomics - Definitions  As we spend increasing amounts of time at our computer workstation  we need to be aware of how the design and arrangement of our equipment can impact our comfort, health, and productivity  Ergonomics (or human factors) is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects, systems and environment for human use  Ergonomics is a science concerned with the ‘fit’ between people and their work (continued on the next slide)

4 4  It puts people first, taking account of their capabilities and limitations  Ergonomics aims to make sure that tasks, equipment, information and the environment suit each worker  Applying ergonomics to the workplace:  Reduces the potential for accidents  Reduces the potential for injury and ill health  Improves performance and productivity Ergonomics - Definitions (continued)

5 5  accommodate you  allow the full range of motions involved in performing required tasks, and  provide room for the equipment and materials that make up the workstation  use a headset for lengthy or frequent telephone work  place the items you use most frequently directly in front of you  avoid overcrowding computer work area Work Area Should be Large Enough to:

6 6  Contrary to popular belief  sitting, which most people believe is relaxing  is hard on the back  Sitting for long periods of time can cause increased pressure on the intervertebral discs  the spongy discs between the vertebra  Sitting is also hard on the feet and legs  Gravity tends to pool blood in the legs and feet,and  create a sluggish return to the heart Ergonomics – Sitting Conditions

7 7  "Dynamic sitting“  don’t stay in one static position for extended periods of time  When performing daily tasks, alternate between sitting and standing, OR  take small walking breaks throughout the day  The chair back should have a lumbar support  Adjust height of backrest to support the natural inward curve of the lower back  It may be useful to use a rolled towel, lumbar roll or cushion to support the low back Recommendations Increasing Sitting Comfort for Computer Users

8 8  The angle of the back rest is subjective, but  the trunk and upper legs should form an angle between 90 to 115 degrees  Adjust height of chair so feet rest flat on floor  Sit upright in the chair with the low back against the backrest and the shoulders touching the backrest  Thighs should be parallel to the floor and knees at about the same level as the hips  Back of knees should not come in direct contact with the edge of the seat pan  There should be 2-4 inches between the edge of the seat and the back of the knee  Use a footrest when attempts to adjust your chair and the rest of the workstation fail to keep your feet on the ground Recommendations Increasing Sitting Comfort for Computer Users (cont-d)

9 9  Armrests should be removable and the distance between the armrests should be adjustable  Adjust height and/or width of armrests so they allow the user to restarms at their sides and relax/drop their shoulders while keyboarding  Don’t use armrests to slouch  Elbows and lower arms should rest lightly on armrests so as not to cause circulatory or nerve problems  Adjust keyboard height so shoulders can relax and allow arms to rest at sides Ergonomics – Arms Conditions

10 10  Position the keyboard directly in front and be close to the user to avoid excessive extended reaching  Forearms parallel to the floor (approximately 90 degree angle at elbow)  Mouse should be placed adjacent to keyboard and at the same height as the keyboard  A padded wrist rest will help to keep your wrist in a straight and neutral position while typing and keep your arms off the sharp edges of the work surface  Do not rest your wrists or hands on a palm or wrist rest when you are keying  These rests are designed to provide support only during breaks from keying Ergonomics – Keying Conditions

11 11  The slope of the keyboard may need to be adjusted so that it is flat in order that your wrists are straight, and not bent back while you are typing  Press the keys gently  If your work surface is too high and not adjustable, adjust your chair to bring your arms to the proper position  If you raise your chair make sure your feet are properly supported  The mouse is present in virtually every office environment  Handed versions of mouses are designed specifically to the contours of either the right or left hand Ergonomics – Keys and Mouse

12 12  Placing the mouse too far away, too low, or too much on one side can cause shoulder, wrist, elbow, and forearm discomfort  Placing the input device directly in your immediate reach zone offers natural comfort and maximum hand-to-eye coordination  Make sure you are sitting high enough for the workstation to be slightly below elbow height so that your hand rests naturally on the mouse  Mousing demands a certain level of surface stability; if used on a keyboard tray, the tray should not wobble or tip  Test different models of mousing devices, trackball or other input devices Ergonomics – Mousing

13 13  Consider the shape and size of the devices, how comfortably it fits into your hand, ease of operation, and any special features that might make your job easier  Ensure that you have some space (2-3") between the top of your thighs and the underside of your workstation  Have enough space under your work surface so that you can pull your self all the way up to the edge of the desk with room for your legs and knees to fit comfortably  Once the chair and work surface height are properly adjusted, the computer monitor should be placed so the top of the screen is at or just below eye level when seated in an upright position Ergonomics – Work Surface

14 14  Make sure the surface of the viewing screen is clean  Adjust brightness and contrast to optimum comfort  Position the monitor directly in front of the user to avoid excessive twisting of the neck  User must position the monitor at a comfortable viewing distance, approximately 18-30 inches from the user  Position monitors at right angles from windows to reduce glare  Close window blinds as needed to reduce glare from sunlight Suggestions Preventing Eye Strain Development +Neck Pain & Shoulder Fatigue

15 15  Position monitors away from direct lighting which creates excessive glare or use a glare filter over the monitor to reduce glare  Adjust the monitor tilt so that ceiling lights do not reflect on your screen  If a document holder is used, it should be placed at approximately the same height as the monitor and at the same distance from the eyes to prevent frequent eye shifts between the monitor screen and reference materials  Get regular eye check-ups  Adjust as needed for larger screens  You may need to sit farther away and increase the font size to take full advantage of the larger screen Suggestions Preventing Eye Strain Development +Neck Pain & Shoulder Fatigue (cont-d)

16 16  Bifocal and trifocal wearers have to pay particular attention to the placement of their monitor  Wearers of bifocals and trifocals often unknowingly tilt their heads backwards so they can read the screen through the lower portion of their glasses  This can sometimes lead to neck, shoulder, and back discomfort Ergonomics – Other Suggestions

17 17  Lighting not suited to working with a computer is a major contributing factor in visual discomforts including eyestrain, burning or itching eyes, and blurred or double vision  Supplemental desk lighting is better than overhead lighting for reading or printed copy  Potential solutions include either lowering the computer monitor or purchasing glasses designed specifically for working at the computer Ergonomics - Other Suggestions (con-d)

18 18 Ergonomics (examples)

19 19 Ergonomics (examples)

20 20 Health Issues  With the increase in computer use, a number of health and safety concerns related to vision and body aches and pains have arisen  Many problems with computer use are temporary and can be resolved by adopting simple corrective action  Most problems related to computer use are completely preventable  However it is important to seek prompt medical attention if you do experience symptoms including:  Continual or recurring discomfort  Aches and pains (continued on the next slide)

21 21  Throbbing  Tingling  Numbness  Burning sensation or stiffness  Laptop computers can present particular problems due to small screens, keyboards and inbuilt pointing devices (e.g. a small portable mouse or touchpad)  The main risks associated with using computers include:  Musculoskeletal problems  Eye strain and a greater awareness of existing eye problems Health Issues (continued)

22 22  Musculoskeletal problem can range from general aches and pains to more serious problems and include:  Upper limb disorders such as repetitive strain injury (RSI) tenosynovitis and carpal tunnel syndrome  by far the most important as it can quickly lead to permanent incapacity  Back and neck pain and discomfort  Tension stress headaches and related ailments  These types of problem can be caused by:  Maintaining an unnatural or unhealthy posture while using the computer  Inadequate lower back support  Sitting in the same position for an extended period of time  An ergonomically poor workstation set up Health Issues – Musculoskeletal Problem

23 23  Computer users can experience a number of symptoms  related to vision including:  Visual fatigue  Blurred  Or double vision  Burning and  Watering eyes  Headaches and  Frequent changes in prescription glasses Health Issues – Eyes Problem

24 24  Computer work hasn't been proven to cause permanent eye damage, but  the temporary discomfort that may occur can  reduce productivity  cause lost work time, and  reduce job satisfaction  Eye problems are usually the result of visual fatigue  or glare from bright windows  or strong light sources, light reflecting off the display screen  or poor display screen contrast Health Issues - Eyes Problem (con-d)

25 25 Precautions  You should always use the power cables which were supplied with your computer  Or cables of a similar quality  Make sure that the cables are safely secured at the back of the desk, and that  You have power points located near the desk  If your desk has a cable ducting system make sure that you use it  Avoid long trailing cables as you or other people  can easily trip over them and  cause injury to yourself or others

26 26 Precautions (continued)  Apart from personal injury, accidentally pulling out a power cable could cause your computer to lose power and you will lose data as a result  Network cables tend to be delicate and easily damaged  and the most common cause of failure to log onto a network server is  that someone has accidentally dislodged or damaged the network cables  Overloading of a power point is dangerous and a potential fire hazard  If you need more power sockets, have them properly installed by a qualified electrician

27 27 Environment  You should have a separate bin for paper  which can be sent for recycling  be sure that sensitive material is first shredded  Printer toner cartridges can be sent for recycling  in fact some charities now collect spent toner cartridges, and  send them for recycling  You may also wish to consider the use of recycled toners in your printers  but be aware that in some cases  this may invalidate the printer’s guarantee

28 28 Environment (continued)  Many monitors and other peripherals will automatically switch into 'sleep' mode after a period of inactivity  This means that even though the computer is still switched on, it will consume less power  Where possible the use of on-screen manuals and help systems  rather than printed manuals  it will save on the amount of paper consumed  This equates to less trees being cut down

29 29 References  European Computer Driven Licence, Syllabus version 4.0, 2006.   J. Glenn Brookshear. Computer science an overview, Sixth edition, Addison Wesley, 2001, 688 p.  Brookshear J.G.: Informatyka w ogólnym zarysie, Wydawnictwo WNT, Warszawa 2003.

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