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Fundamental English… M.6

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1 Fundamental English… M.6
Atthawut Trakitthornkul

2 Past Participle = Verb 3 @.. Be + Verb 3 … Passive voice
1. The phone is answered automatically. 2. They have been informed already. 3. The books should be returned today. 4. The plane was delayed by bad weather. 5. My paper has not been typed.

3 Past Participle = Verb 3 @.. Passive voice of infinitive
The play was to be canceled, but it was only postponed. The finalists are to be named at the next meeting. The results of the exam are to be announced tomorrow morning.

4 Past Participle = Verb 3 @.. Have + verb 3…(Perfect)
We have lived in Seattle for five years. Have you written your mother a letter?. Ray has given us a lot of help since we arrived. I have taken this medication since 1985. We have been friends since we were children.

5 Past Participle = Verb 3 @.. Adjective + noun..
We want to buy a used car. The untested theory can not be used for reference. The spoken language can not be used in the formal letter. There are many unseen islands in Thailand. You should study the other related topics.

6 Past Participle = Verb 3 + verb 3 (adjective)
bored / boring, frightened / frightening Worried / worrying, interested / interesting, Annoyed / annoying disturbed / disturbing amazed / amazing surprised / surprising concerned / concerning

7 Past Participle = Verb 3 I am interested in your biography.
Your voice is annoying me. I felt worried about Thailand economy. I am frightened to see a cruel guy.

8 Past Participle = Verb 3 (adjective Clause ลดรูป)
John is a teacher. He is teaching English. John who is teaching English is a teacher. John teaching English is a teacher Jim is in Samutprakarn. He is advised to rest at his home by the doctor. Jim who is advised to rest at his home is in SMK. Jim advised to rest at his home is in SMK.

9 Past Participle = Verb 3 - Sufficiency Economy is a philosophy.
A philosophy is bestowed by His Majesty the King. - Sufficiency Economy is a philosophy which is bestowed by His Majesty the King. - Sufficiency Economy is a philosophy bestowed by His Majesty the King.

10 We used to study…. He is speaking English.
He was walking on the road when he saw me. She is happy. Gold is what I want. Jim is a teacher. I am in Samutprakarn. I am interested in your car. This movie is interesting me.

11 We used to study…. My hobby is to collect the stamps.
My hobby is collecting the stamps. You were advised to see a doctor. You are taller than Jim. I am always happy.

12 So………………… Be + v+ing…Continuous. Be + V3……Passive Voice.
Be + V+ing (adjective)… Be + V 3 (adjective) Be + adjective Be + Noun Clause. Be + preposition

13 So………………… Be + gerund.. Be + infinitive
Be + adverb of frequently + adjective… Be + adverb of degree + adjective… Be + singular countable noun… Be +

14 Correct / Incorrect The prettiest girl in our class with long hair.
The prettiest girl in our class has long hair. In my opinion, too soon to make a decision. In my opinion, It is too soon to make a decision. Sam almost always a lot of fun. Sam is almost always a lot of fun.

15 So.. Sentence Subject + VI +…… Subject + VT + DO….
Subject + VT + DO + OC… Subject + verb to be + subjective complement. Subject + IO + DO…

16 Sentences Simple Sentence Compound Sentence Complex Sentence
Compound and Complex Sentence

17 What is it? She always walks to school.
The hospital where I was born is on Srinakarin road. He speaks English and writes it very well. Jim’s son is studying in Thailand and his daughter is studying in Japan. I am reading the book named “JoJoBongo”. He was walking to school when he met me.

18 What is it? 7. When you met me, you told me what you were thinking.
8. Jim and John are ACSP students. 9. Jim reads and writes a letter. 10.Jim read the newspaper and his friend reads the magazine. 11. My friends who are plying football pass the exam.

19 Noun Clause Adjective Clause Adverb Clause
Clauses Noun Clause Adjective Clause Adverb Clause

20 What is it? What you see is my friend.
I will see you when I have a free time. If I were you, I would help the poor. I can not go to school because I am sick. The car which I bought yesterday was stolen. It is raining heavily so the road is flooded. I am what I am.

21 What is it? 8. The car which is yellow is stolen.
9. He said that you had got less scores. 10. I don’t know where the voice is from. 11. I think of what you need. 12. I have seen you since you were in Primary 1. 13. When I went there, the concert had been over. 14. This is my car which my mom buys it for me.

22 Verbs that Require an infinitive.
Agree / decide / appear / arrange / ask / want / demand / deserve / observe / fail / forget / hesitate / hope / intend / hope / manage / mean / need / offer / plan / prepare / pretend / promise / refuse / seem / tend / wait

23 Verbs that Require an infinitive.
He wanted to speak with Mr. Atthawut. We want to know our status. They did not plan to buy a new car. We promised to see you again. They learn to adapt themselves with new events. Don’t hesitate to ask me what he is.

24 Verbs that Require an infinitive.
One of the least effective ways of storing information is learning……… it. a. how repeat b. repeating c. to repeat d. repeat 2. Representative democracy seemed evolve simultaneously during eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in Britain, Europe, and the United States.

25 Verbs the require –ing form
Admit / appreciate / avoid / complete / consider / delay / deny / discuss / enjoy / finish / keep / mention / miss / postpone / practice / quit / recall / recommend / regret / risk / stop / suggest / understand/

26 Verbs the require –ing form
Jim completed writing his thesis this summer. I risked driving a car in town. The students appreciate studying English. We enjoyed playing football. The students always postpone doing their homework.

27 Verbs the require –ing form
1.John finished……..two of his published compositions before his tenth birthday. a. written b. write c. to write d. writing 2. Many people have stopped to smoke because they are afraid that it may be harmful to their health.

28 Verbs the require –ing form
Approve of / carry on / keep on / count on / look forward to / think of / get through / be better off / forget about / insist on

29 Verbs the require –ing form
I have been looking forward to seeing you. I insisted on promising to see you. We approved of running your business. I think of taking a trip to Vietnam. It is better off speaking English.

30 Events in the past of must
I must have gone to Hong Kong. I must have seen your familiar face. This pens don’t write, It must have run out of ink. He streets were wet, It must have rained last night.

31 Past Custom: Used to / Be used to / Get used to
1. I used to study at Vermont of University. 2. I am used to studying at Vermont of University. 3. I used to speak in public. 4. I am used to speaking in public. 5. I used to drink too much. 6. I get used to drinking too much.

32 Past Custom: Used to / Be used to / Get used to
1. Harvard……. a school for men, but now is coeducational, serving as many women as men. a. was used b. used to be c. was used to d. was used to be 2. As television image of the astronauts showed, even for trained professionals who are used to move about in a lessened gravitational field, there are still problems.

33 Subjunctive verbs Ask / demand / desire / insist / prefer / propose / recommend / request / require / suggest / urge

34 Subjunctive verbs 1. Incorrect: The doctor suggested that he will not
smoke. - The doctor suggested that he not smoke. 2. Incorrect: I propose that the vote is secret. - I propose that the vote be secret. 3. Incorrect: The law requires that everyone has his car checked. - The law requires that everyone have

35 Impersonal Expression (subjunctive verbs)
Essential / imperative / important / necessary It is important that the idea be verified. It is imperative that you be on time. It is important that he speak English.

36 Impersonal Expression (subjunctive verbs)
It is necessary……. the approaches to bridge, and alignment in such a way as to best accommodate the expected traffic flow over and under it. a. plan b. to plan c. planning d. the plan 2. It is important that vitamins are supplied either foods or by supplementary tablets for normal growth to occur.

37 Relative Pronouns that Refer to person
The people who cheated on the examination had to leave the room. Who is the man who asked the questions? Did you meet the girl whom I want to see ? The student whose house is in Bangkok always absents school.

38 Relative Pronouns that Refer to person
1. Charlie Chaplin was a comedian…. Was best known for his work in silent movies. a. who b. which c. whose d. what Absolute zero, the temperature, at whom all substances have zero thermal energy and thus, the lowest possible temperature, is unattainable in practice.

39 One / Another / Other (Adjective)
One movie starts at five, another movie starts at seven, and the other movie starts at nine. 2. One bus leaves at five, another at six and the other at seven.

40 One / Another / Other (Pronoun)
I have three cars. One is blue, another is white and the other is red.

41 One / Another / Other (Pronoun)
There are three kinds of eclipse: one is total, another is annular and…….. a. the another is partial b. the partial is other c. other is partial d. the other is partial One of the most popular major fields of study for foreign scholars in the United States is business and the another is engineer.

42 Cause and Result- So / so……that
He is so slow that he never gets to class on time. He is slow so he never gets to class on time. The suitcase is so heavy that I can hardly carry it. The suitcase is heavy so I can hardly carry it.

43 Cause and Result- So / so……that
Oil paints…… they have become the most popular painter’s colors. a. so versatile and durable that b. so versatile and durable than c. such versatile and durable as d. such versatile and durable that

44 Cause and Result- So / so……that
2. By the mid-nineteenth century, land was such expensive in large cities that architects began to conserve space by designing skyscrapers.

45 Cause and Result- / such
It was such a hot day that we went out. It was so hot a day that we went out. There are such long assignments that I can’t finish them. This is such a good news that I will call him.

46 Cause and Result- / Too This tea is too hot to drink.
English is too easy to study. Mathematics is too difficult (for me) to study. The top shelf in the cupboard is too high (for me) to reach. This brand is too expensive to buy.

47 Despite / In spite of Despite the interruption, she is able to finish her assignment on time. In spite of the interruption, she is able to finish her assignment on time. Despite the delay, they arrived on time. In spite of the delay, they arrived on time.

48 Despite / In spite of …..under Chief Tecumseh, the Shawnees lost
most of their lands to whites and were moved into territories. a. In spite of resistance b. In spite resistance c. Spite of resistance d. Spite resistance 2. Despite of the fact that backgammon is easy to learn, It is as difficult to play as chess.

49 Because / Because of They decided to stay at home because the
weather was bad. They decided to stay at home because of the bad weather. Classes will be cancelled tomorrow because it is a national holiday. 4. Classes will be cancelled tomorrow because of a national holiday.

50 Because / Because of …….. In the cultivation of the forest, trees need
more careful planning than any other crop does. a. Because the time and area involved b. For the time and area involving c. Because of the time and area involved d. As the time and area involved

51 Because / Because of Many roads and railroads were built in the 1880s
because of the industrial cities needed a network to link them with source of supply.

52 Affirmative Agreement So / Too
My wife will talk to him, and so will I. My wife has talked to him, and so have I. My wife talked to him, and so did I. My wife is talking to him, and so am I. She took pictures, and I did too. She took pictures, and I did also.

53 Affirmative Agreement So / Too
Technically, glass is mineral and……….. a. water so b. water is so c. so is water d. so water is Some birds can travel at speeds approaching on hundred miles an hour, and a few land animals can so.

54 Negative Agreement Neither / Either
My roommate won’t go, and neither will I. My roommate hasn’t gone, and neither have I. My roommate doesn’t go, and neither do I. My roommate won’t go, and I won’t either. My roommate hasn’t gone, and I haven’t either. My roommate doesn’t go, and I don’t either.

55 Negative Agreement Neither / Either
Although they are both grown in the United States and exported abroad, corn is not native to America and winter wheat…… a. is neither b. isn’t either c. isn’t either d. is either 2. According to many educators, television should not become a replacement for good teachers, and neither are computers.

56 Enough with Nouns Enough with Adjective
There aren’t enough cars for all of us to go. There aren’t cars enough for all of us to go. Do we have enough hamburgers for the party? Do we have hamburgers enough for the party? Billy isn’t old enough to enlist in the army. His score was good enough to qualify him for a graduate program.

57 Between / Among The choice is among a vanilla, chocolate, and
strawberry ice cream cone. Rick and his wife can usually solve their problems between them. The property was divided equally between his son and daughter.

58 Between / Among Although it is difficult….., a frog is more likely to
to be smooth and wet, and a toad rough and dry. a. distinguishing among a frog and a toad b. distinguish a frog and a toad c. Between a frog and a toad distinguish d. to distinguish between a frog and a toad

59 Between / Among In a federal form of government like that of the
United States, power is divided between the legislative, executive, and judicial branches.

60 Similar to / Similar This coat is similar to that one.
This coat and that coat are similar. These coats are similar. I would really like to have a stereo that is similar to the one on display. The stereo that I would really like to have and the one on display is similar.

61 Similar to / Similar The vegetation in temperate zones all around the
world is……. a. similar b. like c. same d. as 2. The medical problems of parents and their children tend to be very similar to because of the hereditary nature of many diseases.

62 Like / Alike The weather feels like spring.
That suit is like that suit. These suits are alike. Your recipe for chicken is like a recipe that my mother has. Your recipe for chicken and is a recipe that my mother are alike.

63 Like / Alike Although they are smaller, chipmunks are…….
most other ground squirrels. a. like to b. like as c. like d. alike 2. The first living structures to appear on earth of years ago were alike viruses.

64 The same as / The same This coat is the same as that coat.
This coat and that coat are the same. These coats are the same. Your car is almost the same as mine. Your car and mine are the same.

65 The same as / The same Although we often use “speed” and “velocity”
interchangeably, in a technical sense, “speed” is not always…….. “velocity”. a. alike b. the same as c. similar d. as

66 The same as / The same When two products are basically the same as,
advertising can influence the public's choice.

67 Adjective with Verbs of Senses
Feel / seem / sound / taste / smell / look / become / Turn / I felt bad about the mistakes. Although the medicine tastes bad, it seems to help my condition. We love to go to the country in the spring because the wild flowers smell so sweet.

68 Adjective with Verbs of Senses
If one is suffering psychosomatic illness, that is, a disease contributed to by mental anxiety , one may still feel very…….. a. badly b. bad c. worse ly d. worsen

69 Adjective with Verbs of Senses
2. It has been proven that when a subject identifies a substance as tasting well, he is often associating the taste with the smell.

70 For / Since She has been in The United States for ten years.
She has been in The United States since June. She has been in The United States since she was ten years. We have been studying in ACSP since we were in Primary 1.

71 For / Since Penguins, the most highly specialized of all
aquatic birds, may live……..twenty years. a. before b. since c. for d. from Because national statistics on crime have only been kept for 1930s, it is not possible to make judgment about crime during the early years of the nation.

72 Causative / make Make + someone + do Make + something + do
His mother made him take his medicine. You make me ask some questions. I made the machine work. I made a car move.

73 Causative / Get Get + someone + to do (infinitive)
Get + something + done (past participle) Let’s get John to go with us. Do you think that we can get Karen to take us to England? 2. Nora got her mother’s dress altered so that it fit perfectly.

74 Causative / Have Have + someone + do Have + something + done
Tome had a tooth filled. Have your had temperature taken yet? I like the way you had the beautician do your hair? They had their lawyer change their wills.

75 Causative / Let Let + someone + do Let + something + do
When I learn to drive, my dad let me use his car. Would you let us borrow your notes? Don’t let that bother you. He doesn’t let people take advantage of him.

76 Causative / Help Help + someone + do / to do
Her husband always helps her to do the dishes. Her husband always helps her do the dishes. This book should help you to understand the lecture. This book should help you understand the lecture.

77 Fact Conditions If water freezes, it becomes a solid.
If children are healthy, they learn to walk at about eighteens months old. If orange blossoms are exposes to very cold weather, they wither and die.

78 Fact Conditions / Probable Results for the Future
If we find her address, we will write her. If you put too much water in rice when you cook, it will be sticky. We will wait if you want to go. If you listen to the questions carefully, you will answer them easily.

79 Fact Condition / Possible Results
If we found her address, we would write her. If she ate fewer sweets, she would lose weight. If you went to bed earlier, you wouldn’t be so sleepy in the morning. If you went to school earlier, you would be happy.

80 Fact Conditions / Probable Change in Past Results
If we had found her address, we would have written her. If we had had the money, we would have bought a new stereo system. 3. If her mother had let her, Anne would have stayed longer.

81 Contrary to Fact – Impossible Results - Were
If the party were on Friday, we could go. If Barbara were really my friend, she would call me once in a while. If my daughter were here, I would be very happy.

82 Condition / Unless I can’t go unless I get my worked finished.
You won’t get well unless you take your medicine. Dean never call his father unless he needs money. You can’t pay the rent unless the scholarship check comes.

83 Subjunctive Verbs 1.























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