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The Nervous System Unit 6 Objectives 1. Describe the 3 parts to the neuron1. Describe the 3 parts to the neuron 2. List the main divisions of the nervous.

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Presentation on theme: "The Nervous System Unit 6 Objectives 1. Describe the 3 parts to the neuron1. Describe the 3 parts to the neuron 2. List the main divisions of the nervous."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Nervous System Unit 6

3 Objectives 1. Describe the 3 parts to the neuron1. Describe the 3 parts to the neuron 2. List the main divisions of the nervous system2. List the main divisions of the nervous system 3. List the functions of the nervous system3. List the functions of the nervous system 4.Identify and label parts of the brain and major nerve4.Identify and label parts of the brain and major nerve 5. List some common brain disorders5. List some common brain disorders

4 General Divisions of Labor Central Nervous SystemCentral Nervous System Peripheral Nervous SystemPeripheral Nervous System Autonomic Nervous SystemAutonomic Nervous System

5 Central Nervous System Named for: LocationNamed for: Location Consists of: Brain and Spinal CordConsists of: Brain and Spinal Cord Function: Control CenterFunction: Control Center

6 Peripheral Nervous System Named for: LocationNamed for: Location Consists of: Spinal, Somatic, and Cranial Nerves (Receptors)Consists of: Spinal, Somatic, and Cranial Nerves (Receptors) Function: Relay CenterFunction: Relay Center

7 Autonomic Nervous System Named for: FunctionNamed for: Function Consists of: Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata, Spinal Cord, and Peripheral BranchesConsists of: Midbrain, Pons, Medulla Oblongata, Spinal Cord, and Peripheral Branches Functions: Independent Life FunctionsFunctions: Independent Life Functions

8 ANS Broken down intoBroken down into –Sympathetic NS- activates for F/F –Parasympathetic NS- calms body down OrganSympatheticParasympathetic PupilDilateConstrict GlandsSweatSalivary, Tears Heart RateAcceleratesSlows Bronchial Tubes DilateConstrict DigestionInhibitedStimulated UrineVolumes dropsVolume Increases Liver GlucoseStims. ReleaseInhibits Release

9 Main Functions CommunicationCommunication CoordinationCoordination OrientationOrientation AssimilationAssimilation

10 What’s It Made of? Neuron: Functional unit that makes up the nervous system, triggers to transmit informationNeuron: Functional unit that makes up the nervous system, triggers to transmit information

11 Neuron Structure

12 Neuroglia : Supporting cells that aid the neuron by feeding, protecting, and speeding up transmissions 65% of65% of brain tissue To surround neurons and hold them in placeTo surround neurons and hold them in place To supply nutrients and oxygen to neuronsTo supply nutrients and oxygen to neurons To insulate one neuron from anotherTo insulate one neuron from another To destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons.To destroy pathogens and remove dead neurons.

13 How do neurons communicate? How do neurons communicate? Neurons “connect” at a space called a SYNAPSENeurons “connect” at a space called a SYNAPSE They create action potentials that send a signal (from ions) that causes a release of neurotransmitters (chemical signals) that either excite or inhibit the next neuronThey create action potentials that send a signal (from ions) that causes a release of neurotransmitters (chemical signals) that either excite or inhibit the next neuron

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17 All or Nothing Response Neurons “rest” at -70mVNeurons “rest” at -70mV When voltage changes to +40 mV, the “threshold” has been reachedWhen voltage changes to +40 mV, the “threshold” has been reached The neuron fires!The neuron fires!fires NeurotransmittersNeurotransmitters Are released!

18 Neurotransmitters Acetylcholine- excitatory (arousal, attention, memory)Acetylcholine- excitatory (arousal, attention, memory) Dopamine- inhibitory (attention, learning, movement, pleasure)Dopamine- inhibitory (attention, learning, movement, pleasure) Serotonin –inhibitory (anxiety, dreaming, eating, sleep, mood, pain)Serotonin –inhibitory (anxiety, dreaming, eating, sleep, mood, pain) Noradrenalin/Norepinephrine- excitatory (activity, alert, heart)Noradrenalin/Norepinephrine- excitatory (activity, alert, heart)

19 More Vocab… Brain: Control center of nervous system, also called cerebrumBrain: Control center of nervous system, also called cerebrum Lobes: Division of the brain with specific functionsLobes: Division of the brain with specific functions Cranial Nerves: 12 pairs abbrev. By roman numerals that control head and neckCranial Nerves: 12 pairs abbrev. By roman numerals that control head and neck

20 Brain Terms

21 Lobes of the Brain Frontal LobeFrontal Lobe –Location: Front 50% of brain –Function: Intellect, Reasoning, Creativity, Social Awareness, Language and Personality Personality (movement as well)

22 Lobes of the Brain Parietal LobeParietal Lobe –Location: Top, Posterior portion –Function: Sensory Information (pain and touch), spatial relationships

23 Sensory Maps All sensory information is received in the parietal cortexAll sensory information is received in the parietal cortex Is there an even amount of neurons dedicated to every sense and body part?Is there an even amount of neurons dedicated to every sense and body part? NO!NO! Homonculus: diagram that represents the amount of space dedicated to each body partHomonculus: diagram that represents the amount of space dedicated to each body part

24 Sensory Homunculus

25 Lobes of the Brain Occipital Lobe:Occipital Lobe: –Location: Posterior Back, bottom –Function: Visual area that interprets shape, color, distance, etc. and sends info. to be recognized

26 Lobes of the Brain Temporal Lobe:Temporal Lobe: –Location: Posterior lateral portions –Function: Smell, taste, hearing (music, noise, speech  word to thought, memory)

27 Overall View of Function

28 Cerebral Hemispheres Location: Rt. vs. Lt., separated by longitudinal fissureLocation: Rt. vs. Lt., separated by longitudinal fissure Function: Left= language and reasoningFunction: Left= language and reasoning Right=Space, pattern, artistic, music, imagination Corpus Callosum: nerve fibers that connect the 2 hemispheres

29 Hypothalamus “Master Gland” Location: Deep, inner portion of brainLocation: Deep, inner portion of brain Function: Regulates metabolism and glandsFunction: Regulates metabolism and glands

30 Pituitary Gland Location: Deep in the sella tursicaLocation: Deep in the sella tursica Function: Secretes hormones including ADH, oxytocin, TSH, LH, ACTHFunction: Secretes hormones including ADH, oxytocin, TSH, LH, ACTH Extremely important gland for both nervous and endocrine system

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32 Brain Anatomy and Phys Pineal Gland:Pineal Gland: –Location: Superior to brainstem –Function: Circadian Rhythms Pons:Pons: –Location: Brain Stem –Function: Relays sensory information b/t cerebrum and cerebellum (possibly involved in dreaming)

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34 Brain Anatomy and Phys Medulla Oblongata:Medulla Oblongata: –Location: on the brain stem –Function: Autonomic Fxn’s (heart and lungs) Cerebellum:Cerebellum: –Location: Base of brain –Function: Sensory Input vs. Motor, coordinate movement, posture, balance, and equilibrium

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36 Cranial Nerves I-SmellI-Smell II-VisionII-Vision III-Eye MovementIII-Eye Movement IV-Eye RotationIV-Eye Rotation V-Face SensationsV-Face Sensations VI-Eye Move AwayVI-Eye Move Away VII-Face Expressions and 2/3 tongueVII-Face Expressions and 2/3 tongue

37 Cranial Nerves VIII- Sound, rotation, gravity, balanceVIII- Sound, rotation, gravity, balance IX-taste, salivary glandIX-taste, salivary gland X-heart and other ANS organsX-heart and other ANS organs XI-Neck MusclesXI-Neck Muscles XII-Tongue MusclesXII-Tongue Muscles

38 Ear Drum Hairs- Receptors

39 Retina of Eye

40 Nervous System Disorders Can be environmental, genetic, or bothCan be environmental, genetic, or bothgenetic Common disorders include:Common disorders include: –Parkinson’s Disease –Stroke –Alzheimer’s Disease –Meningitis

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42 What does the line show us?

43 Brain “terms” Gyrus: bump/bulge on cortexGyrus: bump/bulge on cortex Sulcus: Groove in the cortexSulcus: Groove in the cortex Cortex: Outer most layer of brainCortex: Outer most layer of brain Afferent Nerves: bring in somatic infoAfferent Nerves: bring in somatic info Efferent Nerves: Take out info (motor, gland, etc.)Efferent Nerves: Take out info (motor, gland, etc.)

44 Terms Revisited

45 Cerebral Cortex Dark PurpleDark Purple

46 Off Topics… The Science Of HeartacheThe Science Of HeartacheThe Science Of HeartacheThe Science Of Heartache Brain TricksBrain TricksBrain TricksBrain Tricks Can you live with half a brain?Can you live with half a brain?Can you live with half a brain?Can you live with half a brain?

47 Make the connection… Lower mammals tend to have a thinner cortex with fewer gyri and sulciLower mammals tend to have a thinner cortex with fewer gyri and sulci


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