Presentation on theme: "How to Incorporate Your Sources: Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing."— Presentation transcript:
How to Incorporate Your Sources: Quoting, Paraphrasing, and Summarizing
How do you get sources into your essay? Quoting Paraphrasing Summarizing
Quoting When you include the words of another in your essay, this is called a direct quote. Direct quotes must be 1. Placed in quotation marks* 2. Integrated properly 3. Cited using an in-text citation 4. Cited using a works cited page entry *Why do I have to use quotation marks if I use an in-text citation? It’s simple: Quotation marks indicate that these words were actually written by another. An in-text citation only indicates that the idea came from another. See the green box on p. 592.
Paraphrasing In SCW, the editors state that a paraphrase is you “restat[ing] the author’s ideas in your own words (McWhorter 589). By “your own words,” the editor McWhorter means that “you use different sentence patterns and vocabulary but keep the author’s intended meaning” (McWhorter 589). Also, paraphrases take up about as much space as the original material. Paraphrases must be 1. In your own words 2. Integrated/Clearly credited to the source 3. Cited using an in-text citation 4. Cited using a works cited page entry
Summarizing In short (no pun intended!), a “summary is a brief statement of major points”-- “only the main ideas, not the details” (McWhorter 63). Additionally, a summary “is about on-fifth of the original” (McWhorter 63). Like a paraphrase, a summary is also in your own words. Summaries must be 1. In your own words 2. Integrated/Clearly credited to the source 3. Cited using a works cited page entry
Before we move on, what does it mean to integrate a source? You’ll notice that quotes, paraphrases, and summaries must be integrated. To integrate a source means essentially to set it up or introduce it properly in your essay. Integrating requires that you use your own words to set up your use of the source. An introductory phrase or clause is the most direct way to set up. Here’s an example: John Merlin claims, “The only problem with all these pointed barbs is that few of them withstand close scrutiny” (545). The introductory phrase that I’ve used is “John Merlin claims.”
Integrating, continued The example that I just provided was for integrating a direct quote. How do you integrate for a paraphrase or a summary? The editors of your textbook write, “When integrating paraphrases or summaries, you may sometimes decide not to use an introductory phrase. In these instances, be sure that the source material is clear to the reader. If an in-text citation is in the wrong spot, readers may not be able to tell whether an idea is yours or the source’s” (McWhorter 610). So, if you choose to blend in your paraphrase or summary, you must make sure that your use of an in-text citation clearly signals to the reader that this is not your idea. Otherwise, you are plagiarizing. *I highly recommend integrating paraphrases and summaries using an introductory phrase or clause.
How do I know whether to quote, paraphrase, or summarize? Whenever you use a source, you are utilizing the authority of or behind the source, either to uphold that authority or to negate it. As you move from quote to paraphrase to summary, you move farther away from (though not completely away from) the source.
When should I quote? If you wish to directly utilize the authority of your source (either to uphold or negate it) If the writing in your source is exceptionally clear, unique/striking, or eloquent If you wish to use and/or expand upon terminology (key terms) that your source first came up with/introduced.
When should I paraphrase? If the writing/language in your sources is plain or unclear for any reason If you wish to indirectly borrow the authority of your source (either to uphold or negate it)….When you indirectly borrow the authority of your source by paraphrasing, you, in a way, retain more of your own authority, shine as the author of your own essay.
When should I summarize? If you need to condense the main idea(s) of a source If the main ideas rather than the details are important for your own essay If you need to succinctly establish prevailing views on your topic
Works Cited McWhorter, Kathleen, ed. Successful College Writing. 4th ed. Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2010. Print.