2 Learning Objectives Learn the definition of CPR Identify proper and improper ways of performing CPR Understand the functions of the heart and lungs Recognize when to begin CPR Learn how to perform CPR Know the conditions for stopping CPR 2
3 Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation CPR-what is it? C ardio = HEART P ulmonary = LUNGS R esuscitate = REVIVE Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation = Reviving the Heart and Lungs CPR is a technique used in an emergency when a person’s heart has stopped beating and their breathing has stopped 3
4 The Heart
5 C ARDIO = HEART Your heart has a simple, but important job. Your heart is a big, strong muscle that expands and contracts more than 60 times a minute………..Without you even being aware of it! It is automatically driven by electrical impulses and runs 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, with no vacation time!
6 The Heart The heart pumps blood containing oxygen, from the lungs to the rest of the body If your heart stops pumping, oxygen does not reach vital organs and they stop working. This is a true medical emergency!
7 Reasons the Heart Will Stop Heart attack Respiratory arrest Medical emergencies (Choking, poisoning, heat stroke, etc.) Drowning or suffocation Trauma Bleeding Electric shock 7
8 P ulmonary = Lungs You breath about 15 to 25 times each minute, and every breath you take brings oxygen into your lungs and get rid of carbon dioxide Your lungs function automatically just like your heart. You don’t have to think about breathing, it just happens!
9 If your body stops bringing oxygen into your lungs, there are only a few minutes before cells start to die and brain damage results Brain damage begins in four to six minutes and becomes irreversible in eight to ten minutes Oxygen is vital! 9
10 Without proper oxygen flow, red blood cells will die. With proper oxygen flow, red blood cells will be healthy. Oxygen and cells 10
11 CPR-how does it work? When the heart stops beating, oxygen is still available in the blood, but the heart is not moving it around CPR is a combination of simulating the breathing of the lungs and the beating of the heart This is done by performing chest compressions to keep the blood going to the cells These compressions provide oxygen for the blood and vital organs such as the lungs and brain 11
12 The effectiveness of CPR 95% of sudden heart attack victims die before they arrive at the hospital CPR is effective only 30% of the time Does this mean, you should not bother to do it? NO! If you do nothing, there is a 0% chance of the victim’s survival
13 When properly performed CPR simulates 40% of the body’s normal circulation That is not enough to sustain life for a long time. YOUR job is to delay the start of cell death until medical help is available to perform advanced life support. You should not expect CPR to restart a heart and have the victim pop back to life like is shown on TV! CPR 13
14 Chest Compressions Manually compress the heart by pressing down on the chest. When you let up on the chest, the heart expands. The hope is that by compressing and expanding the heart, the blood flows through the it as designed. Unfortunately, you don’t have an easy way to tell if the blood is flowing. You can’t feel for a pulse, or see results. You just need to believe in your efforts! 14
16 Determine unresponsiveness One Rescuer CPR 16
17 Check for responsiveness Tap or gently shake the casualty. Speak loud and ask, “Are you alright?” Don’t slap the casualty’s face Give bystander direction to call for an ambulance or yell for additional help 17
18 Head tilt/chin lift Use Jaw thrust if suspected or obvious trauma Open the airway 18
19 Open the airway By lifting the chin, the area indicated by the arrow remains open 23
20 Position of the rescuer’s head LOOK for rising chest LISTEN for sound of breathing FEEL breath against cheek Look-listen-feel 20
Feel for a Carotid Pulse 21
22 One Rescuer CPR NO breathing with pulse Begin Rescue Breathing Breathing and pulse are present Place in recovery position Observe patient NO breathing and NO pulse BEGIN CPR
23 Use index finger Move finger along the rib cage Expose the chest 23
24 Let fingers come to rest at the “V” where the ribs come together Use 2 fingers as guide for hand placement Locate the compression site 24
25 Put the heel of your other hand above the 2 fingers Place hand on lower half of sternum 25
26 Compression site Place hand used as 2 finger guide over the bottom hand and interlace the fingers as indicated by the arrow 35
Hand Placement for CPR 27
28 Begin compressions using proper body position cm deep 1.5 – 2 Inch deep Right! Wrong! Chest compressions 28
29 One Rescuer CPR Rate of compression – 100 per minute DO NOT STOP UNLESS: Someone takes over the compressions Medical help arrives The person starts to breath on his own You are too tired to continue 29
30 Two Rescuer CPR 30
31 Two Rescuer CPR With two rescuers you can allow the second person to take over compressions, as you become tired Communicate with the second rescuer so there is no interruption of compressions Two rescuers allows CPR to be conducted longer 31
32 What does CPR stand for? CPR MEANS: SAVING A LIFE!!
34 Review Define CPR and describe what the technique involves Explain the functions of the heart and lungs Demonstrate proper and improper body/hand positions for CPR Under what conditions would you begin CPR? Demonstrate proper way of performing CPR Demonstrate how to change rescuers during CPR