The Place of Scripture for Sikhs The written language of the Scriptures is Gurmukhi (today this is a form of "old Punjabi"). Sikhism has three main Scriptures: The Guru Granth Sahib, The Janamsakhis, The Dasam Granth. The most important Scripture is the Guru Granth Sahib - since this is the eternal Guru. The Dasam Granth is the "Tenth Collection" - the compositions of the tenth Guru only. The Janamsakhis are the "birth testimonies" of Guru Nanak - hagiography
The Dasam Granth – Guru Gobind Singh’s compositions, hence “Dasam” Granth Guru Gobind Singh’s teachings not in GGS Complied around 1734 – 26 years after his death = authenticity? Not necessarily used in worship
The Importance of the Guru Granth Sahib 1 st time hymns of Gurus, Hindu saints and Muslim saints collected together Guru Arjan’s main source for the compilation is identified as the mohan pothi, that is the Goindwal pothis or hymns. mohan pothi included the works of the first three gurus: that is, Nanak, Angad and Amar Das. The pothi (hymns) started by Guru Nanak was passed to each guru in turn, this pothi is today known as the mohan pothi, it was recovered from Bhai Mohan by Guru Arjan. It also contained works from the Sant mystics, this non-Sikh material is known by Sikhs as the bhagat bani - Kabir, Namdev, and Ravidas. Mohan was Guru Amardas’ son, after the death of the fourth guru, Ramdas, the pothi (hymns) written by the four gurus fell into the hands of Bhai Mohan. Scribe of the Adi Granth was Bhai Gurdas, Guru Arjan’s uncle. The first original Adi Granth was installed by Guru Arjan at Harmandir in 1604 CE. Bhai Budha, a devout Sikh, was appointed as the first granthi of the temple
No ceremony takes place without the Guru Granth Sahib Universal/tolerant nature of GGS Gurus not by name in GGS but M1, M2 etc. 3 different versions of the GGS; (a) The original copy inscribed by Bhai Gurdas (b) The Damdama version - the compositions of Guru Tegh Bahadur wereadded to the original sometime in the seventeenth century. (c) Banno version - this also supplements the Kartarpur text. A few hymns which had been crossed out by Guru Arjan were included into this copy. Guru Arjan declared this copy to be Khari-bir, that is, the forbidden copy.
Damdama version is used most often The GGs is the source and authority on Sikh beliefs and philosophy Not worshipped Wherever installed becomes a Gurdwara 1430 pages Akhand path – 48 hours Sehaj path Not mass produced – utmost care Translated into many languages – gora Sikhs
Utmost respect: Chauri higher level Canopy Carried on head Rumalas Resting place Respect by bowing Collection box All signs of royalty
Life cycle rites governed by Guru Granth Sahib: * Marriage service. * Naming ceremony. * All other Sikh rituals. * New business. * Some kind of trouble. * Continuous reading for the akhand path. The conclusion is called the bhog. * Reading with breaks for the sahaj path.
Not many homes have copy Gutka’s instead - passages used in daily prayer Woken up Laid to rest at night No priesthood – all can read, male and female Guru Arjan writes: “In the Platter (of this Book) are placed three things - Truth, Contentment and Wisdom, And also the Nectar-Name of the Lord, who is the Support of all. He, who tastes this Fare, Relishes it, and he is wholly Fulfilled”. (AG 1429)
Activity 1.Why do you think Guru Arjan found it necessary to compile the Adi Granth? 2.Critically evaluate the belief of the one spirit being eternally present in the Guru Granth Sahib. 3.Assess the importance of the Guru Granth Sahib as the eternal Guru of the Sikhs 4.Why do you think the hymns of the lower caste saints were included in the Adi Granth? Use Sikhnet The Sikh Missionary Society Sikhiwiki