5Vibration AnalysisIt is quite common for engineering structures to be exposed to excitation which is the result of the operation of one or more mechanical systems. Many times this excitation will be periodic or at least can be treated as if it is periodic. Non-periodic excitation (e.g. shock, earthquake, impulse, and random excitation) also occurs in specific situations. These forms of excitation require a more complex analysis and will not be dealt with here.Periodic excitation can result from unbalanced rotating or reciprocating components of machinery or equipment, wind or current effects, or a shaking foundation. Usually it is required to keep the amplitude of any vibration low so as to avoid substantial dynamic stresses, noise, fatigue, and other effects. Periodic excitation can be either harmonic or non-harmonic. Non-harmonic forms are handled by using Fourier analysis techniques to replace the original wave form with a series of sine and cosine terms which when added together reproduce the original excitation. In this manner, a complex wave is replaced with a
6Vibration Analysisset of harmonic functions and the analysis can be easily performed.Shown below is a damped single degree-of-freedom system which is being acted on by a time-varying harmonic force, F sin nt where n is the excitation or driving frequency of the external force. A free body diagram of the system now contains three external forces. Summing forces and gathering all system terms together gives an equation of motion of the formThe solution to this linear, constant coefficient, second order differential equation is called the particular or forced or steady-state solution which gives x(t) due to the continuous application of the excitation.
7Vibration AnalysisBy steady-state it is meant that whatever transient vibration occurs due to the initial application of the excitation has decayed away and only the response due to the excitation remains. If the magnitude of either F or n changes, the transient response will return and remain active for some amount of time which depends on the amount of damping present. This is shown in the figure below which displays the free, forced, and total responses.As can be seen in the figure, each case is solved independently and the results combined to produce the total response.
8Vibration AnalysisReturning to the forced response solution, since the excitation is a sine wave, the solution will be as well except that it will have a different phase angle than the excitation due to the presence of the damper. This means that the solution will have the formThe equation of motion can now be written as
9Vibration AnalysisA vector diagram containing each of these forces is shown below. The phase angle f is negative because response cannot occur until the excitation is applied, i.e. the response lags the excitation. Because the inertia and spring forces differ by p radians, the previous equation may be rewritten asThe force polygon can now be seen to form a right triangle and following equation relates F and X:This may be solved for X and f to get
10Vibration Analysis This yields the steady-state solution of And a complete solution ofThe steady-state solution can be non-dimensionalized as follows:
11Vibration Analysis Continuing the process yields where XS = Static response (deflection) of the system m = Dynamic amplification (magnification) factor r = Frequency ratio (n/w) z = Damping ratio (c/cc)A non-dimensional plot is obtained when the magnitude of the
12Vibration Analysisamplitude ratio (X/XS) is plotted as a function of the frequency ratio (r = n/w) for various values of damping ratio (z) as shown below. Notice that if the system is either undamped or very lightly damped and the frequency ratio is close to one, the amplitude ratio becomes extremely large meaning that it is very likely that the system will be damaged or destroyed.Also note that this plot is simply an edge view of a three dimensional surface which is a function of r and z. Each line represents a slice through this surface at a given value of z. When viewed in perspective and from an elevation, the surface can be easily seen.
14Vibration AnalysisAlso note that as z increases, the maximum amplitude is reduced and occurs closer to the origin. To determine value of r at which the maximum value occurs, the equation for m is differentiated with respect to r and set equal to zero. The resulting equation allows one to determine the value of r at the maximum for a given value of z.For z > 0.707, the static response is the largest system response.
15Vibration AnalysisThe phase angle (f) is also a function of the frequency ratio (r = n/w) and damping ratio (z). Shown below is the variation in phase angle with frequency for different amounts of damping.This graph can be divided into three areas of interest. These areas are easier to understand for the undamped case where m and f are equal toWhen r is less than 1, m is positive or k > mn2 and the mass moves in the same direction as F. This means the phase angle between F and x is zero as the stiffness dominates the response.
16Vibration AnalysisWhen r > 1, m is negative or mn2 > k and the mass moves in the opposite direction of F. This means that the phase angle between F and x is 180o and this results in the excitation force acting as a “brake” to help bring the mass to rest at its extreme displacement value.When r = 1, m is undefined which requires x(t) to be redefined as a cosine function in order to solve this problem. Redefining x(t) in this manner makes f = 90o.For the damped case m and f are given by
17Vibration AnalysisNotice that the phase angle now continuously changes with r due to presence of the damping term.The three cases r < 1, r = 1, and r > 1 are illustrated in the three figures below, (a), (b), and (c) respectively. As r, and hence n, increases from zero, both the damping and inertia terms also increase but the inertia term increases faster than the damping term which causes f to increase at an increasingly non-linear rate between 0o and90o.When r = 1, the inertia and spring terms have equal magnitudes so f = 90o.
18Vibration AnalysisWhen r > 1, the inertia term increases faster than the damping term which causes f to increase at a decreasingly non-linear rate.The phase equation also represents a surface as shown below. By rotating this plot it is possible to view the non-linear behavior of f.
19Vibration AnalysisAs mentioned earlier for the undamped case, when r = 1, m is undefined which means that X is infinite. However, the question becomes “How quickly does X grow to these extremely large values?”To answer this question requires x(t) to be redefined as a cosine function and the equation of motion to be solved for this new definition of x(t). Therefore, let x(t) be given bySubstituting into the undamped equation of motion yieldsEquating like terms yields
20Vibration AnalysisFor m = 1, w = 4, and F = 40, the resonance response is given in the figure below.
21Vibration Analysis For the damped case, m is determined from After the transient response decays outThe amplitude becomesWhen r = 1, the amplitude of vibration reduces toThis means that the amplitude is bounded and the presence of the mass causes the amplitude to build up to the peak value over time.
22Vibration AnalysisFor k = 16, c = 1, m = 1, w = 4, and F = 40, the complete resonance response (r =1, n = w, and f = p/2) is given in the figure below.
23Vibration AnalysisFor rotating unbalance, F(t) = meen2 sin(nt) and the response becomesThis response plots as the mirror image of F(t) = F sin(nt) which means that when r = 0, x(t) = 0 and when r is large, x(t) approaches a constant.