11Mouth Gastrovascular cavity Exchange Exchange Exchange 0.1 mm 1 mm How do complex animals exchange resources and waste with their environment?MouthGastrovascularcavityExchangeExchangeExchangeFigure 40.3 Contact with the environment.0.1 mm1 mm(a) Single cell(b) Two layers of cells11
12Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals External environmentCO2FoodO2MouthAnimalbody250 mBlodRespiratorysystemLung tissue (SEM)HeartCellsDigestivesystemInterstitialfluidNutrientsCirculatorysystemFigure 40.4 Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals.Excretorysystem100 m50 mLining of smallintestine (SEM)Blood vessels inkidney (SEM)AnusUnabsorbedmatter (feces)Metabolic waste products(nitrogenous waste)12
31Figure 40.6Figure 40.6 Signaling in the endocrine and nervous systems31
32The endocrine systemThe endocrine system transmits chemical signals called hormones to receptive cells throughout the body via bloodA hormone may affect one or more regions throughout the bodyHormones are relatively slow acting, but can have long-lasting effects
67Levels of two transcripts in an attempt to determine whether the circadian rhythm continues to run during hibernation. What conclusions can be made?Figure Inquiry: What happens to the circadian clock during hibernation?67
70Testing your understanding of the big picture Draw a model of the control circuit(s) required for driving an automobile at a fairly constant speed over a hilly road, or for a human controlling temperature within their body. Indicate each feature that represents a sensor, stimulus, or response.
71Figure 40.UN02Figure 40.UN02 Appendix A: answer to Test Your Understanding, question 871