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LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert.

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Presentation on theme: "LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert."— Presentation transcript:

1 LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures by Erin Barley Kathleen Fitzpatrick Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function within this chapter: tissue types thermoregulation metabolism Chapter 40

2 Overview: Diverse Forms, Common Challenges Anatomy is the study of the biological form of an organism Physiology is the study of the biological functions an organism performs The comparative study of animals reveals that form and function are closely correlated © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 how are the jackrabbit’s ears a product of the laws of physics?

4 Seal Tuna Penguin Convergent evolution

5 Theme of this unit: Life forms are machines that regulate homeostasis within a specific environment Focus of this chapter: Exchange with the environment Regulating that exchange

6 Concept 40.1: Animal form and function are correlated at all levels of organization Laws of physics set limits on biological morphologies. –Provide and example. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

7 Video: Shark Eating Seal

8 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Video: Galápagos Sea Lion

9 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Video: Hydra Eating Daphnia

10 Exchange with the environment A single-celled protist living in water has a sufficient surface area of plasma membrane to service its entire volume of cytoplasm VS. Multicellular organisms with a saclike body plan have body walls that are only two cells thick, facilitating diffusion of materials © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

11 How do complex animals exchange resources and waste with their environment? Exchange 0.1 mm 1 mm Exchange Gastrovascular cavity Mouth (b) Two layers of cells(a) Single cell

12 External environment Food Mouth Animal body Respiratory system CO 2 O2O2 Lung tissue (SEM) Cells Interstitial fluid Excretory system Circulatory system Nutrients Digestive system Heart B l o o d Blood vessels in kidney (SEM) Lining of small intestine (SEM) Anus 100  m Unabsorbed matter (feces) 50  m 250  m Metabolic waste products (nitrogenous waste) Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals

13 In vertebrates, the space between cells is filled with interstitial fluid, which allows for the movement of material into and out of cells –Blood is contained within vessels © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

14 Most animals are composed of specialized cells organized into tissues that have different functions Tissues make up organs, which together make up organ systems –Some organs, such as the pancreas, belong to more than one organ system Hierarchical Organization of Body Plans © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Benefit of complex body plans: helps an animal living in a variable environment to maintain a relatively stable internal environment

15 Table 40.1

16 Tissues are classified into four main categories: 1.Epithelial 2.Connective 3.Muscle 4.Nervous Exploring Structure and Function in Animal Tissues © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

17 Cuboidal epithelium Simple columnar epithelium Simple squamous epithelium Pseudostratified columnar epithelium Stratified squamous epithelium 1. Epithelial Tissue Figure 40.5aa

18 Figure 40.5ab Apical surface Basal surface Basal lamina 40  m Polarity of epithelia

19 What makes gummy bears so deliciously chewy?

20 2. Connective Tissue Connective tissue mainly binds and supports other tissues Most diverse tissue type –It contains sparsely packed cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix –The matrix consists of fibers in a liquid, jellylike, or solid foundation © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 There are three types of connective tissue fiber, all made of protein: –Collagenous fibers provide strength and flexibility Found in: tendon, ligament, skin, cornea, cartilage, bone, blood vessels, gut, and intervertebral disc. –Elastic fibers stretch and snap back to their original length Found in: extracellular matrix –Reticular fibers join connective tissue to adjacent tissues Found in: liver, bone marrow, lymphatic organs © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

22 Connective tissue contains cells, including –Fibroblasts that secrete the protein of extracellular fibers –Macrophages that are involved in the immune system © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

23 Figure 40.5ba Blood…why? Connective Tissue Plasma White blood cells 55  m Red blood cells Cartilage Chondrocytes Chondroitin sulfate 100  m Adipose tissue Fat droplets 150  m Bone Central canal Osteon 700  m Nuclei Fibrous connective tissue Elastic fiber 30  m 120  m Collagenous fiber Loose connective tissue

24 In vertebrates, the fibers and foundation combine to form six major types of connective tissue: –Loose connective tissue binds epithelia to underlying tissues and holds organs in place –Cartilage is a strong and flexible support material –Fibrous connective tissue is found in tendons, which attach muscles to bones, and ligaments, which connect bones at joints © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

25 –Adipose tissue stores fat for insulation and fuel –Blood is composed of blood cells and cell fragments in blood plasma –Bone is mineralized and forms the skeleton © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

26 3. Muscle Tissue comes in three types: –Skeletal muscle, or striated muscle, is responsible for voluntary movement –Smooth muscle is responsible for involuntary body activities –Cardiac muscle is responsible for contraction of the heart © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

27 Figure 40.5ca Muscle Tissue Skeletal muscle Nuclei Muscle fiber Sarcomere 100  m Smooth muscleCardiac muscle Nucleus Muscle fibers 25  m Nucleus Intercalated disk 50  m

28 4. Nervous Tissue Nervous tissue senses stimuli and transmits signals throughout the animal Nervous tissue contains –Neurons, or nerve cells, that transmit nerve impulses –Glial cells, or glia, that help nourish, insulate, and replenish neurons © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

29 Figure 40.5da Nervous Tissue Neurons Neuron: Dendrites Cell body Axon (Fluorescent LM) 40  m Glia Axons of neurons Blood vessel (Confocal LM) 15  m

30 Control and coordination within a body depend on: © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Endocrine System ProsCons The Nervous System ProsCons

31 Figure 40.6

32 The endocrine system The endocrine system transmits chemical signals called hormones to receptive cells throughout the body via blood –A hormone may affect one or more regions throughout the body –Hormones are relatively slow acting, but can have long-lasting effects

33 The nervous system transmits information between specific locations The information conveyed depends on a signal’s pathway, not the type of signal Nerve signal transmission is very fast Nerve impulses can be received by neurons, muscle cells, endocrine cells, and exocrine cells © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. The Nervous System

34 Concept 40.2: Feedback control maintains the internal environment in many animals Animals manage their internal environment by regulating or conforming to the external environment © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

35 A regulator uses internal control mechanisms to moderate internal change in the face of external, environmental fluctuation A conformer allows its internal condition to vary with certain external changes Animals may regulate some environmental variables while conforming to others Regulating and Conforming © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

36 Figure 40.7

37 Homeostasis Organisms use homeostasis to maintain a “steady state” or internal balance regardless of external environment What is maintained at a constant level in humans? © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

38 Animation: Negative Feedback Right-click slide / select “Play”

39 © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Animation: Positive Feedback Right-click slide / select “Play”

40 Mechanisms of homeostasis

41 Circadian rhythms are an example of alteration of homeostatic conditions

42 Homeostasis can adjust to changes in external environment, a process called acclimatization: –What are some conditions to which we will acclimate? © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

43 Concept 40.3: Homeostatic processes for thermoregulation involve form, function, and behavior Thermoregulation is the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

44 Endothermic animals generate heat by metabolism; birds and mammals are endotherms Ectothermic animals gain heat from external sources; ectotherms include most invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, and nonavian reptiles What are the pros and cons of each? Endothermy and Ectothermy © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

45 Figure 40.10

46 Variation in Body Temperature The body temperature of a poikilotherm varies with its environment The body temperature of a homeotherm is relatively constant The relationship between heat source and body temperature is not fixed (that is, not all poikilotherms are ectotherms) © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

47 Organisms exchange heat by four physical processes:

48 Heat regulation in mammals often involves the integumentary system: skin, hair, and nails Five adaptations help animals thermoregulate: 1.Insulation 2.Circulatory adaptations 3.Cooling by evaporative heat loss 4.Behavioral responses 5.Adjusting metabolic heat production © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

49 Regulation of blood flow near the body surface significantly affects thermoregulation Many endotherms and some ectotherms can alter the amount of blood flowing between the body core and the skin –In vasodilation, blood flow in the skin increases, facilitating heat loss –In vasoconstriction, blood flow in the skin decreases, lowering heat loss Circulatory Adaptations © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

50 Countercurrent heat exchangers transfer heat between fluids flowing in opposite directions and reduce heat loss

51 Thermoregulation behaviour

52 Adjusting Metabolic Heat Production Thermogenesis is the adjustment of metabolic heat production to maintain body temperature –Thermogenesis is increased by muscle activity such as moving or shivering –Nonshivering thermogenesis takes place when hormones cause mitochondria to increase their metabolic activity –Some ectotherms can also shiver to increase body temperature © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

53 Burmese python

54 Preflight warm-up in the hawkmoth

55 Birds and mammals can vary their insulation to acclimatize to seasonal temperature changes When temperatures are subzero, some ectotherms produce “antifreeze” compounds to prevent ice formation in their cells Acclimatization in Thermoregulation © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

56 The thermostatic function of the hypothalamus in human thermoregulation.

57 Concept 40.4: Energy requirements are related to animal size, activity, and environment Bioenergetics is the overall flow and transformation of energy in an animal Energy Allocation and Use Energy-containing molecules from food are usually used to make ATP, which powers cellular work After the needs of staying alive are met, remaining food molecules can be used in biosynthesis Biosynthesis includes body growth and repair, synthesis of storage material such as fat, and production of gametes © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

58 Bioenergetics of an animal: an overview.

59 Metabolic rate is the amount of energy an animal uses in a unit of time Metabolic rate can be determined by –An animal’s heat loss –The amount of oxygen consumed or carbon dioxide produced –How does the average human evaluate their metabolism? Why is this potentially inaccurate? Quantifying Energy Use © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

60 Measuring the rate of oxygen consumption by a swimming shark.

61 Minimum Metabolic Rate and Thermoregulation Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the metabolic rate of an endotherm at rest at a “comfortable” temperature Standard metabolic rate (SMR) is the metabolic rate of an ectotherm at rest at a specific temperature Both rates assume a nongrowing, fasting, and nonstressed animal Ectotherms have much lower metabolic rates than endotherms of a comparable size © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

62 Metabolic rates are affected by many factors besides whether an animal is an endotherm or ectotherm Two of these factors are size and activity Influences on Metabolic Rate © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

63 Size and Metabolic Rate Metabolic rate is proportional to body mass to the power of three quarters (m 3/4 ) Smaller animals have higher metabolic rates per gram than larger animals The higher metabolic rate of smaller animals leads to a higher oxygen delivery rate, breathing rate, heart rate, and greater (relative) blood volume, compared with a larger animal © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

64 Figure 40.19

65 Energy budgets of four animals

66 Torpor and Energy Conservation Torpor is a physiological state in which activity is low and metabolism decreases What would motivate an animals to go into a state of torpor? © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

67 Levels of two transcripts in an attempt to determine whether the circadian rhythm continues to run during hibernation. What conclusions can be made?

68 Long-term torpor is called hibernation Summer torpor, called estivation, enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water Daily torpor is exhibited by many small mammals and birds and seems adapted to feeding patterns © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

69 Review

70 Testing your understanding of the big picture Draw a model of the control circuit(s) required for driving an automobile at a fairly constant speed over a hilly road, or for a human controlling temperature within their body. Indicate each feature that represents a sensor, stimulus, or response.

71 Figure 40.UN02

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