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Major Connectors.

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Presentation on theme: "Major Connectors."— Presentation transcript:

1 Major Connectors

2 Functions of a Major Connector
Unification Partial denture acts as one unit Connects various parts

3 Functions of a Major Connector
Stress Distribution Distributes functional loads to both teeth & mucosa

4 Functions of a Major Connector
Cross-Arch Stabilization (Counterleverage) Bracing elements on one side of the arch providing stability to the other

5 Requirements of a Major Connector
Rigidity Functions as one unit

6 To Increase Rigidity Use a more rigid alloy Shape
Chrome-cobalt > gold alloys; cast > wrought Shape 1/2 round > 1/2 pear shaped > flat bars

7 To Increase Rigidity Increase the bulk as the length increases
Corrugate linguo-plate or rugae areas

8 Requirements Non-Interference with Tissues
Should not enter undercut areas avoid by changing path of insertion or by using blockout

9 Non-Interference With Tissues
Avoid terminating on: Free gingival margin Cross abruptly at 90o Relief is used to minimize impingement (Fig 2-17, Stewart's)

10 Non-Interference With Tissues
Avoid terminating on: Hard structures such as the mid-palatal suture or mandibular tori Place relief

11 Non-Interference With Tissues
Avoid terminating on: Lingual frenum & the movable soft palate Soft tissue movements must also be allowed Careful intraoral exam

12 Minimize Food Impaction
Locate margins away from the FGM Eliminate "traps" or large concavities where food can collect

13 Unobtrusive Smooth transition from connector to denture base - butt joint

14 Unobtrusive Line angles and edges should be smooth and rounded
Borders should not interfere with speech (Fig 2-21, Stewart's)

15 Mandibular Major Connectors
Lingual Bar Lingual Plate Continuous Bar

16 Mandibular Major Connectors
Lingual Bar Most common in mandibe Use whenever possible

17 Lingual Bar Reasons for choosing Most hygienic (least tooth contact)
Most comfortable (least coverage)

18 Mandibular Major Connectors
Lingual Bar Shape Flat on tissue side Convex or tear-drop on tongue side (1/2 pear shape, with thin edge toward teeth) (Fig 2-35, Stewart's)

19 Mandibular Major Connectors
Lingual Bar Size Occluso-gingival width = 4 to 6 mm Thickness = 2 to 3 mm

20 Inferior Border Mandible
Patient lifts tongue Activates floor of mouth Measure from tip of probe to free gingival margin

21 Inferior Border Mandible
Record values in chart, transfer to cast

22 Lingual Bar Position Superior border
Prefer at least l mm or more below FGM; absolute min: 1.0 mm As far from gingival margin as possible (Fig 2-15, Stewart's)

23 Potential Impingement
Anterior major connector moves toward tissue as the posterior portion is loaded More space needed when ridge is more horizontal (Fig 2-33, Stewart's)

24 Mandibular Major Connector Relief
Eliminates impingement Wax spacer (relief) placed under major connector one thickness of 30 gauge wax

25 Lingual Plate (Linguoplate)
Lingual bar with extension over cingula of anterior teeth Use where a lingual bar cannot be used

26 Lingual Plate Indications
Potential Impingement from lingual bar High floor of the mouth Prominent lingual frenum Lingual tori Stabilize mobile teeth (not always needed) Need to add denture teeth if anterior teeth will be subsequently lost

27 Lingual Plate Rest at each end of lingual plate
Prevents forces being directed facially Easier denture tooth addition than bar

28 Lingual Plate Variations
May show through embrasures (Fig 2-41 & 43, Stewart's)

29 Continuous Bar Retainer (Kennedy Bar, Double Lingual Bar)
Lingual bar with secondary bar above cingula Secondary bar acts as indirect retainer

30 Continuous Bar Retainer
Potential food trap between two bars Normally avoid

31 Labial Bar Extreme lingual inclination of the remaining teeth
Indications are rare Swing-lock design is a variation

32 Maxillary Major Connectors
Anterior-Posterior Palatal Strap Full Palatal Strap Palatal Strap Anterior Palatal Strap

33 Maxillary Major Connectors
Terminate 4.0 mm or more from free gingival margin when possible

34 Anterior-Posterior Palatal Strap
Maximum rigidity, Minimum bulk Comfort (minimum coverage) Use in most cases Especially torus palatinus

35 Anterior-Posterior Palatal Bar
Variation of anterior-posterior palatal strap Double palatal bar connector Requires greater bulk for rigidity More objectionable to the patient

36 Full Palatal Plate Maximum tissue support
Connector of choice in long distal extension cases Six or less anterior teeth remain

37 Full Palatal Plate Abutments are periodontally involved
Maximum stress distribution Flabby/compressible support

38 Full Palatal Plate Greater stability and stress distribution
Not used with torus Increases retention

39 Full Palatal Plate Connector should:
Be fabricated of uniformly thin metal Have accurate anatomic reproduction of the ruggae improves strength and rigidity

40 Full Palatal Plate Connector should:
Cover same area as complete denture posteriorly (point to hamular notch if distal extension) Have large surface area of mucosal contact improves potential for retention

41 Full Palatal Plate Generally of cast metal
Acrylic resin used in interim prostheses

42 Palatal Strap Usually use for Class III & IV cases
Wide anterio-posteriorly

43 Palatal Bar Don’t use Narrow anterio-posteriorly
Thick occluso-gingivally Palatal bar objectionable due to bulk (Fig 2-24, Stewart's)

44 Palatal Strap (or Bar) Never use in cases involving distal extensions or replacement of anterior teeth since it must be made bulky for rigidity Relief may be required over bony midline Not used with torus

45 Anterior Palatal Plate (U-Shaped or "Horse-Shoe" Palatal Connector)
Poor connector Never use unless absolutely necessary Requires bulk in the rugae area (where the tongue requires freedom) for rigidity

46 Anterior Palatal Plate
Too flexible Allows movement at the posterior Traumatic to the residual ridge Use only where torus prohibits other connectors

47 Flexes, impinging on soft tissue

48 Unilateral RPD Dangerous Avoid aspiration

49 Next: Retentive Undercut Abutment Modifications Presentation Videos:
Double embrasure movie Retentive undercuts

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