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Truth and Memory: First World War Art Learning Resources
'Over The Top‘ by John Nash During the First World War the British government developed a variety of art schemes to record and document all aspects of the conflict from the violence of the fighting fronts to the social and industrial change at home. Art was seen as the means to convey the righteousness of Britain’s cause, to bear witness to the experience of war, to remember the fallen and provide effective propaganda. The images which were produced continue to shape our interpretations of the First World War. © IWM (Art.IWM ART 1656)
Blood and Iron by Charles Ernest Butler Some early artistic responses to the war were unconvincing; some showed unrealistic scenes of hand-to-hand combat and cavalry charges in a style more associated with the Napoleonic or Crimean Wars of the 19th century while others used out- dated religious and jingoistic imagery. Charles Ernest Butler’s narrative painting “Blood and Iron” depicts Christ comforting Belgium while the German Kaiser glances coldly on with the angel of death on his shoulder. © IWM (Art.IWM ART 6492)
A Battery Shelled by Percy Wyndham Lewis Many artists and critics felt traditional methods of painting war could no longer provide an adequate or “truthful” representation of the conflict. The unfamiliar and highly industrialised nature of modern warfare led to new and experimental artistic responses. Percy Wyndham Lewis’ Vorticist painting of a British artillery battery being shelled depicts a strange scene where soldiers appear dehumanised and insect-like. © IWM (Art.IWM ART 2747)
The Doctor by C R W Nevinson Artists who had witnessed the front line were seen as uniquely placed to deliver an authentic portrayal of the war. CRW Nevinson’s initial support of the war was challenged by his experiences as a medical orderly and ambulance driver in France. In this painting he portrays a doctor tending an injured soldier in a makeshift casualty centre outside Dunkirk. The awkwardly bent pose of the figure in the background and use of red throughout the painting stresses the terrible human cost of the conflict and its un-heroic nature. © IWM (Art.IWM ART 725)
The Kensingtons at Laventie by Eric Kennington This painting was one of the first based on first-hand experience of the conflict seen by the British public. It received huge public acclaim and generated much sympathy for the British soldiers on the Western Front. The image shows Kennington's regiment, known as ‘The Kensingtons’, halting for rest at the French village of Laventie after leaving their frontline trenches. To emphasize his presence at the scene, Kennington included a portrait of himself, background left, wearing a black balaclava. © IWM (Art.IWM ART 15661)
Mines and the Bapaume Road, La Boiselle by William Orpen Depicting the landscape of the Western Front was problematic for many artists. Long range artillery fire and the system of trench warfare meant that these spaces were rendered featureless. Nevertheless, there was a unique character to the landscape of the Western Front. William Orpen’s painting focuses on chalky soil of the Somme area of France. Churned up by shell-fine and mines and baked white in the spring sun of 1917, it generated an unworldly scene like a lunar landscape. © IWM (Art.IWM ART 2962)
The Field of Passchendaele by Paul Nash The battered and scarred landscape of the Western Front had a profound effect on many artists. For Paul Nash the shelled woods, dismembered trees and traumatised fields became a metaphor for the wider destruction and suffering of the war. Depicting nature in this way became a means of understanding the war and modernising landscape painting. © IWM (Art.IWM ART 1150)
Shop for Machining 15-inch Shells by Anna Airy Artists also played a role in documenting the effect of war on the Home Front, particularly on women’s lives. Here we see an interior view of the workshop in the Singer Manufacturing Company, where the majority of workers were women. During the First World War the factory switched from making consumer goods to armaments. Anna Airy was commissioned to produce four paintings depicting munitions production and here we see the women producing 15 inch shells for battleships. © IWM (Art.IWM ART 2271)
‘Voluntary Land Workers in a Flax-field by Randolph Schwabe Naval blockades severely disrupted agriculture and food distribution during the First World. The war had also taken many men and horses away from agricultural work so finding a new workforce to farm the land became extremely important. The Women’s Land Army was established in In this painting women are shown collecting flax which was especially important in aircraft manufacture. © IWM (Art.IWM ART 2288)
Youth Mourning by George Clausen Many artists tried to capture the private emotion of war, especially if they had served at the Front or if they were personally affected in other ways. In this painting by George Clausen, the naked woman, representing Youth, kneels in grief before a wooden cross marking a grave. In the distance are the flooded craters of a battlefield. The painting is Clausen’s personal response to the First World War, in particular the death of his daughter’s fiancé. This depiction of private grief, however, also conveys a wider sense of a nation in mourning. © IWM (Art.IWM ART 4655)
To the Unknown British Soldier in France by William Orpen At the end of the First World War artists and sculptors increasingly turned their attention to public expressions of remembrance. Among these was William Orpen, who during the war had painted portraits of generals and the young pilots of the newly formed Royal Flying Corps. In this painting which was one of three works painted to mark the Peace Conference in Paris in 1919, Orpen deliberately focuses on the “forgotten” ordinary soldiers rather than the politicians he saw arguing over the peace terms. © IWM (Art.IWM ART 4438)
Public remembrance This moneybox is made using wood from the temporary Cenotaph which was originally erected for the London Victory Parade in The temporary Cenotaph was later replaced with a permanent stone structure which was unveiled on 11 November The moneyboxes were decorated with a clock face showing the hands at 11 o’clock, to mark the moment when the 1918 Armistice came into force. They also bear three flags signifying the three branches of the Armed Forces. © IWM (EPH 4203)
The Battle of Ypres: The Worcesters at Gheluvelt by Charles Sargeant Jagger In February 1918 the British War Memorials Committee was established to create an artistic memorial to the nation’s effort and sacrifice. Sculptural works like this one were also planned for inclusion in a Hall of Remembrance which would house the collection. Due to lack of funds the Hall was never built and the works were given to the Imperial War Museum. Today they continue to inform how we commemorate conflict and have helped to build the visual iconography associated with the First World War. © IWM (Art.IWM ART 2287)
Truth and Memory: First World War Art Learning Resources
First World War Remembrance Learning Resources. The images in this resource can be freely used for non-commercial use in your classroom subject to the.
The Empire Called to Arms Learning Resources. The images in this resource can be freely used for non-commercial use in your classroom subject to the terms.
BRITISH ART AND THE GREAT WAR The Great War promoted the breakthrough of modernism in British literature, but it discouraged avant-garde experimentation.
How did the Empire and Commonwealth support Britain during the First World War? Teachers Sources.
Living in the Trenches Learning Resources. The images in this resource can be freely used for non-commercial use in your classroom subject to the terms.
BBC News School Report: The Western Front Learning Resources.
Recruitment and Conscription Learning Resources. The images in this resource can be freely used for non-commercial use in your classroom subject to the.
World War 1 (WW1) was a significant event of the 20 th century. They were fighting for four long years and it finally ended on the 11 th of November 1918,
Charles Butler, Blood and Iron, Lucy Kemp Welch, Forward the Guns, 1917.
Paul Nash During World War I Paul Nash was employed as an official war artist by the Ministry of Information and the Air Ministry. He produced the following.
Women and World War One Lesson starter: 1.Why did the Suffrage movement stop during the war? Example of propaganda encouraging women to work (USA)
Learning Resources How did people share their cultures and traditions during the First World War?
Why wear a poppy?. Objectives Curriculum Expectations explain how democratic beliefs and values are reflected in citizen actions (e.g., Remembrance Day.
How the role of Women changed during World War II.
A TRIP TO FLANDERS- FIELDS AND THE YOUNG PEOPLE ASK WHY ARE THEY MARCHING FOR. AND I ASK MYSELF THE SAME QUESTION ( © Eric Bogle) Commercial use of this.
THE BATTLE OF SOMME Wave upon wave of troops were ordered across open fields. They were almost immediately mowed down by German machine guns. 85% of the.
Was General Haig… the Butcher of the Somme ?. The Battle of the Somme started on July 1st 1916 and lasted until November The British army launched.
John Constable J.M.W. Turner William Morris Paul Nash John Singer Sargent by Luca Vacchini Matteo Carelli Filippo Malagori.
“It was during the most difficult times that I carried you…”
The Great War and Cultural Memory. Thiepval Memorial to the Missing of the Somme.
What is propaganda? British WWI propaganda poster, welcoming Romania's decision to join the Entente.
2500 Canadian women joined medical and field ambulance corps during the war; some served as nurses during the war. Canadian nurses were called “ Bluebirds.
Was General Haig the Butcher of the Somme? Miss Boughey –
REMEMBRANCE DAY. What are we remembering on Remembrance Day?
Ypres. Dates and Locations - 2 nd battle, April in and around the Belgian city of Ypres in Flanders.
The Battle for Mons 1914 Photographed while living in Belgium 1996 by M. Couturier.
Canadians in Battles of WW1 Second Battle of Ypres, April 1915 This was Canada’s first major battle. Soldiers had Ross rifles. Soldiers were positioned.
Causes of the Great War WWI. Journal 3/25 You are Great Britain; you have the strongest Navy in the world. Close to your borders is the newly powerful.
The Great War and Cultural Memory. Cenotaph The Cenotaph in Whitehall.
November 11 November 11 Veterans Day Remembrance Day Armistice Day In 1918, on the eleventh hour of the eleventh day in the eleventh month, the world rejoiced.
After the Gallipoli campaign, the Australian infantry divisions went on to fight some of the worst battles of the war in France and in Flanders (Belgium).
Poppy with pride or poppy with pressure?. This PowerPoint presentation contains a selection of images and archives which students can use to prompt discussion.
World In Conflict The Great War –World War I. The World War of The Great War, as contemporaries called it -- was the first man-made catastrophe.
In Flanders Fields... the poppies grow.... between the crosses, row on row...
Planes This war also had another first: planes started to be used to deliver bombs. Planes were armed with machine guns, bombs, and cannons. The damage.
What was the impact of new weapons on the First World War?
Des Quinn and Martin Williams Press the ‘Esc’ key at any time to stop the presentation.
Important Canadian Battles in WWI. Vimy Ridge- April 1917 Many historians consider the Canadian victory at Vimy a defining moment for Canada The Canadian.
SSWH16 The student will demonstrate an understanding of long-term causes of World War I and its global impact.
Life on the Homefront Canada and World War One. Secondary Source A World War I was not an easy time for Canadians who continued to live in Canada on the.
Newfoundland and Labrador The First World War Part 1 – The Front.
The Great War and Cultural Memory. Memory of WW1 The origin of ‘modern memory’ Shell-shock, trauma: individual and collective 9 million casualties Britain:
REMEMBRANCE DAY TFTW W/C 9TH NOVEMBER. THIS TERM WE ARE LOOKING AT BRITISH VALUES But it is appropriate that this week we remember those that have given.
Trench Warfare S4. Battle of Ypres German advance through Belgium in 1914 was halted at Ypres in Flanders. The territory became known as The.
Scots at War The Somme After Loos After the Battle of Loos, Scotland would never again provide half the number of infantrymen for a massed attack.
Remembrance Sunday The Last Post (followed by two minutes silence)
Remembrance Day or Poppy Day in Britain November is the time of the year when we wear a red poppy in memory of those who sacrificed their lives for us.
The First World War Part 1 – The Front.
Women At War. Aims: Identify the different jobs carried out by women during the First World War. Examine how the position of women changed by 1918.
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