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Dr. Gary Mahoney Dr. Petros Katsioloudis Berea College Berea, Kentucky ITEA's 70th Annual Conference Salt Lake City, Utah February 21-23, 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Gary Mahoney Dr. Petros Katsioloudis Berea College Berea, Kentucky ITEA's 70th Annual Conference Salt Lake City, Utah February 21-23, 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Dr. Gary Mahoney Dr. Petros Katsioloudis Berea College Berea, Kentucky ITEA's 70th Annual Conference Salt Lake City, Utah February 21-23, 2008

2 Goals This presentation will discuss the lessons learned in producing and testing ethanol fuel in internal combustion engines. Engine redesign and modification will be discussed. to provide experiences and activities related to the Designed World; specifically Agriculture and Related Biotechnologies, Energy and Power Technologies, and Transportation Technologies.

3 Goals cont. to gain experience and insight into Technology and Society; to provide hands-on experiences in the effects of Technology on the Environment, the role of society in the development and use of technology and the influence of technology on history. to provide experiences in the production of renewable alternative fuels, testing of the fuels, and modification of engine design to better utilize the alternative fuels.

4 The process of obtaining a Federal license to own and operate a distillation device Form TTB F 5110.74

5 Instruction Sheet for form TTB F 5110.74

6 Page #1 of TTB F 5110.74

7 Page #2 of TTB F 5110.74

8 Page #3 of TTB F 5110.74

9 History

10 The first evidence of distillation comes from Babylonia and dates from the 2nd millennium BC.Babylonia2nd millennium BC Specially shaped clay pots were used to extract small amounts of distilled alcohol through natural cooling for use in perfumes.

11 History By the 3rd century AD, alchemists in Alexandria, Egypt, may have used an early form of distillation to produce alcohol for sublimation or for coloring metalalchemistsAlexandria Egypt

12 History Alcohol was fully purified for the first time by Muslim chemists in the 8th and 9th centuries.Muslim chemists

13 History Freeze distillation, the "Mongolian still", are known to have been in use in Central Asia sometime in the early Middle Ages. Freeze distillation Middle Ages

14 History Distilled alcohol beverages first appeared in Europe in the mid-12th century among alchemists, who were more interested in medical "elixirs" than making gold from lead.12th century

15 History: London 1651

16 History: Corty’s Still

17 History: Adam’s Still

18 History: Irish Still

19 History: Appalachian Still (caught)

20 History: Modern Distillation Plant

21 Process of producing fuel grade ethanol The still used in this project was a Column Reflux Still. The plans are available at

22 Processes Mashing: converting starches to sugars. Fermentation: converting sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide. Distillation: separating the alcohol from the beer.

23 Equipment: 34-40L pot with lid A large stirring spoon A floating thermometer Hydrometer Immersion chiller Scale

24 Ingredients: Corn mash: 23L of soft tap water 8L (4Kg or 8.8 lbs) cornmeal 1 ½ L (3/4 Kg or 1.65 lbs) crushed 2-row pale barley malt

25 Mashing Grain is ground into smaller components to facilitate the chemical reaction. At least 10% of the grain bill should be sprouted (malted) grain to provide the enzymes necessary to convert starches to sugar. Alpha and Beta amylase enzymes are used.

26 Mashing: shelling grain

27 Mashing: grinding grain

28 Mashing: malted barley

29 Mashing: cooking the mash.

30 Thin mash: 23L of water 3.6Kg of table sugar 2 packets of Champaign yeast

31 Process: Heat the water to 73C (163F) Turn off the heat and stir in the cornmeal The temperature should rest at about 66C (151F) and the mash will thicken Make sure the temp is under 71F (160F) Stir in 100ml of crushed barley malt Cover the pot and leave for 20 minutes (stir every few minutes)

32 Mashing

33 Turn the heat back on high and stir continually until the mash comes to a boil. Turn the heat off and continue to stir for five minutes. Cover the pot and allow it to cool (or use an immersion chiller) to 66.5C (152F)

34 Mashing: rest

35 Stir in the remainder of the crushed barley malt The temp should rest at about 65C (149F) Cover and let rest for 90 minutes (stir every 15 minutes) (At this point it would be cooled with an immersion chiller to under 100F, oxygenated and the yeast would be pitched)

36 Our process will be “thin-mashing”. In order to gain more alcohol we will add water and table sugar. Add 30L of water Check the specific gravity

37 Mashing: thin mash

38 Add table sugar until the SG reads between 1.060 and 1.070. (about 3.6 Kg) This will lower the temperature and oxygenate the mash Two packets of dry Champaign yeast will be added and the fermentation vessel will be capped

39 Mashing: measuring the specific gravity

40 Alternative Methods Sour Mashing is a method that eliminated the cooking step. Initially, it is very inefficient, however the same grains are used over and over until a complete conversion is obtained.

41 Sour Mash Recipe For a 5 gallon mash: 5 gallons soft, filtered water.water 7 lbs cracked corn. 6-8 pieces/kernel is the proper crack.corn 7 lbs of granulated sugar.sugar 1 tbsp yeast (distillers yeast if available.)yeast January 2, 2008:'s_Simple_Sour_Mash_Method

42 Theory The conversion of starches to sugars is a natural process, accelerated by cooking. An uncooked mash will convert starches to sugars but much more slowly and less efficiently. The added sugar will ferment easily and will provide most of the alcohol in the beer. January 2, 2008:'s_Simple_Sour_Mash_Method

43 The first distillation run will be a "sweet" run since there will not be any backset to use for sour mashing. It is recommend that the spirits collected in the first run be used as feints for the next run.backsetspiritsfeints January 2, 2008:'s_Simple_Sour_Mash_Method

44 First Fermentation Put ingredients into the fermenter in the order listedfermenter Fermentation should start in 6 to 12 hours. Fermentation It should take 3 or 4 days for the ebullition to end.ebullition Siphon your beer out of the fermenter with a racking cane and charge your still.beerracking canecharge January 2, 2008:'s_Simple_Sour_Mash_Method

45 Start with 25% backset (liquid left in the boiler after distillation). This means that for a 5 gallon mash you will use 1-1/4 gallons of backset and 3-3/4 gallons of water. January 2, 2008:'s_Simple_Sour_Mash_Method

46 Put 3-3/4 gallons of water back into the fermenter so the yeast won't die. Scoop off the spend corn and replace with an equal volume of new corn. Add 1-1/4 gallons of backset and 7 more pounds of granulated sugar.backset January 2, 2008:'s_Simple_Sour_Mash_Method

47 Fermentation Krauskopf,K.(2003).The Physical Universe,11 th edition.McGraw-Hill: Boston. Yeast is used to convert sugar to alcohol. The byproduct is carbon dioxide.

48 Fermentation

49 Fermentation: check specific gravity

50 Fermentation: pitching the yeast

51 Fermentation

52 Distillation

53 To calculate the amount of energy used:

54 Distillation

55 Distillation

56 Distillation: straining the Beer

57 Distillation


59 Distillation Plant

60 Horsepower testing and engine modification

61 Modified Cylinder Head


63 Dynamometer


65 Ethanol Sources Switch grass 1150 gal/acre Sweet Potato1069 gal/acre Poplar Wood1000 gal/acre Sugar Cane662 gal/acre Corn370 gal/acre Wheat277 gal/acre

66 References: January 2, 2008:'s_Simple_Sour_Mash_Method Krauskopf,K.(2003).The Physical Universe,11 th edition.McGraw-Hill: Boston.

67 Contact info: Gary Mahoney Petros Katsioloudis

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