Presentation on theme: "Dr. Gary Mahoney Dr. Petros Katsioloudis Berea College Berea, Kentucky ITEA's 70th Annual Conference Salt Lake City, Utah February 21-23, 2008."— Presentation transcript:
Dr. Gary Mahoney Dr. Petros Katsioloudis Berea College Berea, Kentucky ITEA's 70th Annual Conference Salt Lake City, Utah February 21-23, 2008
Goals This presentation will discuss the lessons learned in producing and testing ethanol fuel in internal combustion engines. Engine redesign and modification will be discussed. to provide experiences and activities related to the Designed World; specifically Agriculture and Related Biotechnologies, Energy and Power Technologies, and Transportation Technologies.
Goals cont. to gain experience and insight into Technology and Society; to provide hands-on experiences in the effects of Technology on the Environment, the role of society in the development and use of technology and the influence of technology on history. to provide experiences in the production of renewable alternative fuels, testing of the fuels, and modification of engine design to better utilize the alternative fuels.
The process of obtaining a Federal license to own and operate a distillation device Form TTB F 5110.74 http://www.ttb.gov/forms/f511074.pdf
The first evidence of distillation comes from Babylonia and dates from the 2nd millennium BC.Babylonia2nd millennium BC Specially shaped clay pots were used to extract small amounts of distilled alcohol through natural cooling for use in perfumes. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distilled_beverage
History By the 3rd century AD, alchemists in Alexandria, Egypt, may have used an early form of distillation to produce alcohol for sublimation or for coloring metalalchemistsAlexandria Egypt http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distilled_beverage
History Alcohol was fully purified for the first time by Muslim chemists in the 8th and 9th centuries.Muslim chemists http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distilled_beverage
History Freeze distillation, the "Mongolian still", are known to have been in use in Central Asia sometime in the early Middle Ages. Freeze distillation Middle Ages http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distilled_beverage
History Distilled alcohol beverages first appeared in Europe in the mid-12th century among alchemists, who were more interested in medical "elixirs" than making gold from lead.12th century http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Distilled_beverage
History: London 1651 http://www.moonshine-still.com/page5.htm
Process of producing fuel grade ethanol The still used in this project was a Column Reflux Still. The plans are available at http://www.moonshine-still.com/ http://www.moonshine-still.com/page22.htm
Processes Mashing: converting starches to sugars. Fermentation: converting sugars to alcohol and carbon dioxide. Distillation: separating the alcohol from the beer.
Equipment: 34-40L pot with lid A large stirring spoon A floating thermometer Hydrometer Immersion chiller Scale
Ingredients: Corn mash: 23L of soft tap water 8L (4Kg or 8.8 lbs) cornmeal 1 ½ L (3/4 Kg or 1.65 lbs) crushed 2-row pale barley malt
Mashing Grain is ground into smaller components to facilitate the chemical reaction. At least 10% of the grain bill should be sprouted (malted) grain to provide the enzymes necessary to convert starches to sugar. Alpha and Beta amylase enzymes are used.
Thin mash: 23L of water 3.6Kg of table sugar 2 packets of Champaign yeast
Process: Heat the water to 73C (163F) Turn off the heat and stir in the cornmeal The temperature should rest at about 66C (151F) and the mash will thicken Make sure the temp is under 71F (160F) Stir in 100ml of crushed barley malt Cover the pot and leave for 20 minutes (stir every few minutes)
Turn the heat back on high and stir continually until the mash comes to a boil. Turn the heat off and continue to stir for five minutes. Cover the pot and allow it to cool (or use an immersion chiller) to 66.5C (152F)
Stir in the remainder of the crushed barley malt The temp should rest at about 65C (149F) Cover and let rest for 90 minutes (stir every 15 minutes) (At this point it would be cooled with an immersion chiller to under 100F, oxygenated and the yeast would be pitched)
Our process will be “thin-mashing”. In order to gain more alcohol we will add water and table sugar. Add 30L of water Check the specific gravity
Add table sugar until the SG reads between 1.060 and 1.070. (about 3.6 Kg) This will lower the temperature and oxygenate the mash Two packets of dry Champaign yeast will be added and the fermentation vessel will be capped
Alternative Methods Sour Mashing is a method that eliminated the cooking step. Initially, it is very inefficient, however the same grains are used over and over until a complete conversion is obtained.
Sour Mash Recipe For a 5 gallon mash: 5 gallons soft, filtered water.water 7 lbs cracked corn. 6-8 pieces/kernel is the proper crack.corn 7 lbs of granulated sugar.sugar 1 tbsp yeast (distillers yeast if available.)yeast January 2, 2008:http://homedistiller.org/wiki/index.php/Uncle_Jesse's_Simple_Sour_Mash_Method
Theory The conversion of starches to sugars is a natural process, accelerated by cooking. An uncooked mash will convert starches to sugars but much more slowly and less efficiently. The added sugar will ferment easily and will provide most of the alcohol in the beer. January 2, 2008:http://homedistiller.org/wiki/index.php/Uncle_Jesse's_Simple_Sour_Mash_Method
The first distillation run will be a "sweet" run since there will not be any backset to use for sour mashing. It is recommend that the spirits collected in the first run be used as feints for the next run.backsetspiritsfeints January 2, 2008:http://homedistiller.org/wiki/index.php/Uncle_Jesse's_Simple_Sour_Mash_Method
First Fermentation Put ingredients into the fermenter in the order listedfermenter Fermentation should start in 6 to 12 hours. Fermentation It should take 3 or 4 days for the ebullition to end.ebullition Siphon your beer out of the fermenter with a racking cane and charge your still.beerracking canecharge January 2, 2008:http://homedistiller.org/wiki/index.php/Uncle_Jesse's_Simple_Sour_Mash_Method
Start with 25% backset (liquid left in the boiler after distillation). This means that for a 5 gallon mash you will use 1-1/4 gallons of backset and 3-3/4 gallons of water. January 2, 2008:http://homedistiller.org/wiki/index.php/Uncle_Jesse's_Simple_Sour_Mash_Method
Put 3-3/4 gallons of water back into the fermenter so the yeast won't die. Scoop off the spend corn and replace with an equal volume of new corn. Add 1-1/4 gallons of backset and 7 more pounds of granulated sugar.backset January 2, 2008:http://homedistiller.org/wiki/index.php/Uncle_Jesse's_Simple_Sour_Mash_Method
Fermentation Krauskopf,K.(2003).The Physical Universe,11 th edition.McGraw-Hill: Boston. Yeast is used to convert sugar to alcohol. The byproduct is carbon dioxide.