Oriented Particles Pi: particle (global) position Ri: particles orientation; 3 rd column of Ri is the local normal vector Behavior of (oriented) particles is governed by external forces and desired potential functions. Equilibrium states rest at lowest energy state.
Intermolecular Potential Function Dynamics: long-range attraction force and short-range repulsion force pipi pjpj r ij, f ij
Misc. Numerical time integration –Euler method, Runge- Kutta, semi-implicit methods, … Controlling Complexity –Kd tree to subdivide the tree to efficiently find the neighbors within some radius Rendering –Axes, discs, triangulation (wireframe or shaded)