QZE: fundamentals..…. P U P U P U P U PP Quantum Zeno effect: repeated observation in succession inhibit transitions outside
Theorem Misra and Sudarshan, J. Math. Phys. 18, 756 (1977) Quantum Zeno paradox: an observed particle does not evolve.
Zeno of Elea At any given moment it is in a space equal to its own length, and therefore is at rest at that moment. So, it's at rest at all moments. The sum of an infinite number of these positions of rest is not a motion. Zeno was an Eleatic philosopher, a native of Elea in Italy, son of Teleutagoras, and the favorite disciple of Parmenides. He was born about 488 BC, and at the age of forty accompanied Parmenides to Athens The flying arrow is at rest.
Peres, Am. J. Phys. 48, 931 (1980) Example: spin
Neutron spin Pascazio, Namiki, Badurek, Rauch, Phys. Lett. A 169, 155 (1993) Increasing N
History von Neumann,1932 Beskow and Nilsson,1967 Khalfin 1968 Friedman 1972 Misra and Sudarshan, 1977 Experiments (Cook 1988) Itano, Heinzen, Bollinger, and Wineland 1990 Nagels, Hermans, and Chapovsky 1997 Balzer, Huesmann, Neuhauser, and Toschek, 2000 Wunderlich, Balzer, and Toschek, 2001 Wilkinson, Bharucha, Fischer, Madison, Morrow, Niu, Sundaram, and Raizen, 1997. Fischer, B. Gutierrez-Medina, and Raizen, 2001 Theory and interesting Mathematics (not quoted)
VESTA II @ ISIS Jericha, Schwab, Jakel, Carlile, Rauch, Physica B 283, 414 (2000); Rauch, Physica B 297, 299 (2001).
Are projections à la von Neumann necessary? No: a dynamical explanation can be given, in terms of the Schroedinger equation (and involving no projection operators). Wigner, Am. J. Phys. 1963 Petrosky, Tasaki, Prigogine, PLA 1990; Physica 1991 Pascazio, Namiki, PRA 1994 This is best proven by looking at some examples.
Nonselective measurements P. F. and Pascazio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 080401 (2002)
Unitary kicks..…. UcUc U UcUc U UcUc U UcUc U UcUc UcUc Quantum maps Berry, Balazs, Tabor,Voros (1979) Casati, Chirikov, Ford and Izrailev (1979) Viola and Lloyd, Phys. Rev. A 58, 2733 (1998) Viola, Knill and Lloyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2417 (1999) Byrd and Lidar, Quant. Inf. Proc. 1, 19 (2002) P.F., Lidar, Pascazio, Phys. Rev. A 69, 032314 (2004) Dynamical decoupling “Bang-bang” control
Continuous coupling P. F. and Pascazio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 080401 (2002) system“apparatus” K coupling
Coupling or N Dynamical superselection sectors Quantum Zeno subspaces
The quantum Zeno dynamics Is the Zeno dynamics unitary? Answer: under general hypotheses YES (Misra and Sudarshan 1977: semigroup) Friedman 1972 Facchi, Gorini, Marmo, Pascazio, Sudarshan 2000 Facchi, Pascazio, Scardicchio, Schulman 2002 Exner, Ichinose 2003 ?
Free particle in D dimensions How does the particle move inside ? Does it leaks out? Free particle in a box with perfectly reflecting hard walls P.F., Pascazio, Scardicchio, Schulman 2002 P.F., Marmo, Pascazio, Scardicchio, Sudarshan 2003 …although there is NO wall!
Measurements à la von Neumann (projections) Unitary kicks (bang-bang control) Different manifestations of the same physical phenomenon Continuous coupling
Main objective: understand and suppress decoherence Decoherence-free subspaces Palma, Suominen and Ekert (1996) Duan and Guo (1997) Zanardi and Rasetti (1997) Lidar, Chuang and Whaley (1998) Viola, Knill and Lloyd (1999) Vitali and Tombesi (1999, 2001) Beige, Braun, Tregenna and Knight (2000) … Tasaki, Tokuse, P.F., Pascazio (2002) P.F:, Lidar and Pascazio (2004) Benenti, Casati, Montangero, Shepelyansky (2001) Vitali, Tombesi, Milburn (1997, 1998) Fortunato, Raimond, Tombesi, Vitali (1999) Kofman, Kurizki (2001) Calarco, Datta, Fedichev, Pazy, Zoller, “Spin-based all-optical quantum computation with quantum dots: understanding and suppressing decoherence” (2003) Falci (2003)
Relevant timescales P.F., Nakazato and Pascazio, Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2699 (2001) Experiment by Fischer, Gutièrrez- Medina and Raizen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 040402 (2001) IZE How frequent or strong must be the coupling? QZE UNDISTURBED NOTICE:
Main idea coupling K frequency N Enhancement of decoherence Control of decoherence ?
The problem ? Unstable systems Unstable systems and Inverse Zeno