Presentation on theme: "W HAT IS A J OB ? Job A group of related activities and duties Job Family A group of individual jobs with similar characteristics o Task is an action or."— Presentation transcript:
W HAT IS A J OB ? Job A group of related activities and duties Job Family A group of individual jobs with similar characteristics o Task is an action or related gp. of action designed to produce a definite outcome or result.
Job analysis is the process of gathering information about a job. It is, to be more specific, a systematic investigation of the tasks, duties and responsibilities necessary to do a job. The process of determining by observation & study & reporting pertinent information relating to the nature of specific job. It is the determination of the tasks which comprise the job & the skills,knowledge, abilities & responsibilities required of the worker for a successful performance & which differentiates one job from all others.
HR managers use the data to develop job descriptions and job specifications that are the basis for employee performance appraisal and development. The ultimate purpose of job analysis is to improve organizational performance and productivity.
A job can be analyzed only after it has been designed & someone is already performing it. Job analysis is therefore performed on ongoing jobs.
D ETERMINING J OB R EQUIREMENTS What employee doesWhat employee does Why employee does itWhy employee does it How employee does itHow employee does it What employee doesWhat employee does Why employee does itWhy employee does it How employee does itHow employee does it Determining job requirementsDetermining job requirements Summary statement of the jobSummary statement of the job List of essential functions of the jobList of essential functions of the job Summary statement of the jobSummary statement of the job List of essential functions of the jobList of essential functions of the job Employee orientationEmployee orientation Employee instructionEmployee instruction Disciplinary actionDisciplinary action Employee orientationEmployee orientation Employee instructionEmployee instruction Disciplinary actionDisciplinary action Personal qualifications required in terms of skills, education and experiencePersonal qualifications required in terms of skills, education and experience RecruitmentRecruitment SelectionSelection DevelopmentDevelopment RecruitmentRecruitment SelectionSelection DevelopmentDevelopment Nature of: Job Analysis Job Description Job Specification Basis for:
Uses of Job Analysis Organisation structure Responsibility Authority Accountability Manpower planning Future job requirement Skill requirement Recruitment,sele ction, placement matching job requirement and skill Labour relations Deviation from agreed job standards Orientation What is expected? Counselling Vocational guidance Rehabilitation Counselling JOB ANALYSIS Job description Job specification Performance appraisal Performance std. Performance review Factual statement of tasks, duties and responsibilities of a job Statement of human attributes, abilities, skill required to perform job
Engineering design & methods of improvement job design and matching of social and psychological requirements of employees technical system requirements Job evaluation and rating Training and development Updating of skills changing job requirements Career path planning Future prospects for movement along career paths
P ARTIAL JOB ANALYSIS QUESTIONNAIRE The information about a job is usually collected through a structured questionnaire: JOB ANALYSIS INFORMATION FORMAT Your Job Title_______________ Code__________Date_____________ Class Title_______________Department_____________________ Your Name_________________Facility___________________________ Superior’s Title______________Prepared by_______________________ Superior’s Name____________Hours Worked______AM______to AM____ PM PM 1.What is the general purpose of your job? 2.What was your last job? If it was in another organisation, please name it. 3.To what job would you normally expect to be promoted? Cont…
P ARTIAL JOB ANALYSIS QUESTIONNAIRE 4.If you regularly supervise others, list them by name and job title. 5.If you supervise others, please check those activities that are part of your supervisory duties: Hiring Coaching Promoting Orienting Counselling Compensating Training Budgeting Disciplining Scheduling Directing Terminating Developing Measuring Performances Other____________ 6.How would you describe the successful completion and results of your work? 7.Job Duties – Please briefly describe WHAT you do and, if possible, How you do it. Indicate those duties you consider to be most important and/or most difficult: Cont…
P ARTIAL JOB ANALYSIS QUESTIONNAIRE (a)Daily Duties (b)Periodic Duties (Please indicate whether weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc.) (c) Duties Performed at Irregular Intervals 8.Education – Please check the blank that indicates the educational requirements for the job, not your own educational background. No formal education required College degree Less than high school diploma Education beyond graduate High school diploma or equivalent degree and/or professional license. College certificate or equivalent List advanced degrees or specified professional license or certificate required. Please indicate the education you had when you were placed on this job.
P ERFORMING J OB A NALYSIS 1. Select jobs to study 2. Determine information to collect: Tasks, responsibilities, skill requirements 3. Identify sources of data: Employees, supervisors/managers 4. Methods of data collection: Interviews, questionnaires, observation, diaries and records 5. Evaluate and verify data collection: Other employees, supervisors/managers 6. Write job analysis report
O*NET AND J OB A NALYSIS Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) A systematic occupational classification structure based on interrelationships of job tasks and requirements. Contains standardized and comprehensive descriptions of twenty-thousand jobs. O*NET Database A online database of all DOT occupations plus an update of over 3,500 additional DOT occupations. Data are collected and published continuously.
C ONTROLLING THE A CCURACY OF J OB I NFORMATION Factors influencing the accuracy of job information Self-reporting exaggerations and omissions by employees and managers Collecting information from a representative sample of employees Capturing all important job information Length of job cycle exceeding observation period Lack of access to job site for personal observation Lack of familiarity with the tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job Ongoing changes in the job
T HE C OMPETENCY A PPROACH TO J OB A NALYSIS This approach encourages employees to develop role based competencies (knowledge, skills and abilities needed to play diverse roles ) that may be used in diverse work situations, instead of being boxed into a job.
Job Description And Job Specification The end products of job analysis are: Job description: this is a written statement of what the job holder does, how it is done, under what conditions it is done and why it is done.
S PECIMEN OF J OB D ESCRIPTION TitleCompensation manager CodeHR/2310 DepartmentHuman Resource Department Summary Responsible for the design and administration of employee compensation programmes. Duties Conduct job analysis. Prepare job descriptions for current and projected positions. Evaluate job descriptions and act as Chairman of Job Evaluation Committee. Insure that company’s compensation rates are in tune with the company’s philosophy. Cont…
S PECIMEN OF J OB D ESCRIPTION Relate salary to the performance of each employee. Conduct periodic salary surveys. Develop and administer performance appraisal programme. Develop and oversee bonus and other employee benefit plans. Develop an integrated HR information system. Working conditionsNormal. Eight hours per day. Five days a week. Report toDirector, Human Resource Department.
P REPARING THE J OB D ESCRIPTION Job Analyst Interview Questionnaire Interview Questionnaire Observation SupervisorSupervisorEmployeesEmployees Combine and reconcile data Tentative draft Final Draft Securing consensus
K EY E LEMENTS OF A J OB D ESCRIPTION Job Title Indicates job duties and organizational level
Provides status to the employee. Indicates what the duties of the job entails. Indicates the relative level occupied by its holder in the organizational hierarchy.
Essential Functions (Job Duties) Indicate responsibilities entailed and results to be accomplished Job Identification Section Departmental location of the job Person to whom the jobholder reports Date the job description was last revised Payroll or code number Number of employees performing the job Number of employees in the department where the job is located O*NET code number. “Statement of the Job”
Job Duties, or Essential Functions, Section Statements of job duties that: Are arranged in order of importance that indicate the weight, or value, of each duty; weight of a duty is gauged by the percentage of time devoted to it. Stress the responsibilities that duties entail and the results to be accomplished. Indicate the tools and equipment used by the employee in performing the job. Should comply with law by listing only the essential functions of the job to be performed.
Job specification: it offers a profile of human characteristics (knowledge, skills and abilities)needed by a person doing a job. States the min. acceptable qualifications that the incumbent must possess to perform the job successfully. It is written record of the physical,mental,social & psychological and behavioral characteristics which a person should possess in order to perform the job effectively
It tells essential attributes which a person must possess desirable attributes which a person ought to possess contra- indicators which will become a handicap to successful performance
Specimen of job specification Education MBA with specialisation in HRM/MA in social work/PG Diploma in HRM/MA in industrial psychology. A degree or diploma in Labour Laws is desirable. Experience At least 3 years’ experience in a similar position in a large manufacturing company. Skill, Knowledge, Abilities Knowledge of compensation practices in competing industries, of job analysis procedures, of compensation survey techniques, of performance appraisal systems. Skill in writing job descriptions, in conducting job analysis interviews, in making group presentations, in performing statistical computations Ability to conduct meetings, to plan and prioritise work. Work Orientation Factors The position may require upto 15 per cent travel. Age Preferably below 30 years.
In recent times, the traditional way of jobs having a clearly-delineated set of duties and responsibilities is being increasingly questioned. For example, knowledge workers do not like standardized, routinised operations to be carried out in a fixed, predetermined time schedule. Talented ones, again, may require jobs with stretch pull and challenge. They may want to carry out their duties in a flexible manner.