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Spectral Masters, Inc. A New Hyperspectral Imaging Technology Mission: Develop its unique color imaging technology into a branded product line which will.

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Presentation on theme: "Spectral Masters, Inc. A New Hyperspectral Imaging Technology Mission: Develop its unique color imaging technology into a branded product line which will."— Presentation transcript:


2 Spectral Masters, Inc. A New Hyperspectral Imaging Technology Mission: Develop its unique color imaging technology into a branded product line which will define the upper end of the professional market May 2004

3 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.2 Technological Vision “Spectral Masters’ Hyperspectral imaging technology offers the first improvement to capturing and reproducing color images since James Clark Maxwell demonstrated the trichromatic process at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in London on May 17, 1861.” - Larry Kleiman, CEO Spectral Masters

4 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.3 Introduction Spectral Masters, Inc. has developed a superior Hyperspectral color imaging technology that features: –Scientific accuracy and precision –Proprietary apparatus and process –Patent pending technology The technology can be fashioned into products with: –Inherent market appeal –High economic viability –Sustainable market advantage –Rapid growth potential The following presentation describes the science underpinning Spectral Master’s technology and compares it to conventional color imaging to provide a better understanding of the inherent advantages provided by the Hyperspectral approach

5 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.4 What is Color? Color is a phenomenon of psychological perception, a sensation, not an objective component or characteristic of a substance Color is an aspect of vision automatically triggered by stimulating specific parts of the human psycho-physiological system, the eyes and the mind, with Electro-Magnetic Radiation known as Visible Light or Vis Vis is EMR found in the spectrum bands between the wavelengths of 380 nanometers and 780 nm

6 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.5 Psychological Color Psychological color has three aspects: –Hue –Lightness –Saturation Hue is commonly associated with one of the spectral colors, Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo or Violet and is often graphed by placing the colors on the edge of a sphere, circle or wheel Lightness is the lightness or darkness axis of the color, extending from white to black through the center of the color sphere or wheel Saturation is the purity of the hue, from neutral at the center of the sphere or circle to fully saturated, or pure, at the edge of the sphere

7 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.6 Psychological Color Models Color can not be measured directly, but the conditions that create color sensations can be measured In 1931 the international standards agency Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage, CIE, established a reproducible, spectrophotometry- based device independent color model constructed from a light source, an observer, and an object, to measure the variables that create color sensations The CIE model mathematically transforms a specimen’s measured light intensity profile using tables and algorithms defining “ideal” observers and light sources The results of a CIE-compliant measurement and transformation are coordinates that locate the specimen in a horse-shoe-shaped color space representing human color perception

8 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.7 Psychological Color Gamut A color wheel, first described by Isaac Newton when he arranged all the psychological hues in a circle, is used to determine the number of distinct colors perceivable by a human with normal vision, or the total gamut of human color vision Exacting tests over many years have shown humans can distinguish a difference in hues separated by about one degree, with younger people requiring less separation and older people more separation, or between 180 and 720 different colors Other studies, including those conducted by Ikeda, Dai and Higaki of Chiba University, determined any single hue can be converted into a continuous gradient with individual steps indistinguishable by a human if the hue is divided into about 8,200 steps between totally desaturated and 100% saturation Therefore, a human with normal vision can perceive between 1.47 and 5.9 million distinct colors

9 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.8 Trichromatic Color Trichromatic color, sometimes known as process or mechanical color, is a color reproduction or synthesis method based upon the Trichromatic Color Theory (TCT) TCT is based upon the physiology of the eye, where it is thought an opponent system using three kinds of light receptors, called cones, transform EMR into sensations the brain interprets as color TCT states most colors may be reproduced or matched by mixing different amounts of three primary colors The TCT was first demonstrated photographically by Scottish physicist J. C. Maxwell, using glass lantern slides exposed through and then projected in register with a set of colored filters

10 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.9 Additive and Subtractive Trichromatic Color Trichromatic color is often described as additive or subtractive when used to mechanically reproduce color Additive systems, such as computer monitors, create color sensations by selectively adding together the primary colors red, green and blue Subtractive systems, such as printers, create color sensations by using the primary colors cyan, magenta and yellow to selectively absorb certain wavelengths of light and reflect other wavelengths

11 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.10 Trichromatic Color Systems and Methods Trichromatic color systems include colorimeters, color films, television, computer monitors, color printers, lithographic printing processes and color scanners Trichromatic color systems use color reproduction or comparison methods, not color measurement methods, as color can not be directly measured RGB and CMYK systems are often characterized as Device Dependent Color Systems because they utilize linear mixtures of arbitrary primary colors associated with a specific device or system to make color matches or reproduce colors

12 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.11 Trichromatic Color System Gamuts The triangles created by connecting the “primary” corners of the RGB /CMY(K) color cube create Trichromatic color model gamut graphs Mathematically, integer numbers are used to denote amounts of R, G, or B or C, M, or Y and, depending upon the bits- per-integer, millions or billions of color space coordinates, not colors, are created within the triangular graphs However, all colors perceived by humans are actually plotted within the horseshoe- shaped CIE 1931 xyY Chromaticity Chart and equal the number of psychological colors All colors that can be mixed via Trichro- matic methods are shown as the Chromaticity Chart’s exploded triangles The size, shape and position of the RGB/CMY triangles vary according to the primary colors used, but are always a subset within the Chromaticity Chart

13 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.12 Spectral Systems Devices and methods that examine light by spreading it into bands by using natural phenomena such as refraction and dispersion are termed Spectral Systems The classic spectral system is a prism dispersing white light into the spectral “rainbow” colors Spectral systems working in the visible light range are classified as Multispectral when the bands of light are generally wider than 10 nanometers of EMR, and Hyperspectral when the wavelength denominated bands of light are five nanometers wide or less

14 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.13 Spectral Technology Devices that can disperse light into bands include spectrophotometers, monochromators, spectroradi- ometers, spectrographs and imaging spectrographs They all work by guiding light to reflect off or transmit through an optical device such as a prism, grating, filter or birefringence crystal, where the natural phenomena of refraction and dispersion separate the light into bands Depending upon the device used, the bands can be relatively wide, as in multispectral systems, or narrow, as in hyperspectral systems The output of a spectral system is often graphed on an Intensity vs. Wavelength chart called a Spectral Trace or Characteristic Curve

15 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.14 Spectral Methods The most important spectral method available for reproduction imaging is the color model and transformation system published by the CIE in 1931 and in continuous refinement since that time This color model analyzes color specimens by using a spectral system to create a spectral trace of the light reflected off or transmitted through a specimen or object, such as an image pixel The trace, or characteristic curve, is manipulated, or transformed, by algorithms using special data sets, or color matching functions, that represent “standard” human observers and “standard” sources of illumination The resulting transformation is the Tristimulus Value Triplet X, Y, Z, which locates the specimen in the imaginary XYZ Tristimulus Space

16 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.15 CIE Transformations As illustrated on the top right, the imaginary XYZ color space is depicted in 3D as a construction of triangles Projected onto the XY axis can be found the so-called CIE31 color space, created by transforming the X and Y values from any spectrally determined XYZ Tristimulus triplet linearly by x = X/X+Y+Z and y = Y/X+Y+Z This simple transform creates the two- dimensional xyY Chromaticity Chart, shown lower right, which positions the color perception indicated by the XYZ triplet onto a psychological hue and saturation location The original Y value becomes the degree of lightness and is positioned at the Chromaticity Chart’s “white point” which projects perpendicular to the plane of the Chromaticity Chart When the chart is projected in 3D as shown to the right center, the lightness of the combined hue/saturation for the object can be indicated

17 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.16 More CIE Transformations In 1976 the CIE created the L*a*b* color space (CIELAB), a nonlinear transformation of the XYZ color space CIELAB was designed as an opponent system, with the a* value representing the redness (+) or greenness (-) of a specimen, the b* value representing the yellowness (+) or blueness (-) of the specimen, and the L value representing the lightness of the specimen, between black (0) and white (100) CIELAB has a related DeltaE algorithm, designed to provide a numerical repre- sentation of the difference between the appearance of two specimens CIELAB is also designed to be visually more uniform than previous color models (ie: color coordinates with the same L value will appear equally light) CIELAB is the “native” color space for many modern color management systems

18 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.17 The Spectral Masters Advantage: CIE vs. RGB All colors that can be perceived by humans may be plotted on the horseshoe-shaped CIE 1931 xyY Chromaticity Chart Spectral Masters Device Indepen- dent technology can accurately and precisely determine and position any color falling within the graph All colors that can be mixed via Device Dependent RGB or CMY(K) methods are plotted within a triangle or polygon which can be overlaid on the Chromaticity Chart The size, shape and position of the RGB/CMY(K) triangle or polygon within the Chromaticity Chart varies according to the actual primary colors used, but is always a subset within the Chromaticity Chart CIE 1931 xyY CHROMATICITY CHART WITH RGB MONITOR, FILM AND PRINTER COLOR SPACE OVERLAYS

19 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.18 The Spectral Masters Advantage: Metamerism Two color specimens having different spectral traces but appearing to an observer under certain conditions to be the same color is called observer metamerism This human perception phenomenon is why a specimen viewed under, for example, sunlight sometimes appears as a different color when viewed under incandescent lighting This condition also exists when measurements are made by RGB colorimeters like color scanners and is called equipment metamerism Equipment metamerism causes the instrument analyzing the specimens to calculate the same tristimulus value for both samples Only spectral systems such as offered by Spectral Masters can differentiate metamerism and properly notate the color of such specimens

20 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.19 The Spectral Masters Advantage: Color Management All conventional scanners, printers and monitors utilize trichromatic color models that have gamuts that differ from each other Color Management Systems (CMS) embedded in most computer operating systems utilize “profiles” to mathematically describe the size and shape of trichromatic color models relative to CIE31 CMS “remap” locations in trichromatic color spaces so “out of gamut” coordinates in one space can be repositioned in another space CMS descriptions and remapping operations are always performed by transforming trichromatic values into and out of locations in the CIE “working” or “connection” color space Because the native color space of all Spectral Masters systems is CIE, remapping and repositioning of color locations, with the inherent loss of quality, is greatly reduced or eliminated

21 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.20 The Spectral Masters Advantage: Comparative Tests Yellow Slide Shootout Delta E - Smaller is Better (Spectral Masters is baseline and equals 0) S' Masters Heidelberg Kodak Agfa Pixelcraft Umax Polaroid Scitex Sakata Nikon Screen Aztek 020406080 IT8/Q60 Delta E - Smaller is Better (Kodak published values are baseline and equal 0) 0510152025 S' Masters Imacon Scitex Aztek The Yellow Slide Shootout chart compares measurements of a single color slide by 11 RGB scanners against a Spectral Masters measurement using the CIE Delta E method, where a smaller value indicates a better color match The IT8/Q60 chart compares, in Delta E units, the averaged measurements of three RGB scanners and The Spectral Masters XYZ Observer 5B against Kodak’s published values for the 264 color patches on Kodak’s IT8/Q60 target

22 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.21 The Spectral Masters Advantage: Intellectual Property Spectral Masters currently has three utility patents in process: –Hyperspectral System for Capturing Graphical Images, filed with the USPTO 18 March 2002, published 31 October 2002, Pub. No.: US 2002/0159098 A1, claiming filing date 16 March 2001 per provisional application No. 60/276,079 –Hyperspectral System for Capturing Graphical Images, filed under the PCT of the World Intellectual Property Organization 18 March 2002, published 2 October 2003, Pub. No.: WO 03/081191 A1 –System for Capturing Graphical Images Using Hyperspectral Illumination, filed with USPTO 9 January 2004, not published at this time, claiming filing date 9 January 2003 per provisional application No. 60/438,909 At least three other applications are in preparation

23 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.22 Spectral Masters Scanning and Camera Technology Spectral Masters color image scanning and camera technology, like the CIE system, is based upon spectrophotometry, the branch of physics concerned with Visible Light, electromagnetic radiation located between the wavelengths of 360 nm and 830 nm The Spectral Masters technology employs proprietary, high speed scanning spectrophotometers to measure the intensity of any portion of the visible spectrum transmitted through or reflected off any pixel in an image in Hyperspectral Bandpasses, 5 nm wide bands of light Using mathematical models of CIE light sources and observers, these scientific- grade instruments transform the hyperspectral bands of pixel light into colorimetric characteristic curves or coordinates in any of the CIE device independent color models, or with further transforms, coordinates in device dependent color spaces CMOS DETECTOR HOLOGRAPHIC TRANSMISSION GRATING INPUT SLIT A: CIE B: Film C: Monitor D: Printer

24 © 2004 Spectral Masters, Inc.23 Product Pipeline Near Term: microPushbroom Model B, flatbed scanner, the signature flatbed spectral scanner line, B format nanoPainter, a low cost, 35mm slide and film format spectral scanner, the signature desktop film scanner line Ansel, a spectral camera for professional studio photographers Michelangelo, a 2D/3D spectral scanning system for use by museums, institutions and archives Mid Term: C 2, a monitor, printer and media characterization and calibration tool microPushbroom Model A, signature flatbed scanner line, Sub A format Ansel Jr., a small format spectral camera Hollywood, a feature film digitization system Long Term: Spectrajet, a next generation inkjet printer with human color perception as its color gamut Spectraview, a next generation display with human color perception as its color gamut

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