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Section 3-1 Cell Size: Magnification: quality of making an image appear larger than actual size Resolution: measure of clarity of an image e- microscopes.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 3-1 Cell Size: Magnification: quality of making an image appear larger than actual size Resolution: measure of clarity of an image e- microscopes."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Section 3-1 Cell Size: Magnification: quality of making an image appear larger than actual size Resolution: measure of clarity of an image e- microscopes have ↑ mag/resolution

3 Section 3-1 Light microscopes: Form an image when light passes through 1 or more lenses to produce an enlarged image of specimen

4 Section 3-1 Types of Microscopes: Electron microscopes use beam of e- rather than light to view specimen Live organisms can’t be viewed w/ e- microscope

5 Section 3-1 Transmission Electron Microscope: e- beam directed at very thin slice of specimen stained w/metal ions e- that pass through strike fluorescent screen, forming an image; can’t view live specimen

6 Section 3-1 Scanning Electron Microscope: e- beam is focused on specimen coated w/ very thin layer of metal Shows 3D details of surface of specimen; can’t view live specimen Neutrophil (yellow) engulfing anthrax (orange)

7 Section 3-1 Scanning Tunneling Microscope: Needle-like probe measures differences in voltage caused by e- that leak, or tunnel, from surface of object being viewed Shows 3D details of surface of specimen Live specimens can be viewed e- surrounded by 48 iron atoms

8 Section 3-2 Cell Size Small cells function more efficiently than large cells If cell’s surface area–to-volume ratio is too low, subs can’t enter/leave cell well enough to meet cell’s needs

9 Section 3-2 Cell Theory has 3 parts: 1.All LT are made of 1 or more cells 2.Cells are basic units of structure/function in organisms 3.All cells arise from existing cells All cells have: Cell membrane Cytoplasm Cytoskeleton DNA Ribosome

10 Section 3-2 Prokaryotic cells (bacteria): Single-celled organisms; no nucleus or internal compartments Have cell wall, may have cilia/flagella Have circular molecule of DNA E. coli bacteria cell

11 Section 3-2 Eukaryotic cells (all other LT): Nucleus contains cell’s DNA Other internal compartments, organelles Typical animal cell

12 Section 3-2 Cell membrane: Selectively permeable membrane, determines which substances enter/leave cell Selective permeability caused by the way phospholipids interact w/ water Phospholipid made of phosphate group and 2 fatty acids

13 Section 3-2 Proteins are embedded in the phospholipid bilayer to help move substances across cell membrane “Inside of the cell” “Outside of the cell”

14 Section 3-3 Nucleus: Internal compartment stores cell’s DNA Nucleus controls cell’s functions Nuclear envelope is double membrane surrounding the nucleus Nuclear pores are small openings scattered over surface of nuclear envelope

15 Section 3-3 Ribosome: Structure where proteins are made Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): Extensive network of internal membranes that move proteins and other subs through cell; acts as a highway

16 Section 3-3 Vesicles: Carry newly made proteins through cytoplasm from ER to Golgi apparatus Golgi apparatus: Set of flattened, membrane-bound sacs that serve as packaging/distribution center of cell

17 Section 3-3 Lysosome: Sacs of enzymes that engulf/breakdown large substances into smaller ones Mitochondria: (aka “powerhouse”) Organelles that convert food energy from organic compounds to make ATP ATP: Main energy currency of cell; “spendable”

18 Section 3-3 Plants have 3 structures not found in animal cells: 1. Cell Wall: support/maintain shape of cell; protects cells, connect cell to adjacent cells 2. Chloroplasts: uses light energy to make organic compds from CO 2 /water 3. Large Central Vacuole: stores water, nutrients, wastes

19 Section 3-3 Summary of Organelles:


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