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The Effect of Varied Light on The Activity and Function of Cassiopeia xamachana Pilar McQuirter Simedar Jackson.

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Presentation on theme: "The Effect of Varied Light on The Activity and Function of Cassiopeia xamachana Pilar McQuirter Simedar Jackson."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Effect of Varied Light on The Activity and Function of Cassiopeia xamachana Pilar McQuirter Simedar Jackson

2 Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to explore the short and long term effects of pollution on an ecosystem.

3 Experimental Hypothesis If the Cassiopeia xamachana are exposed to decreased amounts of light, then their activity would decrease because they derive nutrition from photosynthetic algae on their tentacles. Null Hypothesis If the Cassiopeia xamachana are exposed to decreased amounts of light, then their will be no effect on their activity.

4 Design of Experiment Dependent Variable: Activity of Cassiopeia xamachana Independent Variable: Light intensity Control Group: Specimen 1 & 2, Exposed to 40 watt bulb Constants: Food, exposure time, and temperature

5 Materials gallon tanks (3) 2.Cassiopea xamachana (5) 3.10 gallon tank (1) 4.Tetra Air Pump (3) 5.Accuair Valve (1) 6.Filter (4) 7.Tetra HT10 50W Submersible Heater (1) 8.Mini Heater 10W (3) 9.Nature’s Ocean Bacteria Inoculated Sand (1 bag) 10.Charcoal 11.Mortar and Pestle 12.Stirring rods 13.Optix Acrylic Sheet 14.Fish net 15.Timer 16.Ruler 17.Shopping Bag 18.Scale watt EcoSmart light bulb (3) watt EcoSmart light bulb (1) 21.Syphon 22.Plastic tubing 23.Salt water 24.5 gallon water jugs

6 Procedure Specimen 1 & watt Light Bulb 2.Fed ½ frozen Brine Shrimp Cube, once a week 3.Data Collected once a week

7 Procedure Specimen 3 Treatment 1.Using Mortar and Pestle, Kingsford Charcoal was ground 2.Scale was zeroed with plastic weighing tray 3.Ground Charcoal was placed in weighing tray, then weighed g of Charcoal was dusted atop the water of the tank 5.40 watt Light Bulb 6.Fed ½ frozen Brine Shrimp Cube, once a week 7.Data Collected once a week

8 Procedure Specimen 4 1.Various holes cut in shopping bag for a)Light b)Viewing 2.Viewing holes taped over when not in use, so not to add any extra light 3.40 watt Light Bulb 4.Fed ½ frozen Brine Shrimp Cube, once a week 5.Data Collected once a week

9 Specimen watt Light bulb shined directly on specimen 2.Fed ½ frozen Brine Shrimp Cube, once a week 3.Data Collected once a week

10 Feeding 1.Frozen Brine Shrimp cubes were cut in half for specimens Whole cube was given to specimens 1 & 2

11 Date: 12/16/12 Specimine 1Specimen 2Specimen 3Specimen 4Specimen 5 Date: 3/8/12 Specimen 1Specimen 2Specimen 3Specimen 4Specimen 5 Trial Trial Trial Trial Trial Trial Average Average Length3 cm3.5 cm5.2 cm6.5 cm4.5 cmLength4.6 cm4.2 cm5.2 cm6.1 cm5.7 cm Date: 2/27/12 Specimine 1Specimen 2Specimen 3Specimen 4Specimen 5 Date: 3/15/12 Specimen 1Specimen 2Specimen 3Specimen 4Specimen 5 Trial Trial Trial Trial Trial Trial Average Average Length3.5 cm4.5 cm5.5 cm6.8 cm5 cmLength4.6 cm4.5 cm5.6 cm6 cm5.8 cm Date: 3/01/12 Specimen 1Specimen 2Specimen 3Specimen 4Specimen 5 Date: 3/22/12 Specimen 1Specimen 2Specimen 3Specimen 4Specimen 5 Trial Trial Trial Trial Trial Trial Average Average Length3.2 cm4.3 cm5 cm7 cm5 cmLength4.3 cm4.4 cm6.5 cm6.6 cm6.7 cm Pulses per Minute

12 Control Varied LightReduced LightIntense Light

13 Chi Squared Specimen 3 DateExpected eObserved (o)(o-e)(o-e) 2 〖 (o-e) 〗 ^2/e 2/27/ /1/ /8/ /15/ Specimen 4 DateExpected eObserved (o)(o-e)(o-e) 2 〖 (o-e) 〗 ^2/e 2/27/ /1/ /8/ /15/ Specimen 5 DateExpected eObserved (o)(o-e)(o-e) 2 〖 (o-e) 〗 ^2/e 2/27/ /1/ /8/ /15/ Degrees of Freedom= 3 The Chi Squared value is higher than the critical value, therefore the data is significant

14 Error Lights turned off the week of 3/26 Inaccurate feeding methods Inability to obtain freshly hatched Artemia for feeding Temperature fluctuations in tanks

15 Data Analysis Zooxanthellae are photosynthetic organisms that utilize the enzyme carbonic anhydrase(CA) to convert HCO3- to usable CO2. CA concentrations are highest in host tissues, creating the symbiotic relationship between Zooxanthellae and Cassiopea xamachana.

16 Data Analysis CA concentrations are effected by light intensity, water flow, and Zooxanthellae densities. When these factors are altered, Cassiopea xamachana expel 67% to 70% of their Zooxanthellae.

17 Data Analysis Bleaching occurs when C. xamachana expel Zooxanthellae, indicating a disruption in light intensity, heat, water quality, or water flow. As seen in specimen five (intense light) and specimen four ( reduced light).

18 Data Analysis The results of the experiment have allowed the rejection of the null hypothesis and provides support for the experimental hypothesis.

19 Data Analysis Experimental hypothesis: If the Cassiopeia xamachana are exposed to decreased amounts of light, then their activity would decrease because they derive nutrition from photosynthetic algae on their tentacles. Null hypothesis: If the Cassiopeia xamachana are exposed to decreased amounts of light, then their will be no effect on their activity.

20 Specimen 5 (Intense Light) March 1 st 2012March 15 th 2012

21 Specimen 4 (Reduced Light) March 1 st,2012March 15 th 2012

22 Conclusions and Applications

23

24 Conclusion & Applications The expulsion of Zooxanthellae reduces their ability to effectively perform photosynthesis. Zooxanthellae also have a symbiotic relationship with coral, increasing calcification and survival. Unhealthy coral- decrease in marine life& biodiversity- fisherman catch is depleted/ attraction of coral reefs is destroyed

25 Works Cited 302 Found. (n.d.). Retrieved from 0direct l--11-en help utfZz-8-00 Berkelmans, R., & Van Oppen, M. J. (2006). The Role of Zooxanthellae in the Thermal Tolerance of Corals: A 'Nugget of Hope' for Coral Reefs in an Era of Climate Change. Proceedings: Biological Sciences, 273, Retrieved April 13, 2012, from Chi-Squared Table. (n.d.). Retrieved April 11, 2012, from Estes, A. M., Kempf, S. C., & Henry, R. P. (2003). Localization and quantification of carbonic anhydrase activity in the symbiotic scyphozoan cassiopea xamachana. The Biological Bulletin, 204, Retrieved April 11, 2012, from Gattuso, J., Allemand, D., & Frankignoulle, M. (1999). Photosynthesis and calcification at cellular, organismal and community levels of coral reefs: A review on interactions and control by carbonate chemistry. In American zoologist (Vol. 3, pp ). Oxford University Press. Retrieved April 11, 2012, from Marine Food Webs. (n.d.). Welcome to OceanWorld. Retrieved April 11, 2012, from Mayer, A. G. (1917). On the Non-Existence of Nervous Shell-Shock in Fishes and Marine Invertebrates. National Academy of Sciences, 3(10), Retrieved from FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dcassiopea%2Bxamachana%26acc%3Don%26wc%3Don&prevSearch=&item=15&ttl= 97&returnArticleService=showFullText&resultsServiceName=null Stobart, B., Teleki, K., Buckley, R., Downing, N., & Callow, M. (2005, January 15). Coral Recovery at Aldabra Atoll, Seychelles: Five Years after the 1998 Bleaching Event. JSTOR. Retrieved from =on&wc=on

26 Thank You!! Mrs. Hennings and Mr. Costopoulos Wendy Williams, Gerald McQuirter, Dr. Tacoma McKnight Oak Park Natural Pet and Fish Renata Voci


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