Presentation on theme: "The Effect of Varied Light on The Activity and Function of Cassiopeia xamachana Pilar McQuirter Simedar Jackson."— Presentation transcript:
The Effect of Varied Light on The Activity and Function of Cassiopeia xamachana Pilar McQuirter Simedar Jackson
Purpose The purpose of this experiment is to explore the short and long term effects of pollution on an ecosystem.
Experimental Hypothesis If the Cassiopeia xamachana are exposed to decreased amounts of light, then their activity would decrease because they derive nutrition from photosynthetic algae on their tentacles. Null Hypothesis If the Cassiopeia xamachana are exposed to decreased amounts of light, then their will be no effect on their activity.
Design of Experiment Dependent Variable: Activity of Cassiopeia xamachana Independent Variable: Light intensity Control Group: Specimen 1 & 2, Exposed to 40 watt bulb Constants: Food, exposure time, and temperature
Procedure Specimen 1 & watt Light Bulb 2.Fed ½ frozen Brine Shrimp Cube, once a week 3.Data Collected once a week
Procedure Specimen 3 Treatment 1.Using Mortar and Pestle, Kingsford Charcoal was ground 2.Scale was zeroed with plastic weighing tray 3.Ground Charcoal was placed in weighing tray, then weighed g of Charcoal was dusted atop the water of the tank 5.40 watt Light Bulb 6.Fed ½ frozen Brine Shrimp Cube, once a week 7.Data Collected once a week
Procedure Specimen 4 1.Various holes cut in shopping bag for a)Light b)Viewing 2.Viewing holes taped over when not in use, so not to add any extra light 3.40 watt Light Bulb 4.Fed ½ frozen Brine Shrimp Cube, once a week 5.Data Collected once a week
Specimen watt Light bulb shined directly on specimen 2.Fed ½ frozen Brine Shrimp Cube, once a week 3.Data Collected once a week
Feeding 1.Frozen Brine Shrimp cubes were cut in half for specimens Whole cube was given to specimens 1 & 2
Chi Squared Specimen 3 DateExpected eObserved (o)(o-e)(o-e) 2 〖 (o-e) 〗 ^2/e 2/27/ /1/ /8/ /15/ Specimen 4 DateExpected eObserved (o)(o-e)(o-e) 2 〖 (o-e) 〗 ^2/e 2/27/ /1/ /8/ /15/ Specimen 5 DateExpected eObserved (o)(o-e)(o-e) 2 〖 (o-e) 〗 ^2/e 2/27/ /1/ /8/ /15/ Degrees of Freedom= 3 The Chi Squared value is higher than the critical value, therefore the data is significant
Error Lights turned off the week of 3/26 Inaccurate feeding methods Inability to obtain freshly hatched Artemia for feeding Temperature fluctuations in tanks
Data Analysis Zooxanthellae are photosynthetic organisms that utilize the enzyme carbonic anhydrase(CA) to convert HCO3- to usable CO2. CA concentrations are highest in host tissues, creating the symbiotic relationship between Zooxanthellae and Cassiopea xamachana.
Data Analysis CA concentrations are effected by light intensity, water flow, and Zooxanthellae densities. When these factors are altered, Cassiopea xamachana expel 67% to 70% of their Zooxanthellae.
Data Analysis Bleaching occurs when C. xamachana expel Zooxanthellae, indicating a disruption in light intensity, heat, water quality, or water flow. As seen in specimen five (intense light) and specimen four ( reduced light).
Data Analysis The results of the experiment have allowed the rejection of the null hypothesis and provides support for the experimental hypothesis.
Data Analysis Experimental hypothesis: If the Cassiopeia xamachana are exposed to decreased amounts of light, then their activity would decrease because they derive nutrition from photosynthetic algae on their tentacles. Null hypothesis: If the Cassiopeia xamachana are exposed to decreased amounts of light, then their will be no effect on their activity.
Specimen 5 (Intense Light) March 1 st 2012March 15 th 2012
Conclusion & Applications The expulsion of Zooxanthellae reduces their ability to effectively perform photosynthesis. Zooxanthellae also have a symbiotic relationship with coral, increasing calcification and survival. Unhealthy coral- decrease in marine life& biodiversity- fisherman catch is depleted/ attraction of coral reefs is destroyed
Works Cited 302 Found. (n.d.). Retrieved from 0direct l--11-en help utfZz-8-00 Berkelmans, R., & Van Oppen, M. J. (2006). The Role of Zooxanthellae in the Thermal Tolerance of Corals: A 'Nugget of Hope' for Coral Reefs in an Era of Climate Change. Proceedings: Biological Sciences, 273, Retrieved April 13, 2012, from Chi-Squared Table. (n.d.). Retrieved April 11, 2012, from Estes, A. M., Kempf, S. C., & Henry, R. P. (2003). Localization and quantification of carbonic anhydrase activity in the symbiotic scyphozoan cassiopea xamachana. The Biological Bulletin, 204, Retrieved April 11, 2012, from Gattuso, J., Allemand, D., & Frankignoulle, M. (1999). Photosynthesis and calcification at cellular, organismal and community levels of coral reefs: A review on interactions and control by carbonate chemistry. In American zoologist (Vol. 3, pp ). Oxford University Press. Retrieved April 11, 2012, from Marine Food Webs. (n.d.). Welcome to OceanWorld. Retrieved April 11, 2012, from Mayer, A. G. (1917). On the Non-Existence of Nervous Shell-Shock in Fishes and Marine Invertebrates. National Academy of Sciences, 3(10), Retrieved from FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dcassiopea%2Bxamachana%26acc%3Don%26wc%3Don&prevSearch=&item=15&ttl= 97&returnArticleService=showFullText&resultsServiceName=null Stobart, B., Teleki, K., Buckley, R., Downing, N., & Callow, M. (2005, January 15). Coral Recovery at Aldabra Atoll, Seychelles: Five Years after the 1998 Bleaching Event. JSTOR. Retrieved from =on&wc=on
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