1 Needs of safety control for furniture 2 Abroad 3 Korea 4 Emission test method for furniture 5 Results, Direction of development for IAQ Contents
Needs of Safety Control for furniture Consumer complain New furniture consumer % odor complaint % eye & throat irritation experience Increased consumer complaint for new furniture Source: survey report from Consumer Agency (2006) Main cause of indoor air pollution High pollutant emissions of furniture in households Furniture>Home appliance>Office equipment>Bedding Wood-based panels are the main source, have continuous emission problems Source: Press release from Ministry of Environment(2008) Emission factor (mg/unit·h) Volatile organic compound (TVOC) Formaldehyde(HCHO) Furniture Home appliance Office equipment Bedding Toys New furniture release hazardous substances even after one month
Abroad Plane 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional products & Furniture Plane 2-dimensional, 3-dimensional products & Furniture Workstation system, Movable walls, Bedding, Seating, Tables, Workstation components Workstation system, Movable walls, Bedding, Seating, Tables, Workstation components System furniture Seating System furniture Seating Workstation systems Seating(office), individual furniture components Workstation systems Seating(office), individual furniture components Blue Angel Blue Angel Green guard Green guard LEED BIFMA Small chamber Large chamber Small chamber Large chamber Small chamber 2004 Building Materials (include wooden products) Building Materials (include wooden products) Eco-Mark Small chamber Dessicator Nation Labelingscheme Scope(Products)Scope(Products) Test protocol
Europe/Japan Substance Plane two-dimensional products Furniture and other products with a three-dimensional surface (24 ± 2) h28 th day(24 ± 2) h28 th day Formaldehyde ppm- VOCs ㎍ / ㎥ ㎍ / ㎥ SVOCs ㎍ / ㎥ - CMT Substance < 1 ㎍ / ㎥ Blue Angel (RAL-UZ 38)/Germany Eco Mark (Furniture)/Japan Wooden materials used for indoor furniture shall not emit formaldehyde Formaldehyde emission criteria : F****(JIS and JAS) SubstanceTest methodCertification Criteria Desiccator method JIS A 1460Average : 0.3 mg/L, Maximum : 0.4 mg/L Small chamber method JIS A ㎍ /( ㎡ h)
U.S.A. Substance Workstations, Movable Walls, Casegood Systems Seating, Individual Casegoods, Tables, Workstation Components Individual VOCs0.1TLV Formaldehyde0.05 ppm0.025 ppm 4-PhenylcycloHexene mg/m mg/m 3 Styrene0.07 mg/m mg/m 3 Total VOCs0.5 mg/m mg/m 3 Total Aldehtdes0.1 ppm0.05 ppm Respirable Particles0.05 mg/m 3 Greenguard Indoor Air Quality Product Certification All products are required to meet the criteria at 168 hours (7 th day) Office Modeling : Room Volume(32 m 3 ), Air Change Rate(0.72 hr -1 ) LEED CI 2009(EQ Credit 4.5) criteria ANSI/BIFMA M (add a new technique in revision) → Furniture product evaluation with small chamber method by direct scaling
KOREA ` Ministry of Knowledge Economy : Product Safety Certification - Small chamber method : TVOC, Toluene, HCHO - Small chamber method : TVOC, Toluene, HCHO - Desiccator method : Formaldehyde - Desiccator method : Formaldehyde Ministry of Environment(Evaluation criteria for furniture) - Large chamber method : TVOC, HCHO - Large chamber method : TVOC, HCHO - Recommend, eco-grade criteria : 14 days emission rate - Recommend, eco-grade criteria : 14 days emission rate Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs(MLTM) - Housing Performance Grading Indication System - IAQ : Application of Low-Emission Products(4 grades) - Construction materials, Furniture Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs(MLTM) - Clean Healthy House Construction Standards - Housing Performance Grading Indication System (first grade) (first grade)
MKE (Ministry of Knowledge Economy) Safety/Quality Labelling System(Furniture) Scope : All furniture in home, office, school(table, chair, cabinet, bed, sofa, kitchen..) Safety Standards : Table 1 or Table 2 Test ItemPermissible Limit valueTest method Formaldehyde (mg/L)≤ 1.5 (Average value)Desiccator method Test ItemPermissible Limit valueTest method HCHO (mg/m 2 ·h)≤ 0.12 Small chamber method Toluene (mg/m 2 ·h)≤ 0.08 TVOC (mg/m 2 ·h)≤ 4.0 Test method : KS M 1998 (Determination of the emission rate of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds in building interior products) Sampling(Small chamber method) : 7 days(168 h ± 2 h) from t 0
(Ministry of Environment) ME (Ministry of Environment) Evaluation criteria for furniture( ) ※ Large chamber method : emission factor at 14 days ※ Test Products : 53 (bookcase, desk, sofa, table, chair etc) Source: Press release from Ministry of Environment( ) ※ This guideline is established to meet each half value of “Indoor air quality management standard” and “WHO guideline”, by estimated building concentration from product emission factor with model room(40 m 3, 0.7 h -1 ) in KS I ※ This guideline is established to meet each half value of “Indoor air quality management standard” and “WHO guideline”, by estimated building concentration from product emission factor with model room(40 m 3, 0.7 h -1 ) in KS I 2007.
Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs) MTLM (Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs) TVOCHCHO Test chamber Test method Emission rate(t =7days) Finishing materials (5) Adhesives (5) Interior materials (2) < 0.10 mg/(m 2 ·h) < mg/(m 2 ·h) Small chamber KS M 1998 KS M ISO ME Built-in furniture (3)< 0.25 mg/m 3 < 0.03 mg/m 3 Large chamber KS I 2007 ASTM D 6670 Greenguard P066 ※ The largest footprint finishes in applied material at least 30% on surface, shall be used. Wardrobe(0.5) Bedroom(0.5) Shoe rack(0.5) Porch(0.5) Cabinet(0.5) Living room(0.5) Wardrobe(0.5) Kitchen(1.0) Kitchen furniture(1.0) Bedroom(0.5) Walls(2.0), Ceiling(1.0), Floor(2.0) Interior finishes(5.0) Walls(2.0), Ceiling(1.0), Floor(2.0) Adhesives(5.0) Walls(1.0), Ceiling(0.5), Floor(0.5) Other than interior finishes(2.0) 주침실 Living Room Main Bedroom Housing Performance Grading Indication System : first grade Test method : KS I 2007, ASTM D 6670, JIS A 1911/1912, GGTM.P066
Test Method PB + LPM Door PB + PVC + EVA Body HDF + PVC + EVA Back plate component 24 m 3 chamber1 m 3 chamber20 L chamber Whole-piece testComponent testKS M 1998 surface Component test Specimen sampling (surface to edge ratio) surface+edges Seal cutting surface KS M 1998 Small chamber method RAL-UZ 38 Consider the exposed surface, seal cutting surfaces KS M 1998 Desiccator Method Specimen sampling (surface + cutting edge) surface+edges
Test protocol - Desiccator KS M 1998, ISO , JIS A Pre conditioning : for constant mass, sustain samples at (20 ± 2) ℃, (65 ± 5) % - Desiccator test : 2 sets of desiccators, specimens installed, keep at 20 ℃ during 24 hours - Analysis : Treat water sample in each desiccators for absorbing HCHO by acetylacetone method & analyze the concentration with the UV/vis spectrophotometer. Test procedure - Formaldehyde emission test for wood-based panels(MDF, PB, Plywood) & construction materials. - Test for evaluation the grade(E0, E1, E2) how much the products content formaldehyde. - Maximum emission mass because of enlarged cutting surfaces in specimen, not in final product. - No functional relations with indoor air concentration affected in real product. (especially, different test condition – temp., humidity and isolated chamber) specimen number as surface area keep in chamber for constant mass installation specimen with water keep in 20 ℃, 24 h (2 desiccators) instrument analysis after reaction
AnalysisSampling Test Condition Specimen install. Test protocol – small chamber KS M 1998, ME Building materials(Korea) RAL-UZ 38 Wooden products (Blue Angel, Germany) Specimen Temp. & Humidity ACH & Test period Target Compounds Surface only, (0.4 ~ 2.0) m 2 /m 3 (25 ± 1) ℃, (50 ± 5) % 0.5 h -1, 7 days TVOC, Toluene, Formaldehyde Surface + narrow surface, 1.0 m 2 /m 3 (23 ± 1) ℃, (45 ± 5) % 1.0 h -1, 28 days TVOC, SVOCs, CMTs, Formaldehyde - Test for the emission rate of indoor air contaminants from the test specimen. - Between building products and furniture, different specimen installation in chamber for each surfaces. - In RAL-UZ 38 & BIFMA M7.1, small chamber results make use of the tool to evaluate the furniture.
AnalysisSampling Test condition Product installation Test method for furniture ○ KS I 2007 (Korea) ○ Greenguard Test Method P066, ANSI/BIFMA M7.1 (USA) ○ RAL-UZ 38 (Germany) Test protocol – large chamber Chamber Concentration ( g/m 3 ) Product Emission Factor (mg/(unit·h)) Indoor Concentration ( g/m 3 ) Model Room Predictable Test Condition Indoor Guideline(REL) ( g/m 3 ) - Emission factor at time t, make use of predicted exposure concentration by model room.
Results, Direction of Development for IAQ For improve IAQ ContaminantsEmission Good IAQ Clean IAQ PollutantsReduction Ventilation to improve indoor air quality Normal furnishing Eco-friendly material Reduced functional materials Source test to minimize Poor IAQ Evaluation of the product WHO Guideline Materials Management Healthy IAQ Products Management ContaminantsEmission