What is a Three- Dimensional (3D) Instructional Media?
It display an additional quality that appeals to the sense of touch – that is, a tactual quality. Their most important characteristic is their idea that they are to be handled by students to further assist them in formulating more legitimate concepts about things. Three-dimensional materials are very useful in the event that real-life materials are impossible to be brought in the classroom to provide students with certain amount of direct, purposeful, rich, and meaningful learning experience in accordance with Dale’s “Cone of Experience”.
Objects and Specimen Models and Mock-Ups DIORAMA PUPPETS Resource Person as an Instructional Medium
Objects and Specimen Objects are concrete materials such as plants, animals, tools, and artifacts used in providing direct experience. Specimen is a part or aspect of some item that is typical sample of the character of others in its same class or group. Specimens enable us to learn many things that would otherwise be unobtainable. Objects and specimens enable us to build generalizations that would otherwise cost prohibitive amounts of time and effort. Advantages & Limitations Points in Using Specimen and Obects in Teaching
Advantages These are less abstract and more concrete. It attracts students’ attention. Students become more familiar with objects. Limitations They need bigger storage. They are prone to possible damage. Some objects have limitation in availability and may not be easy to find.
The following are some points to consider in using specimen and objects for teaching: Develop a purpose for using them. Provide opportunities to pupils to work or to manipulate the specimens so that they can consider concepts, process and principles by themselves. Present just enough specimens or objects at a time so as not to overwhelm the students/pupils. Present the materials in a dramatic way so as to arouse and sustain the interest of the student/pupils.
Models and Mock-Ups Definitions Varied Purposes of Models Types of Models Advantages Limitations
Models Models are modified real things – reproductions of costly or delicate items that can be provided at reasonable cost and are safe to use. They are replicas of real objects which may be larger or smaller than the real thing. Models are excellent for teaching concepts about things that are three-dimensional and concrete in nature. They can be made to show interior views of objects, and they can be simplified to any extent desired in order that the basic concept represented may be communicated most adequately.
Mocks-up A mock-up is an arrangement of a real device or associated devices, displayed in a such way that representation of reality is created. The mock-up may be simplified in order to emphasize certain features. It is also considered as a special model where the parts of a model are singled out, heightened and magnified in order to focus on the part or process under study.
Varied Purposes of Models When real objects are too small or too large to bring into the classroom. To present subject matter involving the past and the future. Physical inaccessibility. Abstract constructions. To explain processes.
Types of Models Solid Models. They are used mainly for recognizing external features as in the case of globes and puppets Cross-section Model/Cut-away Models. They show the internal structures such as that of a tree showing the pith and other internal parts. Construction Models. They are models which can be assembled and disassembled to show relationship of parts to whole. Working Models. They indicate how the things being represented operate.
Advantages Allow learner to examine model or mock-up which may not be easy in the real object. Functioning model/mock-up allows learner to handle and operate. Create high interest and permit close up observation of how it works. Can provide learning experiences that real objects cannot provide. Working models can illustrate basic operations of a real device and provide important details. Allow learner to independently study the item at their own convenience. Make classroom discussion more effective.
Limitations They require tedious work. They are expensive. They might distort some real concepts. Some models which are too heavy or too big may be difficult for actual lecture.
DIORAMA The term Diorama is of Greek origin which means “to see through”. Diorama is a three- dimensional representation of events, ideas or concepts against a scenic background. It is also known as a meaningful exhibit in boxes or cases, which are portable. It is a miniature scene in three- dimensional treatment that is meant to replicate reality and cause students to think creatively and aesthetically. Four Principal Parts of Diorama Advantages and Limitations
Four principal parts of dioramas The case or stage. The printed background. The three-dimensional middle and foreground. The figures, constructions, and modeled objects that are placed in the case.
Advantages They have intrinsic value. They allow us to compare past and present conditions. They help us make connections to the real world. It develops students’ creativity. It can be viewed, handled, and examined by students. It adds interest and meaning to the lesson.
PUPPETS Definition Types of Puppet Advantages Limitations Principles in Choosing a Puppet Play for Teaching
Definition Puppets are artificial figures whose movements are controlled by a person. The person who operates them is called a puppeteer. Puppets are moved by hand or by strings, wires, or rods. Puppet figures are made to represent a person, animal, plant, or an object. A puppet can become the medium through which the children express themselves, often in role playing fashion. Puppets can assist the child in assuming the role of the character that he is portraying
Shadow Puppets Rod Puppets Glove-and- Finger Puppets Hand Puppets Marionettes
Shadow Puppets They are two-dimensional in nature, normally controlled by rods that are much thinner than the typical ones that are used to support the rod puppet. This type of puppet makes use of a translucent screen (rear-view screen) and light source for its effective use.
Rod Puppets They are flat cut out figures tacked to a stick, with one or more movable parts, and operated from below the stage level by wire rods or slender sticks.
Hand Puppets This type of puppet is made to slip over the hand like a glove. The puppet’s head is operated by the forefinger of the puppeteer, the little finger and thumb are being used to animate the puppet hands.
Glove-and-finger Puppets They make use of old gloves to which small costumed figure are attached.
Marionettes These puppets are suspended and controlled by a number of strings, plus sometimes a central rod attached to a control bar held from above by the puppeteer. The control bar can be either a horizontal or vertical one. Basic strings for operation are usually attached to the head, back, hands (to control the arms) and just above the knee (to control the legs). These are generally constructed of wood with articulating joints that replicate those of human beings. This form of puppetry is complex and sophisticated to operate, requiring greater manipulative control than a finger, glove or rod puppet.
Advantages They boost active participation among students. Stirring and attention getting. Fascination of the inanimate objects. Enjoyable and spontaneous learning experiences. Students become more creative.
Limitations It is time-consuming. It is expensive It demands extra effort. It can compete with the teacher.
Principles in Choosing a Puppet Play for Teaching Do not use puppets for plays that can be done just as well or better by another dramatic means. Puppets play must be based on action rather than words. Keep the plays short to ensure success. Do not omit the possibilities of music and dancing as part of the puppet show. Adapt the puppet show in all respects to your audience. Do not hesitate to adapt the puppet play.
Resource Person as an Instructional Medium Definition Introducing the Speaker/s Things to remember when invited as a Resource Speaker When delivering the talk Advantages & Limitations Things to be considered in inviting and using a resource speaker
Definitions A resource person is someone invited to talk about something. He or she is experienced or knowledgeable with and is capable of sharing what he or she knows.
Engage the expert. Clarify the purposes of the visit. The subject is of educational relevance and value to the students in that class. The speaker (s) will not tend to disrupt the educational program. The information to be discussed is appropriate to the age and maturity of the students. Prepare the class. The teacher is to remain in the classroom throughout the presentation in order to ensure appropriate follow-up.
The following should be remembered in introducing speakers: Thoroughly prepare what you are going to say Follow the TIS formula T- stands for topics or the exact title of the speaker’s talk. I- stands for the importance of the topic. S- stands for the speaker. It includes the speaker’s outstanding qualifications, particularly those that relate to the topic. Announce the speaker’s name distinctly and clearly. Be enthusiastic about the speaker.
Things to remember when invited as a Resource Speaker: Restrict your subject to fit the time at your disposal. Arrange your ideas in sequence. Enumerate your points as you make them. Compare the strange with the familiar. Turn in fact into the picture. Avoid technical terms. Use the appropriate media. Speak with contagious enthusiasm. Show respect and affection for your audience. Begin in a friendly way
When delivering the talk Crash thoroughly your shell of self- consciousness. Don’t try to imitate others – be yourself. Converse with your audience. Put your heart into your speaking. Practice making your voice strong and flexible.
Advantages Less preparation on the part of the teacher. Thorough discussion of the topic. It might add enthusiasm to the audience if the speaker is good. Limitations Hassle in searching for the suitable speaker. It might confuse the audience if the speaker is not good enough. Less enthusiasm from the audience if the speaker is boring.