Presentation on theme: "Jan 27, 2014 (Per. 8) Objective: Practice using the compound light microscope Do Now: what is a microscope used for? HW: Complete Midterm review packet,"— Presentation transcript:
Jan 27, 2014 (Per. 8) Objective: Practice using the compound light microscope Do Now: what is a microscope used for? HW: Complete Midterm review packet, continue to review ALL concepts (take notes, make note cards etc.)
Objective: Describe the different specimens you saw under the microscope Do Now: Looking at a specimen, how would you tell if it is a prokaryote or a eukaryote? HW: Midterm review packet through pg. 6 (take notes, make note cards etc.) Jan 27, 2014 (Per. 6)
Jan 28, 2014 Objective: timeline the history of the use of microscopes Do Now: complete Review Questions 2 & 3 from the microscope lab HW: Complete Midterm review packet, continue to review ALL concepts (take notes, make note cards etc.)
Midterm! Second review session this Thursday room S11 after school Midterm is Tues 2/4 at 10:30am Period 3- Room A214 Period 4- Room A217 Period 6- Room A212 Period 8- Room D261
On a blank piece of paper, create a table like the one below using the entire paper (make it neat!!) With your group, research each of the tissues/organisms and fill in the table. Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Specimen Review SpecimenDescription (see suggested points) Drawing (use color and make it look good!) Adipose (fat) tissue Cerebellum Spirogyra Chick embryo Bacillus bacteria Paramecium
For the description look for: Is the specimen an organism on its own or is it part of an organism? Which Kingdom is it in? (Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Plantae, Animalia, Fungi) Where does this type of organism live? Or what is the function of this part of the organism? How does this organism influence other organisms? Or How does this part of the organism contribute to the whole functioning organism? Does it have a natural color? What is its size? Anything else interesting?
Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Specimen Review A1- Adipose tissue (fat) (Multicelluar/Eukaryotic) Loose connective tissue Found in multicellular animals Made of adipocytes (cells that store fat for energy) Cushions and insulates the body Found beneath the skin and surrounding internal organs Fat cells can be white or brown (due to large amounts of mitochondria)
A2- Cerebellum tissue (Multicellular/Eukaryotic) Found in the brains of multicellular animals Part of the brain that deals with motor function Allows the body to sense its surroundings and respond accordingly Contains granule cells (purple dots) and Purkinje cells (pink)
B1-Spirogyra (Multicellular/Eukaryotic) A filamentous green algae In the Plantae Kingdom Has a helical arrangement of chloroplasts Found in fresh, nutrient rich water 10-100 μm in width, centimeters long
C1- Chick Embryo (Multicellular/Eukaryotic) Early developmental stage of a chick (animalia) before birth Contains many cell types beginning to specialize to become tissues and organs This sample was from around 3 days old It takes 21 days to grow and hatch the chick
D1- Bacteria (bacillus) (Unicellular/Prokaryotic) A genus of rod shaped bacteria Kingdom Eubacteria Either rely completely on oxygen or have the ability to use or not use oxygen May be free living or parasitic (cause illness) Example: Bacillus anthracis causes the illness anthrax (deadly infection causing breathing, digestion, and skin issues)
E1- Paramecium (Unicellular/Eukaryotic) Animal-like (protozoa) protist Can live in fresh or salt water Contain cilia (little hairs to help it swim) Some types allow single-celled green algae to live inside of them- endosymbiosis!
CELL THEORY & MICROSCOPES All organisms are made of cells. Despite the different variety of cells, their structure is remarkably similar.
The History of Cell Theory Consider the inorganic and organic chemicals that we have studied. Are they living? Could you fill a jar with the same number of inorganic and organic molecules normally found in the human body and expect the contents of the jar to be living? From the smallest bacterium to the largest redwood tree, all organisms are composed of cells.
CELLS The smallest unit of a living thing. Can carry out life processes such as cell respiration, photosynthesis (plants), dehydration synthesis and hydrolysis of compounds, growth, reproduction and much more.
The First Microscopes The human eye can see items as small as a pencil dot on a page (100 m).human eye BUT the average cell is only 20 m in diameter.
Convert: mm to μm by multiplying by 1000 mm to nm by multiplying by 1,000,000 Convert: μm to mm by dividing by 1000 nm to mm by dividing by 1,000,000
IF CELLS ARE SO SMALL, HOW IS IT THAT WE KNOW SO MUCH ABOUT THEM?
Robert Hooke (1665) English Scientist Built a compound microscopes made of two or three lenses. He observed a thin section of cork (the outer, dead layer of a cork tree that forms the bark) Described a “great number of tiny little boxes” which he called cells. They were actually the cell walls remaining from dead cells. Hook is credited with being the first scientist to view and name cells.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1674) Dutch lens maker Built a much better lens with which he was able to observe living cells. He observed organisms in rainwater, pond water, blood and the grime he scraped off his teeth! He called the small organisms he observed “animalcules” or little animals. Leeuvenhoek is credited with observing the first living cells.
Matthias Schleiden 1838 German Botanist Had the benefit of much more powerful lenses. Concluded that all plants are made of cells. Theodor Schwann 1839 German Zoologist Independently concluded that all animals are made of cells. Rudloph Virchow 1858 German Scientist Studied cause of disease concluded that all cells come from existing cells. This is also called the theory of Biogenesis.
The ideas of Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow form the basis for the cell theory.
The Cell Theory All organisms are made of cells Can be: UNICELLULAR One Cell MULTICELLULAR Many Cells
Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things. The Cell Theory
All new cells arise from preexisting cells The Cell Theory
Other Types of Microscopes Different types of microscopes produce different types of images. These are all images of yeast cells LMTEMSEM Light Microscope Transmission Electron Microscope Scanning Electron Microscope
Electron Microscopes Use a beam of electrons instead of a beam of light to create an image of a specimen Creates images with much higher resolution than with a light microscope The image is ultimately captured with a camera/computer rather than by the eye
TEM Views the internal structure by beaming electrons through thin slices of specimen SEM Scans the surface of a specimen
Is this a Scanning EM or Transmission EM? Virtual Electron Microscope
Field of View (FOV) The diameter of the circle of light you see when you look through the microscope.
Field of View (FOV) Activities 1. With your partner- Carefully read and complete the field of view packet. Feel free to add notes, highlight, etc. Make sure I check your work. 2. Find another pair of students who are done and log on to a computer. Click the FOV link on my teacher home page. Complete the activity and print your results sheet to the classroom printer. 3. Use the tools on the lab table to find the size of a spirogyra cell. Show all of your work on a blank piece of paper (one per group). Thoroughly explain the process you used and any calculations you did. Make sure I check your work. 4. Staple together your papers from activities 2 & 3 and place them up front.