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Microscopes A guide to use, general Maintenance, and repair tailored

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Presentation on theme: "Microscopes A guide to use, general Maintenance, and repair tailored"— Presentation transcript:

1 Microscopes A guide to use, general Maintenance, and repair tailored
to the Olympus CX-21 microscope

2 Topics Principles of Operation Diagrams Applications History Safety
Preventive Maintenance Common Failure Modes Basic Troubleshooting

3 Principles of Operation
Compound optical microscopes use a light source and a series of lenses and to produce a magnified image of a specimen The light gathering/ focusing capacity of a lens is primarily determined by its surface curvature

4 Principles of Operation
Eyepiece Focus light onto eyes 10x magnification Objective Collect light from the sample and magnify image Labeled with magnification (i.e. 4x/10x) and numerical aperture (i.e. 0.10/0.25) Mechanical Stage Moves the specimen in the x and y directions on the stage

5 Principles of Operation
Condenser Collects light from light sources and focuses it on the specimen Aperture Iris Diaphragm Controls the amount of light that reaches the specimen Coarse and Fine Adjustment Knobs Move stage up and down to bring specimen into focus

6 Principles of Operation
Inputs Outputs AC Voltage Light Source Specimen on stage Magnified image of specimen

7 Diagrams

8 Ring-form trophozoites of P. falciparum in a thick blood smear
Applications To view objects that are not visible to the naked eye For cell counting Used to view cells and diagnose disease: Malaria Roundworms Tuberculosis Dysentery Cryptosporidium Giardia Ring-form trophozoites of P. falciparum in a thick blood smear

9 History 2nd Century BC: Ptolemy describes a stick that appears to bend in water 1st Century: Romans experiment with glass and observe objects appear larger when viewed through glass 12th Century: Salvino D’Armante makes first eye glasses 1590: Dutch spectacle makers mount two lenses in a tube to create first compound microscope 1609: Galileo Galilee develops compound microscope with concave and convex lens 1665: Robert Hooke’s book Micrographia documents observations through the microscope 1674: van Leeuwenhoek achieves greater magnification allowing observation of bacteria

10 Safety Biological contamination: Gloves
Wear PPE Treat all blood and bodily fluids as if they are contaminated Before using, read the owner's manual Grounded electrical connection Location & Storage Do not use under vibration Do not store in high humidity Do not store in dusty areas Keep clean Avoid intense temperatures

11 Operation Place specimen on stage in bow-shaped lever Choose objective
Always start with lowest magnification Adjust aperture iris diaphragm to correspond to objective Turn on light source Bring image into focus with adjustment knobs Adjust stage and light intensity as needed

12 Objective Magnification
Operation Working Distance Objective Magnification Working Distance 4X 18.5 10X 10.6 40X 0.6 100X 0.13

13 Operation Using the 100x immersion objective
Before engaging immersion objective (100x), place a drop of oil onto the specimen. Engage the immersion objective Make sure oil is free of bubbles Use ONLY the fine adjustment knob to bring the specimen into focus After use, remove oil from objective front lens by wiping with lens paper moistened with lens cleaner

14 Preventive Maintenance
Daily Preventive Maintenance Clean Objective (after using immersion oil) Body of microscope Yearly Preventive Maintenance Microscope frame Check observation tube: Optical axis Left/right axis Revolving axis Parfocality Resolution As needed Grease replacement parts

15 Preventive Maintenance
Inspection sheet can help serve as a troubleshooting checklist

16 Common Modes of Failure
Electrical/Power Failure Light does not turn on when power switch is turned on Light bulb burned out Objective not placed in alignment Dirty components Eyepiece Objectives Filters Fungus growth due to high humidity General User Error Not in focus Brightness not adjusted properly Objective not rotated fully into secured position

17 Troubleshooting Electrical Unit
If lamp does not turn on when power switch is turned on, there is a problem with the electrical unit, unless…

18 Troubleshooting Electrical Unit
If light bulb is not the issue, check that microscope is plugged in and outlet has power (use another device you know to be working to validate this) Verify the cord shows no obvious damage Verify that the fuse is intact

19 Troubleshooting If the previous steps do not reveal the cause of failure The problem is most likely the circuit board itself Replacing individual components is not feasible, entire board needs replaced If an identical microscope exists that is not usable for another reason, harvesting its circuit board is an option. See the manual for instructions on removing the circuit board

20 Troubleshooting Coarse/Fine adjustment knobs do not turn smoothly
Knobs need to be greased

21 Troubleshooting Stage falls down spontaneously or an in-focus image quickly moves out of focus Cause: tension on coarse adjustment knob is too loose, needs to be adjusted

22 Troubleshooting: Stage Movement
If the stage does not move smoothly in the x or y directions, the tension of the x/y wires must be adjusted

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