4Introduction Up to 40% of all HAIs Most involve urinary catheterisationRisk of bacteriuria5% per day during the first week to almost 100% at 4 weeks of catheterisation1 to 4% of patients with bacteriuria will develop infectionDecember 1, 2013Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the commonest healthcare-associated infections (HAI), accounting for up to 40% of all HAIs. Most involve urinary drainage devices, such as bladder catheters.The risk of a catheterised patient acquiring bacteriuria increases with the duration of catheterisation, rising from approximately 5% per day during the first week to almost 100% at 4 weeks. One to four per cent of patients with bacteriuria will ultimately develop clinically significant infection, e.g., cystitis, pyelonephritis, and septicaemia.
5Urinary tract sites commonly associated with infection December 1, 2013A urinary tract infection, or UTI, is an infection that can happen anywhere along the urinary tract. Urinary tract infections have different names, depending on what part of the urinary tract is infected.Bladder -- an infection in the bladder is also called cystitis or a bladder infection.Kidneys -- an infection of one or both kidneys is called pyelonephritis or a kidney infection.Ureters -- the tubes that take urine from each kidney to the bladder are only rarely the site of infection.Urethra -- an infection of the tube that empties urine from the bladder to the outside is called urethritis.
6Urine Urine is an ultrafiltrate of blood, is normally sterile Small numbers of perineal/ vaginal/bowel microorganisms in the distal urethraConstantly washed out by micturitionBacteriuria = bacteria in the urineDecember 1, 2013
7Collection of urine Specimen contamination reduced by Cleaning external urethral area before collectionCollecting mid-stream urinesUrethral bacteria washed out in the first part of the streamProcessing specimen promptly, or refrigerating, to prevent overgrowth of contaminantsDecember 1, 2013
8Laboratory diagnosis Urine must be processed promptly Contaminants can multiply at room temperature and give falsely high colony countsIf delay expected, transport the specimen in an ice box or add boric acid (1% W/V or 1 g/10 ml of urine)December 1, 2013Urine must be processed promptly, since even with good technique urine samples may contain small numbers of contaminants. These can multiply at room temperature (especially in hot climates) and give falsely high colony counts. If delay is expected, the specimen should be transported in an ice box and refrigerated on arrival. Alternatively, boric acid (1% W/V or 1 g/10 ml of urine) should be added to the urine. Specimens containing boric acid need not be refrigerated.
9Microbiology Usually endogenous microorganisms E. coli and Proteus commonest in community infectionsCatheter-associated UTI (CAUTI)E. coli commonestIncreasingly caused by resistant speciesKlebsiella, Pseudomonas, Enterococcus and multiply drug resistant ESBL, VREDecember 1, 2013UTI usually caused by endogenous microorganisms from the bowel. E. coli and Proteus the commonest in community infections; usually sensitive and easy to treat. Healthcare-associated UTI are more resistant. In communities where indiscriminate antimicrobial use is common, multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (e.g., extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers - ESBL) are also prevalent in the human bowel.E. coli is the commonest cause of catheter-associated UTI (CA-UTI). However, increasingly, CA-UTIs are caused by more resistant Gram-negative species, such as Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. Similarly, ampicillin sensitive Enterococcus faecalis is gradually being replaced by vancomycin-resistant E. faecium (VRE). Then, with additional antibiotic exposure, infections occur with multiply drug resistant versions of these and other species (e.g., ESBL, VRE).
11Microbiological support The diagnosis of UTI depends on the microbiological support availableIn patients with indwelling catheters, infections frequently polymicrobialPresence of multiple bacteria does not necessarily indicate contaminationDecember 1, 2013The diagnosis of UTI depends on laboratory support. Where a carefully collected midstream specimen is obtained, finding ≥105 bacterial colony forming units (CFU)/ml in a patient without an indwelling catheter is diagnostic of UTI. Bacterial concentrations >102 CFU/ml suggest infection if the specimen is obtained aseptically by needle aspiration of the proximal drainage tubing in a patient with an indwelling catheter. Although UTIs in non-catheterised patients are usually caused by a single microorganism, in catheterised patients infections can be polymicrobial. The presence of multiple microorganisms does not necessarily indicate contamination.11
12Quantitative bacteriology Small numbers of bacteria are insignificantTrue infections have large numbers in bladder urineMicrobiology labs count the number of bacteria in a urine specimen as ‘colony-forming units’ (cfu)Significant bacteriuria gives a >95% likelihood of true UTI≥100,000 cfu/mL urine in 2 carefully-collected mid-stream urines (MSUs)December 1, 2013
13Urethral bacteria contaminate specimens, small numbers December 1, 2013Quantitative microbiology and potential contamination or overgrowth are illustrated in the figures.
14Significant bacteriuria When large numbers of bacteria (>105/mL) in specimens of bladder urine & evidence of true UTISmaller (insignificant) numbers may be due to contamination of the urine specimen during collection - urine has to pass through urethraContamination can come from perineum/genitaliaDecember 1, 2013
15True UTI with significant bacteriuria December 1, 2013Quantitative microbiology and potential contamination or overgrowth are illustrated in the figures.bacteria in bladder urine multiply to high numbers before collection
16Quantitative microbiology distinguishes between true UTI & contamination or overgrowth December 1, 2013
17Clinical diagnosis In non-catheterised patients: Fever, supra-pubic tenderness, frequency, dysuriaPyuriaPositive nitrite reaction and a positive leukocyte esterase reactionIn catheterised patientsFever and leukocytosis or leucopenia additional diagnostic criteriaDecember 1, 2013Where microbiological support is poor or unavailable, clinical symptoms (e.g., fever, supra-pubic tenderness, frequency, and dysuria) may be useful in diagnosis, principally in non-catheterised patients. The presence of pyuria on either microscopic examination or by dip-stick (leukocyte esterase) is highly suggestive of UTI. If dip-sticks are available, a positive nitrite reaction in combination with a positive leukocyte esterase reaction is usually diagnostic.In catheterised patients, a positive urine culture or dip-stick is not sufficient for diagnosis of infection. In such patients, fever and leukocytosis or leucopenia are additional diagnostic criteria.
18Definition and Surveillance Surveillance of CAUTI in selected patientse.g. intensive care or surgicalDefinition may be obtained:USA CDC/NHSNCenters for Disease Control and Prevention/ National Healthcare Safety NetworkHELICSHospital in Europe for Link Infection Control through SurveillanceDecember 1, 2013Surveillance of CA-UTI can be performed in certain groups of patients, e.g., patients in intensive care units or specific types of surgical patients. The definition for CA-UTI may be obtained from the U.S. CDC/NHSN (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/ National Healthcare Safety Network) or HELICS (Hospital in Europe for Link Infection Control through Surveillance).HELICS. Surveillance of nosocomial infections in Intensive Care units. Hospital in Europe for Link Infection Control through Surveillance: September,NHSN -
19Pathogenesis of a Catheter-Associated UTI December 1, 2013Normally urethral flora flushed outWith catheterisation, flushing mechanism circumventedFlora can pass up through catheter or from drainage bagHands of personnel may contaminate the system during insertion or managementUnder normal circumstances urethral flora, which tends to migrate into the bladder, is constantly flushed out during urination. When a catheter is inserted this flushing mechanism is circumvented and perineal and urethral flora can pass up into the bladder in the fluid layer between the outside of the catheter and the urethral mucosa. Because of this, bladder colonisation is almost inevitable if catheters are left in place for prolonged periods. In addition, bladder infection can be caused by bacterial reflux from contaminated urine in the drainage bag. Therefore, closed drainage systems should be used to reduce infection, when possible. Hands of personnel may also contaminate the urinary catheter system during insertion or management.
20Four main sites through which bacteria may reach the bladder in a catheterised patient December 1, 2013The four main sites through which bacteria may reach the bladder of a patient with urinary catheter:Urethral meatus-catheter junctionConnection between catheter and drainage tubeConnection between drainage tube and collecting bagTap outlet of drainage bagfrom Damani N N, Keyes JK. Infection Control Manual, 2004
21Principles to Prevent UTI - 1 Care bundle approachEvidence-based interventionsWhen implemented together result in reduction in CAUTIsDecember 1, 2013Care bundle approachA care bundle is a package of evidence-based interventions that, when implemented together for all patients with urinary catheters, has resulted insubstantial and sustained reductions in CAUTIs. Care bundle intervention plans for CAUTIs have been developed by the US Institute for Healthcare Improvement and the UK Department of Health.
22Principles to Prevent UTI - 2 Staff trainingTraining on procedures for insertion and maintenance of urinary catheters based on local written protocolsCatheter sizeSmallest diameter catheter that allows free flow of urineDecember 1, 2013Staff trainingHealthcare personnel performing urinary catheterisation should receive training on correct procedures for insertion and maintenance of urinary catheters based on local written protocols.Catheter sizeCatheters are available in different sizes. The smallest diameter catheter that allows free fl ow of urine should be used. Larger diameter catheters are more likely to cause unnecessary pressure on the urethral mucosa which may result in trauma and ischaemic necrosis. Urological patients and some other patient groups may require larger sized catheters; these should only be used on the advice of specialists.
23Principles to Prevent UTI - 3 Antimicrobial coated cathetersReduce asymptomatic bacteriuriaFor placement less than 1 weekNo evidence they decrease symptomatic infectionsShould not be used routinelyShould be considered in selected high risk patientsDecember 1, 2013Antimicrobial coated cathetersSeveral studies support the use of antimicrobial coated urinary catheters (latex-coated silver alloy) as an adjunct for the prevention of CA-UTI. These catheters significantly reduce the incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, however only for placement less than 1 week. There is no evidence that they decrease symptomatic infections and therefore they should not be used routinely. However, their use should be considered in selected high risk catheterised patients.
24Principles to Prevent UTI - 4 Catheter insertion and careSterile equipment and aseptic techniqueSterile lubricant or local anaesthetic gelMeatal cleansing with soap and waterAntimicrobial ointment harmfulShould be avoidedDecember 1, 2013Catheter insertionUrinary catheterisation should always be performed using sterile or high-level disinfected equipment and aseptic technique. To minimise trauma to the urethra and discomfort to the patient, a sterile lubricant or local anaesthetic gel should be used.Meatal cleansingMeatal cleansing should be performed regularly to ensure that the meatus is free from encrustations. Cleansing with soap and water is sufficient; application of antimicrobial ointment or disinfectant to the urethral meatus is harmful and should be avoided.
25Principles to Prevent UTI - 5 Drainage tubing and bagSecure to the patientCatheter drainage bag below the bladderBag and tap not in contact with the floorClamp drainage during movementsNot disconnect the drainage bagBag emptied when ¾ fullHand hygieneAlcohol impregnated swabsNo disinfectant added to bagDecember 1, 2013Drainage tubingTo help prevent trauma to the urethra, the urinary drainage tubing should be secured to the patient’s thigh with straps and adjusted to a comfortable fit. The catheter drainage bag must always be placed below the level of the bladder to promote good drainage. If a catheter stand is used, the drainage bag and drainage tap must not come in contact with the floor.During patient movement, the drainage tube should be temporarily clamped to prevent back-flow of urine. Do not disconnect the drainage bag unnecessarily to interrupt the closed drainage system.The drainage bag should be emptied regularly via the drainage tap at the bottom of the bag (i.e., when ¾ full or sooner if it fills rapidly). If the bag does not have a tap, it must be replaced when ¾ full using aseptic technique. Extreme care must be taken when emptying a drainage bag to prevent cross-infection between patients. Hands must be washed or disinfected with an alcohol-based hand rub and non-sterile/clean disposable gloves should be worn when emptying the bag.Alcohol impregnated swabs should be used to decontaminate the outlet of the drainage tap (inside and outside). After emptying the bag, gloves must be removed and hands must be washed.
26Principles to Prevent UTI - 6 Specimen collectionSamples from the portAseptic techniqueDisinfection of port with alcoholSterile needle, syringe, containerNever a sample from the bag.No routine testingDecember 1, 2013Specimen collectionSamples of urine for bacteriological examination should be obtained from the sampling port or sleeve using aseptic technique. The sampling port should be disinfected by wiping with a 70% isopropyl alcohol impregnated swab. The sample may then be aspirated using a sterile needle and syringe and transferred into a sterile universal container. Never obtain a sample from the drainage bag. In asymptomatic patients, routine bacteriological testing is of no clinical benefit.
27Principles to Prevent UTI - 7 Antimicrobial agentsRoutine administration not recommendedSingle dose prophylactic may be used in selected patientsNo routine use while the catheter in situTreatment may not be successfulDecember 1, 2013Use of antimicrobial agentsThe routine administration of systemic antibiotics at the time of catheter insertion/removal is not recommended. The administration of a prophylactic antibiotic as a single dose at catheter change may be used in selected patients who either have clinical infection or a higher risk of developing UTIs. Routine use of prophylactic antibiotics while the catheter is in situ must not be used to prevent CAUTI as it breeds resistant bacteria. For the same reason, the antibiotic treatment of CAUTIs in the presence of long-term indwelling catheters may not be successful because the causative bacteria are often embedded in biofilm on the surface of the catheter and protected from the action of antibiotics
28Principles to Prevent UTI - 8 Condom cathetersMay be used for short-term drainageFrequent changesRemoved if irritation or skin breakdownCondom for 24 hour continuous use should be avoidedDecember 1, 2013Condom cathetersThere may be a place for the use of condom catheters for short-term drainage in cooperative patients. Frequent changes, e.g., daily, may avoid complications, together with penile care. They should be removed at the first sign of penile irritation or skin breakdown. Condom use for 24 hour periods should also be avoided and other methods, such as napkins or absorbent pads, used at night.
29Key points Avoid urinary catheterisation not for incontinenceconsider intermittent catheterisationRemove catheters as soon as possibleAseptic technique and sterile equipmentDon’t change catheters routinelyClosed drainage systemNo irrigation or instillationEmpty drainage bagDecember 1, 2013Urinary catheterisation should be avoided if possible. They must only be inserted when there are clear medical indications, such as problems with emptying the bladder or measurement of urine production. They should be removed as soon as no longer needed. Do not use urinary catheters for incontinence of urine. In suitable patients, clean intermittent urinary catheterisation should be considered, as it has a much lower risk of infection.The catheter should be removed as soon as clinically possible, preferably within 5 days. Urinary catheterisation should be performed using sterile equipment. Aseptic technique should always be maintained during insertion and after care procedures. Catheters should not be changed routinely as this exposes the patient to increased risk of bladder and urethral trauma.Maintain a closed drainage system; open systems should be avoided if at all possible. Bladder irrigation or washout and instillation of antiseptics or antimicrobial agents does not prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection and should not be used. The drainage bag should be emptied once per nursing session into a clean receptacle used only on one patient.
30ReferencesAPIC Elimination Guide: Guide to the Elimination of Catheter- Associated Urinary Tract Infections (CA-UTIs); Developing and applying facility-based prevention interventions in acute and long-term care settings, EliminationGuides/CAUTI_Guide.pdfHICPAC. Guidelines for prevention of Catheter-associated Urinary Tract infections Atlanta, GA: CDC,European and Asian guidelines on management and prevention of catheter-associated urinary tract infections. Intern J Antimicrobial Agents 2008: 31S; S68-S78.December 1, 2013
31ReferencesSHEA /IDSA Practice Recommendation: Strategies to Prevent Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infections in Acute Care Hospitals. Infect Control Hospital Epidemiol 2008; 29 (Supplement 1): S 41-S50.High Impact Intervention No 6. Urinary Catheter Care Bundle. London, Department of Health,UK Dept. of Health epic2: Guidelines for preventing infections associated with the use of short-term urethral catheters. J Hospital Infect 2007; 65S: S28-S33. infection.pdfDecember 1, 2013
32ReferencesInfectious Diseases Society of America Guidelines. Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection in Adults: 2009 International Clinical PracticeGuidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Clin Infect Dis 2010; 50:625–663.December 1, 2013
33Quiz Incontinence is an indication for urinary catheterisation. T/F? For a general strategy to prevent UTI, what measure you would consider first:Treatment of infected patientsAvoid unnecessary catheterisationReplacement permanent catheterisation for intermittentUse of condom cathetersRegarding prevention of UTI, which of the following is incorrectKeep system closedHand hygiene before insertion/management of urinary devicesMaintain catheter drainage bag below the bladderUse of antimicrobial prophylaxis in patients with urinary catheterisationDecember 1, 2013FalseB3. D
34International Federation of Infection Control IFIC’s mission is to facilitate international networking in order to improve the prevention and control of healthcare associated infections worldwide. It is an umbrella organisation of societies and associations of healthcare professionals in infection control and related fields across the globe .The goal of IFIC is to minimise the risk of infection within healthcare settings through development of a network of infection control organisations for communication, consensus building, education and sharing expertise.For more information go toDecember 1, 2013