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Clinically Encountered Bacteria

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Presentation on theme: "Clinically Encountered Bacteria"— Presentation transcript:

1 Clinically Encountered Bacteria
Suthan Srisangkaew, MD.

2 Review: Classification
Gram-positive Gram-negative Cocci Chain Cluster Bacilli Spore forming Non-spore forming Branching Non-branching Aerobic Anaerobic Bacilli predominate

3 Aerobic Gram-positive Cocci
In chain Streptococcus (Lancefield group) Enterococcus In cluster Staphylococcus (Coagulase) (Micrococcus, Leuconostoc)

4 Aerobic Gram-positive Bacilli
Spore forming Bacillus Non-spore forming - Non-branching Corynebacterium Listeria Lactobacillus - Branching Nocardia

5 Aerobic Gram-negative Cocci
Always in pair! Coffee bean shape Neisseria Moraxella

6 Aerobic Gram-negative bacilli
LARGE GROUP…. Enterobacteriaceae E. coli, Klebsiella, Enterobacter Salmonella, Shigella Yersinia Proteus, Providencia, Serratia, Morganella Vibrionaceae Vibrio, Aeromonas, Plesiomonas

7 Non-fermentative Pseudomonas Acinetobacter Burkholdderia Curve, Microaerophilic Campylobacter jejuni Helicobacter pyroli

8 Fastidious, Coccobacilli
Haemophilus Bordetella Fastidious, Zoonosis Brucella Pasteurella

9 Anaerobic Gram-positive Bacilli
Spore forming Clostridium Non-spore forming Branching Actinomyces Non-branching Proprionibacterium Bifidobacterium

10 Anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli
Bacteroides Fusobacterium Prevotella

11 Special groups Mycobacterium Rickettsia Chlamydia Mycoplasma
Spirochetes Treponema Leptospira

12 Systemic Orientation Skin, Wound, Soft tissue Bone, Joint
Eye, Ear, Sinus Respiratory tract Gastrointestinal tract Urinary tract, Sexual transmitted infection Central nervous system Blood stream, Endocarditis

13 Skin infection Primary infection Blood-borne
S. aureus, group A strep., P. acne Blood-borne Syphilis, rickettsia, virus Bacterial toxin: gr. A strep, S. aureus Scarlet fever: gr. A strep Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome: S. aureus

14 Scarlet fever

15 Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome

16 Skin infection Folliculitis: S. aureus Acne: P. acne
Hair follicle Acne: P. acne Sebaceous gland Impetigo: gr. A strep. Superficial dermis Erysipelas: gr. A strep. Deep dermis Cellulitis: S. aureus, gr. A strep., GNB, Clostridium Subcutaneous connective tissue

17 Folliculitis

18 Impetigo

19 Erysipelas

20 Cellulitis

21 Wound Infection S. aureus: most common GNB: immunocompromized host
Human bites: anaerobic bacteria : Bacteroides Dog, cat bites: Pasteurella multocida Burn wound, necrosis: P. aeruginosa Tetanus: Clostridium tetani Gas gangrene: Clostridium pefringen

22 Gas Gangrene

23 Bone & Joint Infection Osteomyelitis: S. aureus Septic arthritis:
Both blood-borne and direct trauma Gr. A strep, GNB, anaerobes Septic arthritis: S. aureus Neisseria gonorrhea (young adult)

24 Eye, Ear, Sinus Infection
Conjuctivitis: S. aureus, Chlamydia trachomatis, N. gonorrhea Ear Otitis externa: P. aeruginosa Otitis media: S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae Sinus Acute sinusitis: S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis Chronic sinusitis: + anaerobes

25 Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
Rhinitis: mostly virus Pharyngitis & Tonsillitis: Exudate & hemorrhage: Bacteria Gr. A strep. (S. pyogenes) Vesicle & ulcerative lesion: Virus Psuedomembranous pharyngitis (Diphtheria) Corynebacterium diphtheria

26

27 Middle Respiratory Tract Infection
Epiglottitis 90% bacteria: H. influenzae, S. pneumoniae Laryngitis (Croup) 90% virus Bronchitis 80% virus 20% bacteria: H. influenzae, M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae, Bordetella pertussis

28 Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Acute pneumonia: days to hours Children: 80% Virus Adults: 80% Bacteria S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, H. influenzae M. pneumoniae, C. pneumoniae Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa Chronic pneumonia: weeks to months M. tuberculosis, Nocardia Fungus Lung abscess & Empyema S. aureus Anaerobes

29 Enteric Infection Watery diarrhea: proximal small intestine
Vibrio cholerae Vibrio parahaemolyticus Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) Food poisoning S. aureus, B. cereus Many viruses Dysentery: colon Salmonella, Shigella Campylobacter jejuni Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) Plesiomonas spp. Yersinia enterocolitica C. difficile (ATB associated) Entamoeba histolytica

30

31 Food Poisoning No infection, Vomiting prodominate S. aureus 5-25%
Bacillus cereus 1-2% (Fried rice) Clostridium botulinum Neuromuscular paralysis Chemical % Recurrent Peptic Ulcer: Helicobacter pyroli

32 Foods and Germs Dairy Eggs Meats Ground beef Poultry Pork Seafood
Campylobacter, Salmonella, Listeria, and Staphylococcus species Eggs Salmonella species Meats C perfringens and Salmonella, Aeromonas, Campylobacter, and Staphylococcus species Ground beef Enterohemorrhagic E coli Poultry Campylobacter species Pork C perfringens and Y enterocolitica Seafood Aeromonas, Plesiomonas, and Vibrio species and astrovirus Oysters Plesiomonas and Vibrio species and calicivirus Vegetables Aeromonas species and C perfringens Alfalfa sprouts Enterohemorrhagic E coli and Salmonella species Fried rice Bacillus species Custards, mayonnaise Staphylococcus species

33 Urinary Tract Infection
Cystitis: lower UTI Pyelonephritis: upper UTI, systemic symptoms 90-95% E. coli Other enterobacteriaceae K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter Staphylococcus saprophyticus (coag. Neg.) Candida

34 Sexual Transmitted Infection
Neisseria gonorrhea Urethritis, Cervicitis(phyryngitis, conjunctivitis) Chlamydia trachomatis Non-gonococcal urethritis Lymphogranuloma venerum Treponema pallidum Syphilis (Chancre) Haemophilus ducreyi Chancroid

35 Infection of fetus and newborn
Transplacental: Listeria monocytogenes Treponema pallidum Perinatal: Gr. B streptococci E. coli C. trachomatis N. gonorrhea

36 Central Nervous System Infection
Acute Meningitis Newborn: Gr. B Strep., E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Children: S. pneumo., H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, Salmonella Adults: N. meningitidis, S. suis, S. pneumo., S. agalactiae Chronic Meningitis Mycobacteria Fungi

37 Bacteremia & Septicemia
Bacteremia: occur normally Septicemia: bacteremia + clinical symptoms Most common from: Urinary tract infection Respiratory tract infection Infection of skin and soft tissue

38 Endocarditis Native valve Intravenous drug abuse Prosthetic valve
Viridans streptococci 30-50% S. aureus % Other strep % Enterococci % Coag. Neg. Staph % Gram-negative bacilli % Intravenous drug abuse S. aureus Prosthetic valve Coag. Neg. Staph.

39 Systemic Zoonosis Leptospirosis: Leptospira interrogans
Rats, Rodents Brucellosis: Brucella abortus Goats, Sheeps Plaque: Yersinia pestis Rats > Flea Anthrax: Bacillus antrasis Cow, Horse > Spore

40 Thailand Endemic Leptospirosis Mellioidosis: Burkholderia pseudomallei
Dirty water contact Mellioidosis: Burkholderia pseudomallei NE Thailand, soil contact Scrub typhus: Orientia tsutsugamushi Chigger > bush contact, “Eschar” Murine typhus: Rickettsia typhi Mouse > flea bites

41 Hospital Acquired Infection
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Acinetobacter baumanii, A. lwoffii Sternotrophomonas maltophilia


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