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I: The Lineage of Taxonomic Revisions The taxonomic history of Aus L. 1758, first described by Linnaeus in 1758 (i), is shown through four subsequent revisions.

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Presentation on theme: "I: The Lineage of Taxonomic Revisions The taxonomic history of Aus L. 1758, first described by Linnaeus in 1758 (i), is shown through four subsequent revisions."— Presentation transcript:

1 I: The Lineage of Taxonomic Revisions The taxonomic history of Aus L. 1758, first described by Linnaeus in 1758 (i), is shown through four subsequent revisions (ii – v). Individual specimen organisms are represented by the symbols , ,  etc., with nomenclatural type specimens for species being filled: ,, . In 1965 Archer split the species Aus bea Archer 1965 from Aus aus L.1758 (ii), which was in turn 'split' creating Aus ceus Fry 1989 (iii). Discovery of new specimens in 1991 caused Tucker to re-'lump' Aus bea Archer 1965 with the single species Aus aus L.1758 (iv), but according to Pargiter these new specimens indicated that bea (Archer) infact belonged in a separate new genus as Xus bea (Archer) Pargiter 2003 (v). Comparing the specimen circumscription (or membership) of the various views on the taxa it is clear that the underlying concepts referred to by the various names change over time. For example compare Aus aus L.1758 in (i) versus (ii); or Aus bea Archer 1965 in (ii) versus (iii); or consider the relationship of Aus bea in (iii) with Xus bea (Archer) Pargiter 2003 in (v). The ambiguities as to which concept a valid scientific name refers are a consequence of the nomenclatural rules based on priority of typification. Aus aus L.1758 (v) Aus L.1758 Xus Pargiter 2003 Xus bea (Archer) Pargiter in Pargiter 2003 (ii) Aus L.1758 Aus bea Archer 1965 in Archer 1965 (i) Aus L.1758 Aus aus L.1758 in Linneaus 1758 Aus bea Archer 1965 Aus cea BFry 1989 (iii) Aus L.1758 in Fry 1989 Aus cea BFry 1989 Aus aus L Timeline showing taxonomic history (revisions and nomencaltural changes) pertaining to species comprising the imaginary genus Aus. Aus aus L.1758 in Tucker 1991 (iv) Aus L.1758 Aus cea BFry 1989

2 Aus aus L.1758 (v) Aus L.1758 Xus Pargiter 2003 Xus beus (Archer) Pargiter in Pargiter 2003 (ii) Aus L.1758 Aus bea Archer 1965 in Archer 1965 (i) Aus L.1758 Aus aus L.1758 in Linneaus 1758 Aus bea Archer 1965 Aus cea BFry 1989 (iii) Aus L.1758 in Fry 1989 Aus ceus BFry 1989 Aus aus L A diligent nomenclaturist, Pyle (1990), notes that the species epthithets of Aus bea and Aus cea are of the wrong gender and publishes the corrected names Aus beus corrig. Archer 1965 and Aus ceus corrig. BFry 1989 Tucker publishes his revison without noting Pyle’s corrigendum of the name of Aus cea Pargiter publishes his revison using Pyle’s corrigendum of the epithet bea to beus and Aus cea to Aus ceus. II: Publication of a Nomenclatural Correction Aus aus L.1758 in Tucker 1991 (iv) Aus L.1758 Aus cea BFry 1989

3 TAXONOMIC PUBLICATIONS Linneaus 1758 Archer 1965 Fry 1989 Tucker 1991 Pargiter 2003 Pyle 1990 Aus aus L.1758 (v) Aus L.1758 Xus Pargiter 2003 Xus beus (Archer) Pargiter in Pargiter 2003 (ii) Aus L.1758 Aus bea Archer 1965 in Archer 1965 (i) Aus L.1758 Aus aus L.1758 in Linneaus 1758 Aus bea Archer 1965 Aus cea BFry 1989 (iii) Aus L.1758 in Fry 1989 Aus ceus BFry 1989 Aus aus L bea and cea noted as invalid names and replaced with beus and ceus. Pyle 1990 Aus aus L.1758 in Tucker 1991 (iv) Aus L.1758 Aus cea BFry 1989 REVISIONS PURELY NOMENCLATURAL OBSERVATION

4 TAXONOMIC CONCEPTS Linneaus 1758 (i) Aus L.1758 in Linneaus 1758 Aus aus L.1758 First Publication of a Concept with the Name Aus First Publication of a Concept with the Name Aus aus Taxon Concept 1 (Original) (ID:cl1) = NAME : Aus L DEFINITION : Description, Circumscription, Type Specimen etc. Has Child TC3. + ACCORDINGTO : Linnaeus 1758 Taxon Concept 2 (Nominal) (ID:cl1n) = NAME : Aus L.1758

5 TAXONOMIC CONCEPTS Linneaus 1758 (i) Aus L.1758 in Linneaus 1758 Aus aus L.1758 Taxon Concept 3 (Original) (ID:cl2) = NAME : Aus aus L DEFINITION : Description, Circumscription, Type Specimen etc.Is child of TC1 + ACCORDINGTO : Linneaus 1758 First Publication of a Concept with the Name Aus First Publication of a Concept with the Name Aus aus Taxon Concept 4 (Nominal) (ID:cl2n) = NAME : Aus aus L. 1758

6 TAXONOMIC CONCEPTS Archer 1965 Aus aus L.1758 (ii) Aus L.1758 Aus bea Archer 1965 in Archer 1965 Taxon Concept 5 (Revision) (ID: ca2) = NAME : Aus aus L DEFINITION : Description, Circumscription, Type Specimen etc. Is child of TC8 + ACCORDINGTO : Archer 1965 Taxon Concept 6 (Original) (ID: ca3) = NAME : Aus bea Archer DEFINITION : Description, Circumscription, Type Specimen etc. Is child ofTC8 + ACCORDINGTO : Archer 1965 Revision of Concepts Aus and Aus aus. (split Aus aus). First Publication of a Concept with the Name Aus bea Taxon Concept 7 (Nominal) (ID: ca3n) = NAME : Aus bea Archer 1965

7 TAXONOMIC CONCEPTS Archer 1965 Aus aus L.1758 (ii) Aus L.1758 Aus bea Archer 1965 in Archer 1965 Revision of Concepts Aus and Aus aus. (split Aus aus). First Publication of a Concept with the Name Aus bea Taxon Concept 8 (Revision) (ID:ca1 ) = NAME : Aus L DEFINITION : Description, Circumscription, Type Specimen etc. Has children TC5 and TC6 + ACCORDINGTO : Archer 1965

8 TAXONOMIC CONCEPTS Fry 1989 Aus aus L.1758 Aus bea Archer 1965 Aus cea BFry 1989 (iii) Aus L.1758 in Fry 1989 Revision of Aus and Aus bea. (split Aus bea). First Publication of a Concept with the Name Aus cea Taxon Concept 10 (Revision) (ID: cf3) = NAME : Aus bea Archer DEFINITION : Description, Circumscription, Type Specimen etc.; Is child of TC13; is included in TC6 + ACCORDINGTO : Fry 1989 Taxon Concept 9 (Revision) (ID: cf2) = NAME : Aus aus L DEFINITION : Congruent with Concept 2: Aus aus L.1758 sec. Archer 1965; Is child of TC13 + ACCORDINGTO : Fry 1989

9 TAXONOMIC CONCEPTS Fry 1989 Aus aus L.1758 Aus bea Archer 1965 Aus cea BFry 1989 (iii) Aus L.1758 in Fry 1989 Revision of Aus and Aus bea. (split Aus bea). First Publication of a Concept with the Name Aus cea Taxon Concept 11 (Original) (ID: cf4) = NAME : Aus cea BFry DEFINITION : Description, Circumscription, Type Specimen etc.; Is child of TC 13 + ACCORDINGTO : Fry 1989 Taxon Concept 12 (Nominal) (ID:cf4n ) = NAME : Aus cea BFry 1989 Taxon Concept 13 (Revision) (ID: cf1) = NAME : Aus L DEFINITION : Has Children TC 9, 10, 11 + ACCORDINGTO : Fry 1989

10 TAXONOMIC CONCEPTS Pyle 1990 bea and cea noted as invalid names and replaced with beus and ceus. Pyle Taxon Concept 14 (Original) (ID: cy1) = NAME : Aus beus Archer DEFINITION : Is Validation (replacement?) of Name in Original TC6 + ACCORDINGTO : Pyle 1990 Purely nomenclatural observation. (Rename Aus bea). Aus bea noted as invalid name according to the code rules of the time. Aus beus designated as the replacement name. Taxon Concept 15 (Nominal) (ID: cy1n) = NAME : Aus beus Archer 1965 Taxon Concept 16 (Original) (ID: cy2) = NAME : Aus ceus BFry DEFINITION : Is Validation (replacement?) of Name in Original TC11 + ACCORDINGTO : Pyle 1990 Taxon Concept 17 (Nominal) (ID: cy2n) = NAME : Aus ceus BFry 1989

11 TAXONOMIC CONCEPTS Tucker 1991 Revision of Aus and Aus aus etc. (lump Aus aus and A. bea). Recording of TC 19 as Aus cea, without using amended name. Taxon Concept 18 (Revision) (ID: ct2) = NAME : Aus aus L DEFINITION : Description, Circumscription, Type Specimen etc. Is child of TC20 + ACCORDINGTO : Tucker 1991 Aus aus L.1758 in Tucker 1991 (iv) Aus L.1758 Aus cea BFry 1989 Taxon Concept 19 (Revision) (ID: ct3) = NAME : Aus cea BFry DEFINITION : Description, Circumscription, Type Specimen etc. Is child of TC20 + ACCORDINGTO : Tucker 1991 Taxon Concept 20 (Revision) (ID: ct1) = NAME : Aus L DEFINITION : Description, Circumscription, Type Specimen etc. Has Children TC19 and 20 + ACCORDINGTO : Tucker 1991

12 TAXONOMIC CONCEPTS Pargiter 2003 (v) Aus L.1758 Xus Pargiter 2003 Xus beus (Archer) Pargiter in Pargiter 2003 Aus ceus BFry 1989 Aus aus L Revision of Aus. (create new Genus Xus, move Aus beus to Xus beus (nov.comb.)). First Publication of a Concept with the Name Xus. First Publication of a Concept with the Name Xus ceus. Taxon Concept 22 (Revision) (ID: cp3) = NAME : Aus ceus BFry DEFINITION : Is child of TC25; Description, Circumscription, Type Specimen etc. + ACCORDINGTO : Pargiter 2003 Taxon Concept 21 (Revision) (ID: cp2) = NAME : Aus aus L DEFINITION : Is child of TC25; Description, Circumscription, Type Specimen etc. + ACCORDINGTO : Pargiter 2003 Taxon Concept 23 (Original) (ID: cp5) = NAME : Xus beus (Archer 1965) Pargiter DEFINITION : Description, Circumscription, TypeSpecimen etc. Is Child of TC26 + ACCORDINGTO : Pargiter 2003 Taxon Concept 24 (Nominal) (ID: cp5n) = NAME : Xus beus (Archer) Pargiter 2003

13 TAXONOMIC CONCEPTS Pargiter 2003 (v) Aus L.1758 Xus Pargiter 2003 Xus beus (Archer) Pargiter in Pargiter 2003 Aus ceus BFry 1989 Aus aus L Revision of Aus. (create new Genus Xus, move Aus beus to Xus beus (nov.comb.)). First Publication of a Concept with the Name Xus. First Publication of a Concept with the Name Xus ceus. Taxon Concept 25 (Revision) (ID: cp1) = NAME : Aus L DEFINITION : Has Children TC21 and TC22; Description, Circumscription, Type Specimen etc. + ACCORDINGTO : Pargiter 2003 Taxon Concept 26 (Original) (ID: cp4) = NAME : Xus Pargiter DEFINITION : Hs Child TC23; Description, Circumscription, Type Specimen etc. + ACCORDINGTO : Pargiter 2003 Taxon Concept 27 (Nominal) (ID: cp4n) = NAME : Xus Pargiter 2003

14 Notes on TCS: TCS represents all published concept definitions as a unique Taxonomic Concept Each first-use/definition of a name is recorded as an Original Taxon Concept We see these as the concepts of primary interest to Nomenclators They will not be interested in the definition of the concept This allows for the same concept and therefore GUID to be used to refer to a “name and a concept” Subsequent definitions of concepts reusing a name are Revision Concepts Each first use of a Name also creates a Nominal Concept which only exists to allow markup and resolution of biological data on the basis of undefined names. primarily to deal with legacy data but also where the degree of precision is not required. How does it handle Name changes: A name change is recorded by creating a new original concept containing the new name, and related back to the first use of the name it is replacing (i.e. the original concept for that name.) A Concept/Name resolution service can explore all the names that may have been applied to a given concept by traversing (or creating) the links between a concept and the original concept for the name of the concept, and any nomenclatural relationships made to this original concept......see following.

15 TC ori 6 (Aus bea Archer 1965) sec. Archer 1965 TC rev 10 (Aus bea Archer 1965) sec. Fry 1989 TC ori 14 (Aus beus Archer 1965) sec. Pyle 1990 NAME CORRECTION TC ori 11 (Aus cea BFry 1989) sec. Fry 1989 TC rev 19 (Aus cea Archer 1965) sec. Tucker 1991 TC ori 14 (Aus ceus Archer 1965) sec. Pyle 1990 NAME CORRECTION IMPLICIT A resolution service for concepts (e.g. SEEK) could implement a system that either created explicit links between revision concepts and their ‘original’ concept or did this look-up/traversal at run time. Thus a concept could be provided with its original name and information about any other names that have been applied to its name (via relationships to its original concept). e.g. TC rev 19 was named Aus cea, but by following recorded or implicit relationships the system would provide the information that the name had been corrected to Aus ceus (by Pyle in 1990). On the basis of shared name – this could be done by string matching (which might have degrees of certainty associated), and could be made explicit and materialized in the system


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