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Urinalysis. Urinalysis provides information about how the kidneys are functioning and if wastes are being properly filtered from the body.

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Presentation on theme: "Urinalysis. Urinalysis provides information about how the kidneys are functioning and if wastes are being properly filtered from the body."— Presentation transcript:

1 Urinalysis

2 Urinalysis provides information about how the kidneys are functioning and if wastes are being properly filtered from the body

3 Specimen Collection 1.Free Catch – the simplest method of collecting urine

4 Specimen Collection 1.Free Catch – Samples from dogs can be caught with a pan or soup ladle.

5 Specimen Collection 1.Free Catch – Use a metal pie plate for females.

6 Specimen Collection 1.Free Catch – To collect from a cat, replace the cat litter with a shredded plastic bag or plastic pellets.

7 Specimen Collection 2. Manual Expression – involves palpating the bladder through the abdomen then applying pressure to it to encourage urination.

8 Specimen Collection 2. Manual Expression – mainly used for animals that are unable to urinate on their own due to an injury or illness.

9 Specimen Collection 2. Manual Expression – Animals with obstructions should never be manually expressed.

10 Specimen Collection 3. Catheterization – performed by inserting a plastic, or rubber catheter through the urethra into the bladder.

11 Specimen Collection 3. Catheterization -The size and type of catheter used depends on the sex and species of animal.

12 Specimen Collection 3. Catheterization -performed aseptically to prevent infection and is used in emergencies and for immobile animals that need long-term care.

13 Specimen Collection 4. Cystocentesis – performed by inserting a needle through the abdomen into the bladder.

14 Specimen Collection 4. Cystocentesis – Aseptic technique is used to prevent infection.

15 Specimen Collection 4. Cystocentesis – performed to obtain a pure urine sample or to relieve bladder pressure on an obstructed animal.

16 Evaluation should occur within 30 minutes of collection, however samples can be refrigerated overnight if necessary

17 Evaluation Refrigerated samples should be brought to room temperature before they are evaluated.

18 Evaluation Color -In most species urine is a pale yellow to amber color.

19 Evaluation Color -correlates to specific gravity. lighter colored urine = lower specific gravity

20 Evaluation Color -correlates to specific gravity. darker colored urine = higher specific gravity

21 Evaluation Color -correlates to specific gravity. red urine = hematuria (red blood cells in urine)

22 Evaluation Color -correlates to specific gravity. yellowish-brown foamy urine = presences of bile pigments

23 Evaluation Color -Some species, like the rabbit, have urine that is normally a darker orange to reddish-brown.

24 Evaluation Transparency clear, cloudy, or flocculent

25 Evaluation Transparency clear, fresh urine is normal for most species

26 Evaluation Transparency cloudy urine indicates the presence of cells, bacteria, crystals, or fats, but in the horse, rabbit and hamster cloudy urine is normal

27 Evaluation Transparency flocculent describes urine that has pieces of floating debris in it caused by the presence of cells, fats, or mucus

28 Evaluation Specific Gravity -measures the concentration or density of urine compared to distilled water.

29 Evaluation -Three ways to measure sg. 1. Refractometer - refracts light through urine and measures density by comparing it to the amount of light that will pass through distilled water.

30 Evaluation -Three ways to measure sg. 1. Refractometer is also used to measure total plasma protein

31 Evaluation -Three ways to measure sg. 2. Urinometer - a bulb is floated in a cylinder filled with urine.

32 Evaluation -Three ways to measure sg. 2. Urinometer - specific gravity is read off a scale attached to the bulb

33 Evaluation -Three ways to measure sg. 2. Urinometer - requires a larger sample than the other methods

34 Evaluation -Three ways to measure sg. 3. Reagent strips - contain a chemical pad that changes color when dipped into urine

35 Evaluation -Three ways to measure sg. 3. Reagent strips - the color change is read using a scale on the reagent container

36 Average Specific Gravity Dog Cat Horse Cattle Swine Sheep 1.030

37 Specific Gravity An increased sg could indicate dehydration, decreased water intake, acute renal disease, or shock.

38 Specific Gravity A decreased sg could indicate increased water intake, chronic renal disease, or other diseases.

39 Specific Gravity A decreased sg could indicate increased water intake, chronic renal disease, or other diseases.

40 Chemistry The chemical components evaluated in urine are: pH protein glucose ketones bile blood yeast sperm

41 Chemistry performed using reagent strips

42 Chemistry The chemical components provide information used to diagnose problems such as diabetes, renal failure, liver infections, muscle disease, inflammation of the urinary tract, and ketosis.

43 Sediment Provides information on the types and numbers of cells present.

44 Sediment Cells commonly seen are: RBC’s WBC’s Epithelial cells

45 Sediment All of these cells are normal in small amounts; large amounts indicate disease or infection.

46 Sediment Excess RBC’s indicate hemorrhaging of the urinary tract.

47 Sediment Excess WBC’s indicate inflammation of the urinary tract.

48 Sediment Epithelial cells are sloughed from the urinary tract as they wear out, but trauma to the urinary tract will also cause sloughing.

49 Sediment Other components - bacteria - crystals - casts

50 Sediment Bacteria -indicates infection or contamination of the sample by improper handling

51 Sediment Bacteria -If bacteria are present with an increased number of WBC’s then infection is likely.

52 Sediment Crystals -form due to influences from pH, urine concentration, and diet

53 Sediment Crystals -do not necessarily indicate a disease, but they do cause problems in large amounts by irritating the urinary tract, causing blood in the urine (hematuria) and pain

54 Sediment Crystals -bond together creating stones that can block urine flow and may eventually cause death.

55 Sediment Crystals -Stones and crystals are especially serious in males due to the size and shape of the urethra.

56 Sediment Casts -tubular clumps of cells or other materials that form in the collecting tubules of the kidney.

57 Sediment Casts -Large numbers indicates a problem in the collecting tubules.

58 Sediment The types of casts are: Hyaline Fine granular WBC/RBC

59 Susceptibility Testing performed to determine how bacteria will respond to an antibiotic since some types of bacteria do not respond in a predictable manner

60 Susceptibility Testing Testing is important so that an effective antibiotic can be found.

61 Susceptibility Testing The main methods used to test antibiotic sensitivity are – broth dilution – agar diffusion

62 Susceptibility Testing Broth dilution – uses a series of test tubes that contain varying concentrations of the same antibiotic.

63 Susceptibility Testing Broth dilution – The test tubes are inoculated with bacteria and incubated.

64 Susceptibility Testing Broth dilution – The test tube that has the lowest antibiotic concentration with no bacteria growth indicates the minimum amount of antibiotic that is effective.

65 Susceptibility Testing Agar diffusion –uses petri dishes coated with bacteria

66 Susceptibility Testing Agar diffusion –Disks containing antibiotics are placed on the petri dishes and incubated.

67 Susceptibility Testing Agar diffusion –After incubation, the “zone of inhibition” is measured to determine which antibiotic is most effective.

68 Susceptibility Testing Agar diffusion –The “zone of inhibition” is an area of no growth around an antibiotic disk.

69 Susceptibility Testing Agar diffusion –The larger the “zone of inhibition”, the more effective the antibiotic.


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