We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published bySavannah Somerset
Modified about 1 year ago
Urinalysis provides information about how the kidneys are functioning and if wastes are being properly filtered from the body
Specimen Collection 1.Free Catch – the simplest method of collecting urine
Specimen Collection 1.Free Catch – Samples from dogs can be caught with a pan or soup ladle.
Specimen Collection 1.Free Catch – Use a metal pie plate for females.
Specimen Collection 1.Free Catch – To collect from a cat, replace the cat litter with a shredded plastic bag or plastic pellets.
Specimen Collection 2. Manual Expression – involves palpating the bladder through the abdomen then applying pressure to it to encourage urination.
Specimen Collection 2. Manual Expression – mainly used for animals that are unable to urinate on their own due to an injury or illness.
Specimen Collection 2. Manual Expression – Animals with obstructions should never be manually expressed.
Specimen Collection 3. Catheterization – performed by inserting a plastic, or rubber catheter through the urethra into the bladder.
Specimen Collection 3. Catheterization -The size and type of catheter used depends on the sex and species of animal.
Specimen Collection 3. Catheterization -performed aseptically to prevent infection and is used in emergencies and for immobile animals that need long-term care.
Specimen Collection 4. Cystocentesis – performed by inserting a needle through the abdomen into the bladder.
Specimen Collection 4. Cystocentesis – Aseptic technique is used to prevent infection.
Specimen Collection 4. Cystocentesis – performed to obtain a pure urine sample or to relieve bladder pressure on an obstructed animal.
Evaluation should occur within 30 minutes of collection, however samples can be refrigerated overnight if necessary
Evaluation Refrigerated samples should be brought to room temperature before they are evaluated.
Evaluation Color -In most species urine is a pale yellow to amber color.
Evaluation Color -correlates to specific gravity. lighter colored urine = lower specific gravity
Evaluation Color -correlates to specific gravity. darker colored urine = higher specific gravity
Evaluation Color -correlates to specific gravity. red urine = hematuria (red blood cells in urine)
Evaluation Color -correlates to specific gravity. yellowish-brown foamy urine = presences of bile pigments
Evaluation Color -Some species, like the rabbit, have urine that is normally a darker orange to reddish-brown.
Evaluation Transparency clear, cloudy, or flocculent
Evaluation Transparency clear, fresh urine is normal for most species
Evaluation Transparency cloudy urine indicates the presence of cells, bacteria, crystals, or fats, but in the horse, rabbit and hamster cloudy urine is normal
Evaluation Transparency flocculent describes urine that has pieces of floating debris in it caused by the presence of cells, fats, or mucus
Evaluation Specific Gravity -measures the concentration or density of urine compared to distilled water.
Evaluation -Three ways to measure sg. 1. Refractometer - refracts light through urine and measures density by comparing it to the amount of light that will pass through distilled water.
Evaluation -Three ways to measure sg. 1. Refractometer is also used to measure total plasma protein
Evaluation -Three ways to measure sg. 2. Urinometer - a bulb is floated in a cylinder filled with urine.
Evaluation -Three ways to measure sg. 2. Urinometer - specific gravity is read off a scale attached to the bulb
Evaluation -Three ways to measure sg. 2. Urinometer - requires a larger sample than the other methods
Evaluation -Three ways to measure sg. 3. Reagent strips - contain a chemical pad that changes color when dipped into urine
Evaluation -Three ways to measure sg. 3. Reagent strips - the color change is read using a scale on the reagent container
Average Specific Gravity Dog Cat Horse Cattle Swine Sheep 1.030
Specific Gravity An increased sg could indicate dehydration, decreased water intake, acute renal disease, or shock.
Specific Gravity A decreased sg could indicate increased water intake, chronic renal disease, or other diseases.
Specific Gravity A decreased sg could indicate increased water intake, chronic renal disease, or other diseases.
Chemistry The chemical components evaluated in urine are: pH protein glucose ketones bile blood yeast sperm
Chemistry performed using reagent strips
Chemistry The chemical components provide information used to diagnose problems such as diabetes, renal failure, liver infections, muscle disease, inflammation of the urinary tract, and ketosis.
Sediment Provides information on the types and numbers of cells present.
Sediment Cells commonly seen are: RBC’s WBC’s Epithelial cells
Sediment All of these cells are normal in small amounts; large amounts indicate disease or infection.
Sediment Excess RBC’s indicate hemorrhaging of the urinary tract.
Sediment Excess WBC’s indicate inflammation of the urinary tract.
Sediment Epithelial cells are sloughed from the urinary tract as they wear out, but trauma to the urinary tract will also cause sloughing.
Sediment Other components - bacteria - crystals - casts
Sediment Bacteria -indicates infection or contamination of the sample by improper handling
Sediment Bacteria -If bacteria are present with an increased number of WBC’s then infection is likely.
Sediment Crystals -form due to influences from pH, urine concentration, and diet
Sediment Crystals -do not necessarily indicate a disease, but they do cause problems in large amounts by irritating the urinary tract, causing blood in the urine (hematuria) and pain
Sediment Crystals -bond together creating stones that can block urine flow and may eventually cause death.
Sediment Crystals -Stones and crystals are especially serious in males due to the size and shape of the urethra.
Sediment Casts -tubular clumps of cells or other materials that form in the collecting tubules of the kidney.
Sediment Casts -Large numbers indicates a problem in the collecting tubules.
Sediment The types of casts are: Hyaline Fine granular WBC/RBC
Susceptibility Testing performed to determine how bacteria will respond to an antibiotic since some types of bacteria do not respond in a predictable manner
Susceptibility Testing Testing is important so that an effective antibiotic can be found.
Susceptibility Testing The main methods used to test antibiotic sensitivity are – broth dilution – agar diffusion
Susceptibility Testing Broth dilution – uses a series of test tubes that contain varying concentrations of the same antibiotic.
Susceptibility Testing Broth dilution – The test tubes are inoculated with bacteria and incubated.
Susceptibility Testing Broth dilution – The test tube that has the lowest antibiotic concentration with no bacteria growth indicates the minimum amount of antibiotic that is effective.
Susceptibility Testing Agar diffusion –uses petri dishes coated with bacteria
Susceptibility Testing Agar diffusion –Disks containing antibiotics are placed on the petri dishes and incubated.
Susceptibility Testing Agar diffusion –After incubation, the “zone of inhibition” is measured to determine which antibiotic is most effective.
Susceptibility Testing Agar diffusion –The “zone of inhibition” is an area of no growth around an antibiotic disk.
Susceptibility Testing Agar diffusion –The larger the “zone of inhibition”, the more effective the antibiotic.
Urine Testing. Testing Urine Unit 18:11 Urinalysis Examination of urine Physical Chemical Microscopic.
Performing the Urinalysis Laboratory Procedures. Analyzing the Urine Sample A complete urinalysis usually involves 3 steps. 1. Checking and recording.
It ’ s not just water ! An introduction to Urinalysis as performed in the Clinical Laboratory.
Urinalysis Collection and Interpretation Michael Lavoie Middlesex Community College Veterinary Assistant Program 5/21/12.
Introduction to Urinalysis Laboratory Procedures.
Urinalysis Unit 5 Chapter 27 Physical Examination of Urine Copyright © 2015 by Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Understanding the Urinalysis Paul Cousineau NP Youville Hospital and Rehab Center Paul Cousineau NP Youville Hospital and Rehab Center.
URINALYSIS Finding the Clues Hidden in Urine. What is a Urinalysis? Urinalysis: A test that determines the content of the urine. –Because urine removes.
URINE ANALYSIS. Macroscopic urinalysis Is the direct visual observation of the urine, noting its volume, color, clarity or cloudiness, etc Normal urine.
Urine Collection Techniques Reading Assignment: CTVT pages &DRG pages & DRG pages
Unit #5A – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Urinalysis Cecile Sanders, M.Ed., MLS(ASCP)
Visual exam A laboratory technician will examine the urine's appearance. Urine is typically clear. Cloudiness or unusual odor may indicate a problem.
Laboratory Techniques Small Animal Technology. Laboratory Tests Used to diagnose & treat health problems Used to diagnose & treat health problems Tests.
Physical Examination of Urine. Introduction Physical examination is 1 st part of UA performed Includes: – Observing urine color – ( ) – Measuring ( )
Urinalysis & Body Fluids CLS nd semester
Urine analysis. Macroscopic urinalysis Is the direct visual observation of the urine, noting its quantity, color, clarity or cloudiness, etc Normal urine.
1) Know the normal components of urine. 2) Know the abnormal urine components.
pH = 4.6 – 8.0 Normal pH is within this range Average = 6.
Urinalysis. Urinalysis is a diagnostic physical, chemical, and microscopic examination of a urine sample (specimen). Specimens can be obtained by normal.
Examination of Urine Terry Kotrla, MS, MT(ASCP) Professor Austin Community College.
CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE. Urinalysis 1.Physical characteristics: color, odor, turbidity, volume, & specific gravity 2.Chemical characteristics: pH, glucose,
Urinalysis By Elkhedir Elgorashi Elkhedir Elgorashi Lecturer Immunology M Sc, MLT, MT(MOH)
Week 7: Intro to UA Urinalysis Renal anatomy and physiology Nephron anatomy Urine collection and preservation Physical properties of urine Color Appearance.
Urinary System Diseases. Objective To describe the symptoms, causes, and treatments for Kidney Stones, Urinary Tract Infections, and Renal Failure.
Chapter 44 Urinalysis. 2 Blood Type Questions What is an antigen? What is an antibody? What happens in agglutination? Why can it be deadly? A.
Hossein Baniamerian Kermanshah University of Medical Science.
Function Rid body of nitrogenous wastes Regulate water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of blood.
KAU-Faculty of Science- Biochemistry department Clinical biochemistry lab (Bioc 416) 2012 T.A Nouf Alshareef
Basic Examination of the Urine Specimen Phlebotomy and Medical Laboratory Technology Program Faculty Austin Community College.
Routine urine analysis. The urinalysis is a routine screening test which is usually done as a part of a physical examination, during preoperative testing,
Urinalysis Laboratory Procedures Ch. 5. Urinalysis This test is often part of an initial data base for case work up of a clinically ill patient. It is.
CLS 426 Urine & Body Fluid Analysis Renal Disease – Part III Interstitial & Vascular Disease Ricki Otten MT(ASCP)SC
Dalia kamal Eldien Mohammed. Urine examination A. PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE The physical characteristics of urine include observations and measurements.
KAU-Faculty of Science- Biochemistry department Clinical biochemistry lab (Bioc 416) 2012 Lecturer: Nouf Alshareef
BIO132 Lab 9 Urinary System Exercises 40 & 41A / 41 Figure 40.1.
Chapter 15 The Urinary System. Anatomy of the Kidney General –filter all blood every 30 minutes kidneys organs of excretion –eliminate nitrogenous wastes.
Anatomy & Physiology Unit 8. Kidneys Organ that filters the blood and removes wastes Ureter Tube that carries wastes from the kidney to the bladder.
Chapter 8 Urinary & Bowel Elimination Advanced Skills for Health Care Providers, Second Edition Barbara Acello, Thomson Delmar, 2007.
URINALYSIS LAB 2 Naseem AL-Mathry. Components of the urine is abnormal or pathological. 1-protein (albumin) The urine natural completely free of proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Delmar, Cengage Learning. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Chapter 30 Urinalysis.
Urinalysis Testing urine is known as urinalysis. It is performed when; A patient is admitted to hospital. May be repeated whilst the patient is in hospital.
Renal System Allissia, Andre, Jessica. Warm-up Based off of the following diagram, tell your shoulder partner what you already know about the Renal system.
RENAL CALCULI. What are Renal Calculi ? (kidney stones) A kidney stone is a solid mass made up of tiny crystals. Urine passes away from the kidneys, down.
Lab 41 Urinalysis. Urine 180L/day filtrate 1.8L/day urine Sterile Contains: –Water (~ 95%) –Urea (from amino acids) –Creatinine (from muscle creatine.
Body Fluids Specimen Collections. Sputum Collections Sputum: secretions from the lower respiratory tract Useful in determining specific types of respiratory.
THE EXCRETORY SYSTEM. Function Removes waste products from the blood Cells produce wastes which move out of the cells and into the blood by diffusion.
Chapter 4 Urine tests and renal function tests Sample’s collection and sending: A first morning voided urine specimen obtained by a clean catch technique.
U ROGENITAL S YSTEM The urogenital system is comprised of the organs that make up the urinary system 2 kidneys 2 ureters 1 bladder 1 urethra It also includes.
© 2017 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.