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Urinalysis provides information about how the kidneys are functioning and if wastes are being properly filtered from the body
Specimen Collection Free Catch– the simplest method of collecting urine
Specimen Collection Free Catch– Samples from dogs can be caught with a pan or soup ladle.
Specimen Collection Free Catch – Use a metal pie plate for females.
Specimen Collection Free Catch– To collect from a cat, replace the cat litter with a shredded plastic bag or plastic pellets.
Specimen Collection 2. Manual Expression– involves palpating the bladder through the abdomen then applying pressure to it to encourage urination.
Specimen Collection 2. Manual Expression– mainly used for animals that are unable to urinate on their own due to an injury or illness.
Specimen Collection 2. Manual Expression– Animals with obstructions should never be manually expressed.
Specimen Collection 3. Catheterization – performed by inserting aplastic, or rubber catheter through the urethra into the bladder.
Specimen Collection 3. Catheterization- The size and type of catheter used depends on the sex and species of animal.
Specimen Collection 3. Catheterization- performed aseptically to prevent infection and is used in emergencies and for immobile animals that need long-term care.
Specimen Collection 4. Cystocentesis– performed by inserting a needle through the abdomen into the bladder.
Specimen Collection 4. Cystocentesis– Aseptic technique is used to prevent infection.
Specimen Collection 4. Cystocentesis– performed to obtain a pure urine sample or to relieve bladder pressure on an obstructed animal.
Evaluation should occur within 30 minutes of collection, however samples can be refrigerated overnight if necessary
Evaluation Refrigerated samples should be brought to room temperature before they are evaluated.
Evaluation Color - In most species urine is a pale yellow to amber color.
Evaluation Color - correlates to specific gravity.• lighter colored urine = lower specific gravity
Evaluation Color - correlates to specific gravity.• darker colored urine = higher specific gravity
Evaluation Color - correlates to specific gravity.• red urine = hematuria (red blood cells in urine)
Evaluation Color - correlates to specific gravity.• yellowish-brown foamy urine = presences of bile pigments
Evaluation Color - Some species, like the rabbit, have urine that is normally a darker orange to reddish-brown.
Evaluation Transparency clear, cloudy, or flocculent
Evaluation Transparency• clear, fresh urine is normal for most species
Evaluation Transparency• cloudy urine indicates the presence of cells, bacteria, crystals, or fats, but in the horse, rabbit and hamster cloudy urine is normal
Evaluation Transparency• flocculent describes urine that has pieces of floating debris in it caused by the presence of cells, fats, or mucus
Evaluation Specific Gravity- measures the concentration or density of urine compared to distilled water.
Evaluation - Three ways to measure sg. 1. Refractometer- refracts light through urine and measures density by comparing it to the amount of light that will pass through distilled water.
Evaluation - Three ways to measure sg. 1. Refractometeris also used to measure total plasma protein
Evaluation - Three ways to measure sg. 2. Urinometer- a bulb is floated in a cylinder filled with urine.
Evaluation - Three ways to measure sg. 2. Urinometer- specific gravity is read off a scale attached to the bulb
Evaluation - Three ways to measure sg. 2. Urinometer- requires a larger sample than the other methods
Evaluation - Three ways to measure sg. 3. Reagent strips- contain a chemical pad that changes color when dipped into urine
Evaluation - Three ways to measure sg. 3. Reagent strips- the color change is read using a scale on the reagent container
Average Specific GravityDog Cat Horse Cattle Swine Sheep
Specific Gravity An increased sg could indicate dehydration, decreased water intake, acute renal disease, or shock.
Specific Gravity A decreased sg could indicate increased water intake, chronic renal disease, or other diseases.
Specific Gravity A decreased sg could indicate increased water intake, chronic renal disease, or other diseases.
The chemical components evaluated in urine are:Chemistry The chemical components evaluated in urine are: • ketones • bile • blood • pH • protein • glucose • yeast • sperm
performed using reagent stripsChemistry performed using reagent strips
Chemistry The chemical components provide information used to diagnose problems such as diabetes, renal failure, liver infections, muscle disease, inflammation of the urinary tract, and ketosis.
Sediment Provides information on the types and numbers of cells present.
Cells commonly seen are:Sediment Cells commonly seen are: • RBC’s • WBC’s • Epithelial cells
Sediment All of these cells are normal in small amounts; large amounts indicate disease or infection.
Sediment Excess RBC’s indicate hemorrhaging of the urinary tract.
Sediment Excess WBC’s indicate inflammation of the urinary tract.
Sediment Epithelial cells are sloughed from the urinary tract as they wear out, but trauma to the urinary tract will also cause sloughing.
Sediment Other components - bacteria - crystals - casts
Sediment • Bacteria - indicates infection or contamination of the sample by improper handling
Sediment • Bacteria - If bacteria are present with an increased number of WBC’s then infection is likely.
Sediment • Crystals - form due to influences from pH, urine concentration, and diet
Sediment • Crystals - do not necessarily indicate a disease, but they do cause problems in large amounts by irritating the urinary tract, causing blood in the urine (hematuria) and pain
Sediment • Crystals - bond together creating stones that can block urine flow and may eventually cause death.
Sediment • Crystals - Stones and crystals are especially serious in males due to the size and shape of the urethra.
Sediment • Casts - tubular clumps of cells or other materials that form in the collecting tubules of the kidney.
Sediment • Casts - Large numbers indicates a problem in the collecting tubules.
Sediment The types of casts are: • Hyaline • Fine granular • WBC/RBC
Susceptibility Testingperformed to determine how bacteria will respond to an antibiotic since some types of bacteria do not respond in a predictable manner
Susceptibility TestingTesting is important so that an effective antibiotic can be found.
Susceptibility TestingThe main methods used to test antibiotic sensitivity are broth dilution agar diffusion
Susceptibility TestingBroth dilution uses a series of test tubes that contain varying concentrations of the same antibiotic.
Susceptibility TestingBroth dilution The test tubes are inoculated with bacteria and incubated.
Susceptibility TestingBroth dilution The test tube that has the lowest antibiotic concentration with no bacteria growth indicates the minimum amount of antibiotic that is effective.
Susceptibility TestingAgar diffusion uses petri dishes coated with bacteria
Susceptibility TestingAgar diffusion Disks containing antibiotics are placed on the petri dishes and incubated.
Susceptibility TestingAgar diffusion After incubation, the “zone of inhibition” is measured to determine which antibiotic is most effective.
Susceptibility TestingAgar diffusion The “zone of inhibition” is an area of no growth around an antibiotic disk.
Susceptibility TestingAgar diffusion The larger the “zone of inhibition”, the more effective the antibiotic.
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