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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures prepared by Christine L. Case Chapter 3 Observing Microorganisms Through A Microscope.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures prepared by Christine L. Case Chapter 3 Observing Microorganisms Through A Microscope."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lectures prepared by Christine L. Case Chapter 3 Observing Microorganisms Through A Microscope

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Q&A  Acid-fast staining of a patient’s sputum is a rapid, reliable, and inexpensive method to diagnose tuberculosis. What color would bacterial cells appear if the patient has tuberculosis?

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Observing Microorganisms Figure 3.2

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives Units of Measurement 3-1List the metric units of measurement that are used for microorganisms.

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.2 Units of Measurement  1 µm = 10–6 m = 10–3 mm  1 nm = 10–9 m = 10–6 mm  1000 nm = 1 µm  µm = 1 nm

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding If a microbe measures 10 μm in length, how long is it in nanometers? 3-1

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives Microscopy: The Instruments 3-2Diagram the path of light through a compound microscope. 3-3Define total magnification and resolution.

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 1.2b Microscopy: The Instruments  A simple microscope has only one lens

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Light Microscopy  Use of any kind of microscope that uses visible light to observe specimens  Types of light microscopy  Compound light microscopy  Darkfield microscopy  Phase-contrast microscopy  Differential interference contrast microscopy  Fluorescence microscopy  Confocal microscopy

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.1a The Compound Light Microscope

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.1b Compound Light Microscopy  In a compound microscope, the image from the objective lens is magnified again by the ocular lens  Total magnification = objective lens  ocular lens

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Compound Light Microscopy  Resolution is the ability of the lenses to distinguish two points  A microscope with a resolving power of 0.4 nm can distinguish between two points ≥ 0.4 nm  Shorter wavelengths of light provide greater resolution

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Compound Light Microscopy  The refractive index is a measure of the light- bending ability of a medium  The light may bend in air so much that it misses the small high-magnification lens  Immersion oil is used to keep light from bending

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.3 Refraction in the Compound Microscope

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding Through what lenses does light pass in a compound microscope? 3-2 What does it mean when a microscope has a resolution of 0.2 nm? 3-3

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives Microscopy: The Instruments 3-4Identify a use for darkfield, phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, fluorescence, confocal, two-photon, and scanning acoustic microscopy, and compare each with brightfield illumination. 3-5Explain how electron microscopy differs from light microscopy. 3-6Identify one use for the TEM, SEM, and scanned- probe microscopes.

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.4a ANIMATION Light Microscopy Brightfield Illumination  Dark objects are visible against a bright background  Light reflected off the specimen does not enter the objective lens

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.4b Darkfield Illumination  Light objects are visible against a dark background  Light reflected off the specimen enters the objective lens

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.4c Phase-Contrast Microscopy  Accentuates diffraction of the light that passes through a specimen

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.5 Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy  Accentuates diffraction of the light that passes through a specimen; uses two beams of light

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.6b Fluorescence Microscopy  Uses UV light  Fluorescent substances absorb UV light and emit visible light  Cells may be stained with fluorescent dyes (fluorochromes)

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.7 Confocal Microscopy  Cells stained with fluorochrome dyes  Short wavelength (blue) light used to excite the dyes  The light illuminates each plane in a specimen to produce a three-dimensional image  Up to 100 µm deep

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.8 Two-Photon Microscopy  Cells stained with fluorochrome dyes  Two photons of long- wavelength (red) light used to excite the dyes  Used to study cells attached to a surface  Up to 1 mm deep

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.9 Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM)  Measures sound waves that are reflected back from an object  Used to study cells attached to a surface  Resolution 1 µm

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.  Uses electrons instead of light  The shorter wavelength of electrons gives greater resolution ANIMATION Electron Microscopy Electron Microscopy

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.10a Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)  Ultrathin sections of specimens  Light passes through specimen, then an electromagnetic lens, to a screen or film  Specimens may be stained with heavy metal salts

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.10a Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)  10,000–100,000  ; resolution 2.5 nm

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.10b Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)  An electron gun produces a beam of electrons that scans the surface of a whole specimen  Secondary electrons emitted from the specimen produce the image

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.10b Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)  1,000–10,000  ; resolution 20 nm

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.11a Scanned-Probe Microscopy  Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) uses a metal probe to scan a specimen  Resolution 1/100 of an atom

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.11b Scanned-Probe Microscopy  Atomic force microscopy (AFM) uses a metal- and-diamond probe inserted into the specimen.  Produces three-dimensional images.

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding How are brightfield, darkfield, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy similar? 3-4 Why do electron microscopes have greater resolution than light microscopes? 3-5 For what is TEM used? SEM? Scanned-probe microscopy? 3-6

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Learning Objectives 3-7Differentiate an acidic dye from a basic dye. 3-8Explain the purpose of simple staining. 3-9List the steps in preparing a Gram stain, and describe the appearance of gram-positive and gram-negative cells after each step. 3-10Compare and contrast the Gram stain and the acid-fast stain. 3-11Explain why each of the following is used: capsule stain, endospore stain, flagella stain. Preparation of Specimens for Light Microscopy

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Preparing Smears for Staining  Staining: Coloring the microbe with a dye that emphasizes certain structures  Smear: A thin film of a solution of microbes on a slide  A smear is usually fixed to attach the microbes to the slide and to kill the microbes

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.  Live or unstained cells have little contrast with the surrounding medium. Researchers do make discoveries about cell behavior by observing live specimens. Figures B and C ANIMATION Microscopy and Staining: Overview Preparing Smears for Staining

36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Preparing Smears for Staining  Stains consist of a positive and negative ion  In a basic dye, the chromophore is a cation  In an acidic dye, the chromophore is an anion  Staining the background instead of the cell is called negative staining

37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc.  Simple stain: Use of a single basic dye  A mordant may be used to hold the stain or coat the specimen to enlarge it ANIMATION Staining Simple Stains

38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Differential Stains  Used to distinguish between bacteria  Gram stain  Acid-fast stain

39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Gram Stain  Classifies bacteria into gram-positive or gram-negative  Gram-positive bacteria tend to be killed by penicillin and detergents  Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics

40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Color of Gram-positive cells Color of Gram-negative cells Primary stain: Crystal violet Purple Mordant: Iodine Purple Decolorizing agent: Alcohol-acetone PurpleColorless Counterstain: Safranin PurpleRed Gram Stain

41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.12b Micrograph of Gram-Stained Bacteria

42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding Why doesn’t a negative stain color a cell? 3-7 Why is fixing necessary for most staining procedures? 3-8 Why is the Gram stain so useful? 3-9

43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Acid-Fast Stain  Stained waxy cell wall is not decolorized by acid- alcohol  Mycobacterium  Nocardia

44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Color of Acid-fast Color of Non–Acid-fast Primary stain: Carbolfuchsin Red Decolorizing agent: Acid-alcohol RedColorless Counterstain: Methylene blue RedBlue Acid-Fast Stain

45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.13 Acid-Fast Bacteria

46 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Q&A  Acid-fast staining of a patient’s sputum is a rapid, reliable, and inexpensive method to diagnose tuberculosis. What color would bacterial cells appear if the patient has tuberculosis?

47 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Special Stains  Used to distinguish parts of cells  Capsule stain  Endospore stain  Flagella stain

48 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.14a Negative Staining for Capsules  Cells stained  Negative stain

49 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.14b Endospore Staining  Primary stain: Malachite green, usually with heat  Decolorize cells: Water  Counterstain: Safranin

50 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 3.14c Flagella Staining  Mordant on flagella  Carbolfuchsin simple stain

51 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Check Your Understanding Which stain would be used to identify microbes in the genera Mycobacterium and Nocardia? 3-10 How do unstained endospores appear? Stained endospores? 3-11


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