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Observing Microorganisms Through A Microscope

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1 Observing Microorganisms Through A Microscope
Chapter 3 Observing Microorganisms Through A Microscope

2 Q&A Acid-fast staining of a patient’s sputum is a rapid, reliable, and inexpensive method to diagnose tuberculosis. What color would bacterial cells appear if the patient has tuberculosis?

3 Observing Microorganisms
Figure 3.2

4 Units of Measurement 3-1 List the metric units of measurement that are used for microorganisms.

5 Units of Measurement 1 µm = 10–6 m = 10–3 mm 1 nm = 10–9 m = 10–6 mm
Figure 3.2

6 If a microbe measures 10 μm in length, how long is it in nanometers

7 Microscopy: The Instruments
3-2 Diagram the path of light through a compound microscope. 3-3 Define total magnification and resolution.

8 Microscopy: The Instruments
A simple microscope has only one lens Figure 1.2b

9 Light Microscopy Use of any kind of microscope that uses visible light to observe specimens Types of light microscopy Compound light microscopy Darkfield microscopy Phase-contrast microscopy Differential interference contrast microscopy Fluorescence microscopy Confocal microscopy

10 The Compound Light Microscope
Figure 3.1a

11 Compound Light Microscopy
In a compound microscope, the image from the objective lens is magnified again by the ocular lens Total magnification = objective lens  ocular lens Figure 3.1b

12 Compound Light Microscopy
Resolution is the ability of the lenses to distinguish two points A microscope with a resolving power of 0.4 nm can distinguish between two points ≥ 0.4 nm Shorter wavelengths of light provide greater resolution

13 Compound Light Microscopy
The refractive index is a measure of the light-bending ability of a medium The light may bend in air so much that it misses the small high-magnification lens Immersion oil is used to keep light from bending

14 Refraction in the Compound Microscope
Figure 3.3

15 Through what lenses does light pass in a compound microscope? 3-2
What does it mean when a microscope has a resolution of 0.2 nm? 3-3

16 Microscopy: The Instruments
3-4 Identify a use for darkfield, phase-contrast, differential interference contrast, fluorescence, confocal, two-photon, and scanning acoustic microscopy, and compare each with brightfield illumination. 3-5 Explain how electron microscopy differs from light microscopy. 3-6 Identify one use for the TEM, SEM, and scanned-probe microscopes.

17 Brightfield Illumination
Dark objects are visible against a bright background Light reflected off the specimen does not enter the objective lens ANIMATION Light Microscopy Figure 3.4a

18 Darkfield Illumination
Light objects are visible against a dark background Light reflected off the specimen enters the objective lens Figure 3.4b

19 Phase-Contrast Microscopy
Accentuates diffraction of the light that passes through a specimen Figure 3.4c

20 Differential Interference Contrast Microscopy
Accentuates diffraction of the light that passes through a specimen; uses two beams of light Figure 3.5

21 Fluorescence Microscopy
Uses UV light Fluorescent substances absorb UV light and emit visible light Cells may be stained with fluorescent dyes (fluorochromes) Figure 3.6b

22 Confocal Microscopy Cells stained with fluorochrome dyes
Short wavelength (blue) light used to excite the dyes The light illuminates each plane in a specimen to produce a three-dimensional image Up to 100 µm deep Figure 3.7

23 Two-Photon Microscopy
Cells stained with fluorochrome dyes Two photons of long- wavelength (red) light used to excite the dyes Used to study cells attached to a surface Up to 1 mm deep Figure 3.8

24 Scanning Acoustic Microscopy (SAM)
Measures sound waves that are reflected back from an object Used to study cells attached to a surface Resolution 1 µm Figure 3.9

25 Electron Microscopy Uses electrons instead of light
The shorter wavelength of electrons gives greater resolution ANIMATION Electron Microscopy

26 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
Ultrathin sections of specimens Light passes through specimen, then an electromagnetic lens, to a screen or film Specimens may be stained with heavy metal salts Figure 3.10a

27 Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)
10,000–100,000; resolution 2.5 nm Figure 3.10a

28 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
An electron gun produces a beam of electrons that scans the surface of a whole specimen Secondary electrons emitted from the specimen produce the image Figure 3.10b

29 Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)
1,000–10,000; resolution 20 nm Figure 3.10b

30 Scanned-Probe Microscopy
Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) uses a metal probe to scan a specimen Resolution 1/100 of an atom Figure 3.11a

31 Scanned-Probe Microscopy
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) uses a metal- and-diamond probe inserted into the specimen. Produces three-dimensional images. Figure 3.11b

32 How are brightfield, darkfield, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy similar? 3-4
Why do electron microscopes have greater resolution than light microscopes? 3-5 For what is TEM used? SEM? Scanned-probe microscopy? 3-6

33 Preparation of Specimens for Light Microscopy
3-7 Differentiate an acidic dye from a basic dye. 3-8 Explain the purpose of simple staining. 3-9 List the steps in preparing a Gram stain, and describe the appearance of gram-positive and gram-negative cells after each step. 3-10 Compare and contrast the Gram stain and the acid-fast stain. 3-11 Explain why each of the following is used: capsule stain, endospore stain, flagella stain.

34 Preparing Smears for Staining
Staining: Coloring the microbe with a dye that emphasizes certain structures Smear: A thin film of a solution of microbes on a slide A smear is usually fixed to attach the microbes to the slide and to kill the microbes

35 Preparing Smears for Staining
Live or unstained cells have little contrast with the surrounding medium. Researchers do make discoveries about cell behavior by observing live specimens. ANIMATION Microscopy and Staining: Overview Figures B and C

36 Preparing Smears for Staining
Stains consist of a positive and negative ion In a basic dye, the chromophore is a cation In an acidic dye, the chromophore is an anion Staining the background instead of the cell is called negative staining

37 Simple Stains Simple stain: Use of a single basic dye
A mordant may be used to hold the stain or coat the specimen to enlarge it ANIMATION Staining

38 Differential Stains Used to distinguish between bacteria Gram stain
Acid-fast stain

39 Gram Stain Classifies bacteria into gram-positive or gram-negative
Gram-positive bacteria tend to be killed by penicillin and detergents Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to antibiotics

40 Gram Stain Color of Gram-positive cells Gram-negative cells
Primary stain: Crystal violet Purple Mordant: Iodine Decolorizing agent: Alcohol-acetone Colorless Counterstain: Safranin Red

41 Micrograph of Gram-Stained Bacteria
Figure 3.12b

42 Why doesn’t a negative stain color a cell? 3-7
Why is fixing necessary for most staining procedures? 3-8 Why is the Gram stain so useful? 3-9

43 Acid-Fast Stain Stained waxy cell wall is not decolorized by acid-alcohol Mycobacterium Nocardia

44 Acid-Fast Stain Color of Acid-fast Non–Acid-fast Primary stain:
Carbolfuchsin Red Decolorizing agent: Acid-alcohol Colorless Counterstain: Methylene blue Blue

45 Acid-Fast Bacteria Figure 3.13

46 Q&A Acid-fast staining of a patient’s sputum is a rapid, reliable, and inexpensive method to diagnose tuberculosis. What color would bacterial cells appear if the patient has tuberculosis?

47 Special Stains Used to distinguish parts of cells Capsule stain
Endospore stain Flagella stain

48 Negative Staining for Capsules
Cells stained Negative stain Figure 3.14a

49 Endospore Staining Primary stain: Malachite green, usually with heat
Decolorize cells: Water Counterstain: Safranin Figure 3.14b

50 Flagella Staining Mordant on flagella Carbolfuchsin simple stain
Figure 3.14c

51 Which stain would be used to identify microbes in the genera Mycobacterium and Nocardia? 3-10
How do unstained endospores appear? Stained endospores? 3-11

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