2Chapter Outline Terminology for Mechanical Properties The Tensile Test: Stress-Strain DiagramProperties Obtained from a Tensile TestTrue Stress and True StrainThe Bend Test for Brittle MaterialsHardness of Materials
3Questions to Think About • Stress and strain: What are they and why are they used instead of load and deformation?Elastic behavior: When loads are small, how much deformation occurs? What materials deform least?Plastic behavior: At what point do dislocations cause permanent deformation? What materials are most resistant to permanent deformation?Toughness and ductility: What are they and how do we measure them?Ceramic Materials: What special provisions/tests are made for ceramic materials?
6Important Mechanical Properties from a Tensile Test Young's Modulus: This is the slope of the linear portion of the stress-strain curve, it is usually specific to each material; a constant, known value.Yield Strength: This is the value of stress at the yield point, calculated by plotting young's modulus at a specified percent of offset (usually offset = 0.2%).Ultimate Tensile Strength: This is the highest value of stress on the stress-strain curve.Percent Elongation: This is the change in gauge length divided by the original gauge length.
7Terminology Load - The force applied to a material during testing. Strain gage or Extensometer - A device used for measuring change in length (strain).Engineering stress - The applied load, or force, divided by the original cross-sectional area of the material.Engineering strain - The amount that a material deforms per unit length in a tensile test.
8Elastic Deformation 1. Initial 2. Small load 3. Unload Elastic means reversible.
9Plastic Deformation (Metals) 1. Initial2. Small load3. UnloadPlastic means permanent.
10c07f10abTypical stress-strain behavior for a metal showing elastic and plastic deformations, the proportional limit P and the yield strength σy, as determined using the strain offset method (where there is noticeable plastic deformation). P is the gradual elastic to plastic transition.
11Plastic Deformation (permanent) From an atomic perspective, plastic deformation corresponds to the breaking of bonds with original atom neighbors and then reforming bonds with new neighbors.After removal of the stress, the large number of atoms that have relocated, do not return to original position.Yield strength is a measure of resistance to plastic deformation.
13The image shows necked region in a fractured sample (c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.Localized deformation of a ductile material during a tensile test produces a necked region.The image shows necked region in a fractured sample
14Permanent Deformation Permanent deformation for metals is accomplished by means of a process called slip, which involves the motion of dislocations.Most structures are designed to ensure that only elastic deformation results when stress is applied.A structure that has plastically deformed, or experienced a permanent change in shape, may not be capable of functioning as intended.
17Stress-Strain Diagram (cont) Elastic Region (Point 1 –2)- The material will return to its original shapeafter the material is unloaded( like a rubber band).- The stress is linearly proportional to the strain inthis region.or: Stress(psi)E : Elastic modulus (Young’s Modulus) (psi): Strain (in/in)Point 2 : Yield Strength : a point where permanentdeformation occurs. ( If it is passed, the material willno longer return to its original length.)
18Stress-Strain Diagram (cont) Strain Hardening- If the material is loaded again from Point 4, thecurve will follow back to Point 3 with the sameElastic Modulus (slope).- The material now has a higher yield strength ofPoint 4.- Raising the yield strength by permanently strainingthe material is called Strain Hardening.
19Stress-Strain Diagram (cont) Tensile Strength (Point 3)- The largest value of stress on the diagram is calledTensile Strength(TS) or Ultimate Tensile Strength(UTS)- It is the maximum stress which the material cansupport without breaking.Fracture (Point 5)- If the material is stretched beyond Point 3, the stressdecreases as necking and non-uniform deformationoccur.- Fracture will finally occur at Point 5.
20The stress-strain curve for an aluminum alloy. (c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.
21Stress-strain behavior found for some steels with yield point phenomenon.
24Tensile Strength, TSAfter yielding, the stress necessary to continue plastic deformation in metals increases to a maximum point (M) and then decreases to the eventual fracture point (F).All deformation up to the maximum stress is uniform throughout the tensile sample.However, at max stress, a small constriction or neck begins to form.Subsequent deformation will be confined to this neck area.Fracture strength corresponds to the stress at fracture.Region between M and F:Metals: occurs when noticeable necking starts.• Ceramics: occurs when crack propagation starts.• Polymers: occurs when polymer backbones are aligned and about to break.
25In an undeformed thermoplastic polymer tensile sample, the polymer chains are randomly oriented.When a stress is applied, a neck develops as chains become aligned locally. The neck continues to grow until the chains in the entire gage length have aligned.The strength of the polymer is increased
26Tensile Strength: Comparison Room T valuesBased on data in Table B4, Callister 6e.a = annealedhr = hot rolledag = agedcd = cold drawncw = cold workedqt = quenched & temperedAFRE, GFRE, & CFRE =aramid, glass, & carbonfiber-reinforced epoxycomposites, with 60 vol%fibers.
27Engineering Stress • Tensile stress, s: • Shear stress, t: Stress has units: N/m2 or lb/in227
31Ductility, %ELDuctility is a measure of the plastic deformation that has been sustained at fracture:A material that suffers very little plastic deformation is brittle.• Another ductility measure:• Ductility may be expressed as either percent elongation (% plastic strain at fracture) or percent reduction in area.%AR > %EL is possible if internal voids form in neck.
32Toughnessc07f13Toughness is the ability to absorb energy up to fracture (energy per unit volume of material).A “tough” material has strength and ductility.Approximated by the area under the stress-straincurve.Lower toughness: ceramicsHigher toughness: metals
33Toughness • Energy to break a unit volume of material • Approximate by the area under the stress-straincurve.21
34Linear Elastic Properties c07f05Linear Elastic Propertiess = E e• Hooke's Law:n = ex/ey• Poisson's ratio:metals: n ~ 0.33ceramics: n ~0.25polymers: n ~0.40Modulus of Elasticity, E:(Young's modulus)Units:E: [GPa] or [psi]n: dimensionless
35c07probEngineering StrainStrain is dimensionless.35
36c07f09Axial (z) elongation (positive strain) and lateral (x and y) contractions (negative strains) in response to an imposed tensile stress.36
37True Stress and True Strain True stress The load divided by the actual cross-sectional area of the specimen at that load.True strain The strain calculated using actual and not original dimensions, given by εt ln(l/l0).The relation between the true stress-true strain diagram and engineering stress-engineering strain diagram.The curves are identical to the yield point.
39Example 2: Young’s Modulus - Aluminum Alloy From the data in Example 1, calculate the modulus of elasticity of the aluminum alloy.
40Example 2: Young’s Modulus - Aluminum Alloy - continued Use the modulus to determine the length after deformation of a bar of initial length of 50 in.Assume that a level of stress of 30,000 psi is applied.
41Young’s Moduli: Comparison GraphiteCeramicsSemicondMetalsAlloysComposites/fibersPolymersE(GPa)Composite data based onreinforced epoxy with 60 vol%of aligned carbon (CFRE),aramid (AFRE), or glass (GFRE)fibers.
42Example 3: True Stress and True Strain Calculation Compare engineering stress and strain with true stress and strain for the aluminum alloy in Example 1 at (a) the maximum load. The diameter at maximum load is in. and at fracture is in.Example 3 SOLUTION
43c07f17Strain HardeningAn increase in sy due to plastic deformation.
47Mechanical Behavior - Ceramics The stress-strain behavior of brittle ceramics is not usually obtained by a tensile test.It is difficult to prepare and test specimens with specific geometry.It is difficult to grip brittle materials without fracturing them.Ceramics fail after roughly 0.1% strain; specimen have to be perfectly aligned.
48The Bend Test for Brittle Materials Bend test - Application of a force to the center of a bar that is supported on each end to determine the resistance of the material to a static or slowly applied load.Flexural strength or modulus of rupture -The stress required to fracture a specimen in a bend test.Flexural modulus - The modulus of elasticity calculated from the results of a bend test, giving the slope of the stress-deflection curve.
49(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc (c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.The stress-strain behavior of brittle materials compared with that of more ductile materials
50(c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc (c)2003 Brooks/Cole, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.(a) The bend test often used for measuring the strength of brittle materials, and (b) the deflection δ obtained by bending
51Flexural Strength c07f18 Schematic for a 3-point bending test. Able to measure the stress-strain behavior and flexural strength of brittle ceramics.Flexural strength (modulus of rupture or bend strength) is the stress at fracture.See Table 7.2 for more values.
52MEASURING ELASTIC MODULUS • Room T behavior is usually elastic, with brittle failure.• 3-Point Bend Testing often used.--tensile tests are difficult for brittle materials.• Determine elastic modulus according to:23
53MEASURING STRENGTH • 3-point bend test to measure room T strength. • Flexural strength:• Typ. values:Si nitrideSi carbideAl oxideglass (soda)6930043039069Data from Table 12.5, Callister 6e.24
55Hardness of MaterialsHardness test - Measures the resistance of a material to penetration by a sharp object.Macrohardness - Overall bulk hardness of materials measured using loads >2 N.Microhardness Hardness of materials typically measured using loads less than 2 N using such test as Knoop (HK).Nano-hardness - Hardness of materials measured at 1–10 nm length scale using extremely small (~100 µN) forces.
56HardnessHardness is a measure of a material’s resistance to localized plastic deformation (a small dent or scratch).Quantitative hardness techniques have been developed where a small indenter is forced into the surface of a material.The depth or size of the indentation is measured, and corresponds to a hardness number.The softer the material, the larger and deeper the indentation (and lower hardness number).
57Hardness • Resistance to permanently indenting the surface. • Large hardness means:--resistance to plastic deformation or cracking incompression.--better wear properties.Adapted from Fig. 6.18, Callister 6e. (Fig is adapted from G.F. Kinney, Engineering Properties and Applications of Plastics, p. 202, John Wiley and Sons, 1957.)
60Conversion of Hardness Scales c07f30Conversion of Hardness ScalesAlso see: ASTM EVolume 03.01Standard Hardness Conversion Tables for Metals Relationship Among Brinell Hardness, Vickers Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Superficial Hardness, Knoop Hardness, and Scleroscope Hardness
61Correlation between Hardness and Tensile Strength c07f31Correlation between Hardness and Tensile StrengthBoth hardness and tensile strength are indicators of a metal’s resistance to plastic deformation.For cast iron, steel and brass, the two are roughly proportional.Tensile strength (psi) = 500*BHR
63Summary • Stress and strain: These are size-independent measures of load and displacement, respectively.• Elastic behavior: This reversible behavior oftenshows a linear relation between stress and strain.To minimize deformation, select a material with alarge elastic modulus (E or G).• Plastic behavior: This permanent deformationbehavior occurs when the tensile (or compressive)uniaxial stress reaches sy.• Toughness: The energy needed to break a unitvolume of material.• Ductility: The plastic strain at failure.