Presentation on theme: "Measuring and Explaining the “Creature Comforts” of Performance Textiles Sponsored by."— Presentation transcript:
Measuring and Explaining the “Creature Comforts” of Performance Textiles Sponsored by
Testing for Functional Textiles
3 Tear Strength Tearing Strength Standards involved: ISO /2; ASTM D1424; ASTM D2261; ISO ; BS EN ISO 4674, etc Apparatus involved: Elmendorf Tester or Universal Strength Tester –CRE; The tearing strength is maximum force needed to continue tearing of a fabric that has a pre-cut opening in the specimen.
4 Tensile Strength / Elongation Tensile Strength / Elongation at Break Standard involved: ASTM D 5034; ASTM D2209; BS EN ISO 3376; BS EN ISO & 2, etc Apparatus involved: Universal Strength Tester –CRE The tensile strength is determined by a force at a constant rate of extension to a fabric sample held in place by one fixed and one moveable jaw. The force required for a break in the fabric is recorded. The elongation at break is also recorded by the strength tester.
5 Seam Strength / Slippage Standard involved: ASTM D1683; JIS L1093; ISO /2, BS EN Apparatus involved: Universal Strength Tester –CRE The seam strength is determined by stretching a seam aligned midway between the gripping jaws, the maximum force before seam breakage is recorded. Seam slippage is similar to seam strength, instead that the force is measured when the seam has slipped to a defined displacement. The seam is not ruptured in the process
6 Bursting Strength Standard involved: ASTM D3786; ASTM D3787; JIS L1096; BS EN ISO & 2, etc Apparatus employed: Hydraulic or Pneumatic Burst Testers and Ball Burst Tester The specimen is clamped in a holder, a distension force, either by means of hydraulic, pneumatic, or mechanical means, is applied on the specimen until it ruptures. The bursting force is the maximum force recorded during the course of testing
7 Water Repellency/Resistance AATCC 22 Spray Test Apparatus employed: Spray tester, The test procedure involves applying water to a specimen surface, using gravity. The after-test specimens are then assessed for amount and degree of surface wetting observed
8 Water Repellency/Resistance AATCC 35 Rain Test Apparatus employed: Rain Tester The test procedure involves applying water to a specimen surface, under pressure. A blotting paper is behind the tested specimen during the test. The amount of water that penetrates the fabric and is absorbed by the blotting paper is measured after the test.
9 Odor Determination MarketEUUSASChinaJapan Test MethodRef. SNV Fed. Std. 148a Method 11 N/AGB/T14272JIS L1093 General Requirement <3 N/A<2<3 Principle The odor test indicates potential odor problems.
10 Odor Determination The odor test is performed with reference to SNV The test specimen (40g) is placed on top of 300ml sodium carbonate solution and kept in a closed container. The container is put it into a oven set to a temperature of 37 +/-2°C for 15 hours. Six people (minimum) are required to independently judge the odor intensity and rate it according to the following nomenclature: Intensity Scales Grade 1 – odorless Grade 2 – weak odor Grade 3 – tolerable odor Grade 4 – annoying odor Grade 5 – intolerable odor
11 Quick Dry / Moisture Management Move sweat/moisture away from the body to the outer layer of the fabric Tests: –Moisture Management –Drying rate –Wicking –Water Vapor Permeability –Air
12 Liquid Repellency Principle To determine the degree to which a mixture of water and alcohol would be absorbed into a fabric. AATCC Test Methods 193 Liquids composed of different combinations of water and alcohol are dropped onto the surface of a fabric. The time it takes to be absorbed into the fabric is observed. The rating is the number that has been assigned to the liquid that is not absorbed into the fabric.
13 Moisture Management Principle To determine the moisture management characteristics of a fabric as a moisture management index AATCC Test Methods 193 The results of the test are used to determine a moisture management index that is based on water resistance, water absorption and transport characteristics and wicking properties of the fabric structure including the fibers and yarns.
14 Wicking Principle To determine the degree to which a liquid moves up the length of a fabric Fabrics are suspended in a measured depth of water and the distance that the water travels up the fabric specimen is measured over time. Indication of moisture transport away from a source.
15 Drying Rate Principle To determine the rate at which a fabric will dry when wetted by water Fabrics are wetted with a fixed amount of liquid and then exposed to heat. The drying rate of the fabric is determined by measuring the change in weight over time. Indication of moisture transport away from a source.
16 Water Repellency/Resistance AATCC 127 Hydrostatic Pressure Test Apparatus employed: Hydrostatic head tester The test procedure involves applying water under the surface of a fabric and measuring the amount of pressure it takes to force water through the fabric. The pressure to force 5 drops of water through the fabric is determined.
17 Air Permeability Standard involved: ASTM D737; BS EN ISO 9237; JIS L1096, etc Apparatus employed: Air Permeability Tester The sample is secured on the permeability tester. The tester then generates an air pressure gradient across both sides of the sample. The faster the rate of pressure gradient degeneration, the higher is the air permeability of the sample
18 Thermal Resistance Provide thermal insulation to body Tests: –Thermal resistance value of fabrics
19 Functional Products Major Test Items Garments Personal Apparel Hats Shoes Sportswear Swimwear Umbrella
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