3 Energy Absorbed vs. Temperature Energy absorbed versus temperature for a steel in annealed and in quenched and tempered states. (Adapted with permission from J. C. Miguez Suarez and K. K. Chawla, Metalurgia-ABM, 34 (1978) 825.)
4 Temperature Effect on Fracture Appearance Effect of temperature on the morphology of fracture surface of Charpy steel specimen. Test temperatures Ta < Tb < Tc < Td. (a) Fully brittle fracture. (b, c) Mixed-mode fractures. (d) Fully ductile (fibrous) fracture.
5 Charpy Testing of Steel: DBTT Energy absorbed, cleavage area ,and lateral expansion as a function of temperature of testing for AISI 1018 steel (cold drawn).
7 Charpy V-notch Curve for a Pressure Vessel SteelCharpy V-notch curve for a pressure-vessel steel. Note that the NDT temperature determined by the drop-weight test corresponds to the high-toughness region of the Charpy curve. Pneumatic pressurization; material: 21/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, yield stress 590 MPa. (After W. J. Langford, Can. Met. Quart., 19 (1980) 13.)
8 Instrumented Charpy Test (a) Typical oscilloscope record of an instrumented Charpy impact test.(b) Schematic representation of (a).
9 Fracture Toughness Test Specimens Typical ASTM standard plane-strain fracture toughness test specimens.(a) Compact tension.(b) Bending.(c) Photograph of specimens of various sizes. Charpy and tensile specimens are also shown, for comparison purposes. (Courtesy of MPA, Stuttgart.)
10 Schematic of typical load–displacement curves in a KIc test. Load Displacement Curves vs. Fracture Toughness TestSchematic of typical load–displacement curves in a KIc test.
11 Plastic Zone at Crack Tip Plastic zone at the x1 crack tip in a plate of finite thickness.
12 Clip Gage for Displacement Measurement Assembly for measuring displacement in a notched specimen.
18 J-Integral Testing Method for determining JIc. (a) Load identical specimens to differentdisplacements.(b) Measure the average crack extension by heat tinting.(c) Calculate J for each specimen.(d) Plot J versus a to find JIc.
19 Flexure TestNormal stresses along a section of beam for a linearly elastic material.
20 Three-Point and Four-Point Bend (Flexure) Tests TThree-PointApplication of load and bending moment diagrams for(a) three-point bending and(b) four-point bending tests.
21 Miniaturized Specimen:Four-Point Bending Shematic drawing of the miniaturized disk-bend test. (Adapted from H. Li, F. C. Chen, and A. J. Ardell, Met. Trans A, 22 (1991) 2061.)
22 Fracture Testing Methods for Ceramics Fracture-testing methods for brittle materials.(a) Double-cantilever beam (DCB).(b) Double torsion.(c) Notch flexure.(d) Chevron notch
23 Chevron Notch Test(a) Schematic of the test arrangement and the details of the notch plane.(b) The chevron tip length, a0, can be measured from optical micrographs of broken specimens.(c) Chevron short-rod specimen.
24 Hardness Indentation in Brittle Materials Fractures produced by hardness indentations in(a) AsS3 glass (courtesy of B. R. Lawn and B. J. Hockey) and(b) Al2O3.Add equation
25 Plastic Deformation and Crack in Indentation of Brittle Material Schematic representation of indentation generating a plastic deformation region and a semicircular crack.
26 Fracture Toughness for Ceramics and Glasses Comparison of ResultsComparison between conventional and indentation fracture toughness determinations for glasses and ceramics. (From G. R. Anstis, P. Chankitul, B. R. Lawn, and D. B. Marshall, J. Am. Cer. Soc., 64 (1981) 533.)
27 Adhesion of Thin Film to Substrate: Testing Indentation tests for the determination of toughness of bond between substrate and thin film;(a) Method used for ductilecoating on brittle substrate (typicalof electronic components);(b) Method used for brittle coatingson ductile substrate;(c) Calculated normalized energy release rate as a function of normalized crack diameter.(Adapted from J. J. Vlassak, M. D. Drory, and W. D. Nix, J. Mater. Res., 12 (1997) 100.)