Presentation on theme: "Body Fluids Specimen Collections. Sputum Collections Sputum: secretions from the lower respiratory tract Useful in determining specific types of respiratory."— Presentation transcript:
Sputum Collections Sputum: secretions from the lower respiratory tract Useful in determining specific types of respiratory disorders Patient may obtain sample by coughing, or by respiratory induction. ( RT uses a catheter to suction out secretions)
Sputum Collections Some specimens require collection for up to 3 days. Pts. Who present with TB symptoms hve to obtain specimens for 3 consecutive mornings. * for easier acquisition of sputum, it is advisable for pt’s to drink plenty of fluids throughout the day
Sputum…cont All samples must be taken to the lab immediately… or refrigerated… Pt’s information, time of collection, etc must accompany specimen to the lab. Must be placed in biohazard bag for transport to lab. WEAR GLOVES!!!!
Stool Specimens. All “rules” regarding Universal precautions should be observed when obtaining stool specimens. Pt may expell specimen in a “specipan” container…or Digital removal of specimen may be required.
Stool Specimens Specimen should be obtained with a tongue depressor, about the size of a half dollar. Placed in a sterile container. Secure lid tightly, Label with pt. Information, and time of collection..place in biohazard bag. Lab request slip with test to be performed.. Most common tests are for: occult blood, ova and parasites..
Urine Specimens Urinalysis: most frequently ordered test 3 major areas of testing: Physical Chemical Microscopic
Urinalysis Collected in plastic test tubes Pt’s name, date, time of collection on tube Tests should be performed within 2 hours of obtaining specimen. If not specimen should be refrigerated
Urinalysis FYI 1 st am urine is the most concentrated Random urine specimens (no preparation/nonscheduled) Midstream Catch: partial voiding before obtaining sample, about 3 oz. ( this clears sloughed off cells, bacteria, mucous, or other debris that could interfere with test accuracy)
24 hour urine sample Large container with preservative added Must be refrigerated during the 24 hrs (usually in a bucket of ice) Should start with the 2 nd voiding of the day Should end with the 1 st voiding of the next am. Pt’s name, date, time collection began
Pediatric urine sample Collection bags fit over child’s genitals and are secured with tape Can be done at home. Instruct parents to transfer urine from bag into clean dry container for transport to lab. Pt’s name, date, time of collection
Catheterization 3 reasons for catheterization: To obtain a sterile urine sample for analysis To relieve urinary retention To instill medicine into the bladder, after the bladder is emptied For urine sample: Quick Cath, In & Out Cath For incontinence: Foley Catheter
Catheterization Catheter Collection Bag Bladder
Urinalysis Culture & Sensitivity: determines what be maintained throughout the procedure microorganism is present and what antibiotic will be effective in treatment Sterile Technique must be followed.
Physical Characteristics color: pale yellow to red clarity: clear, cloudy, with exudate, etc. odor: none, slight, strong, foul specific gravity: ( indicates concentration of urine..values between 1.003-1.035 nml)
Urinalysis Physical cont’ Hematuria: blood content in urine: gives urine a rusty to red color Medications can cause change in color: Pyridium= orange
Chemical Urinalysis Done to reveal abnormal substances in urine Reagent Strips: convenient, inexpensive diagnostic test Abnormal substances in urine include: glucose, albumin(protein), ketones (acetone), bilirubin, blood, nitrates, leukocytes. Can measure pH (nml= 5.0-7.0) and specific gravity as well
Microscopic Urinalysis Done to detect specific abnormalities, ie: microbes, crystals, cells etc…see pg 587